twenty-four sons, whose posterity possessed the greater part of Connaught, and were called the Hy Briuin race. Of this race were the O'Conors, Kings of Connaught; the O'Rourkes; O'Reillys; MacDermotts; MacGaurans, &c., and some other clans."

The Four Masters' give the history of the clan from 1220 to 1593, referring generally (according to their rule) to its chief, who was lord of the barony of Tullaghaw, co. Cavan; and the Shamrock, in reply to a query of mine, in 1878, wrote "McGovern is an old Irish name. The sept Mac Govern or MacGauran branched off from the Sheel Murray of Connaught in the beginning of the eighth century at Fergus, son of Muireadhao (Murrayagh). The ancient patrimony of the MacGaurans was called Teallach Eachach, i.e., Tribeland of Eochaidh."

O'Hart, also, in his 'Irish Pedigrees' (third edit., 1881), p. 304, says:—

"192. The stem of the Magauran Family. Breannan, brother of Hugh Fionn, who is No. 93 on the O'Rourke pedigree, was the ancestor of MacSamhradhain, Anglicised MacGauran, MacGovern, Magauran, Magovern, Saurin, Somers, and Summers."

And then supplies the descent.

In face of the above neither Lord Stair nor Mr. Boyle could accurately claim the clan as Scotch. Had it been so it must have emigrated pretty early, as we know the Scoti left Ierne for Alba in the second century, and the sept is accounted for in the fourth. But Connellan's note disposes effectively of such a supposition.

But not to occupy any further space in "N. & Q.,' if MR. STANDISH HALY will kindly send me his address, I shall have much pleasure in forwarding to him a short history of this clan, which I published recently for private circulation only. J. B. S.

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STANLEY: SAVAGE (7th S. ii. 508).—If MRS. SCARLETT will refer to East Cheshire,' vol. ii. pp. 493-4, she will find a description (opposite to a full-page illustration) of the tomb of Sir John Savage, Knt., and Dame Katherine his wife, still existing in Macclesfield Church, Cheshire. The black-letter inscription, formerly painted on the edge of this tomb, is there given, which states that Dame Katherine was the daughter of Thomas, Lord Stanley, and sister of Thomas, first Earl of Derby (see also 'East Cheshire,' vol. ii. p. 480). Your correspondent states that in the Savage pedi

gree in the Visitation of Cheshire, 1580, Sir John Savage is said to have married the daughter of Thomas Stanley, first Earl of Derby; but if she will refer to p. 203 of the 'Visitation of Cheshire,' 1580, as printed by the Harleian Society, she will see that such is not the case, his wife being correctly described as "Katherin, sister to Thomas She adds Stanley, the first Earle of Darby." that 66 that Katherine Savage was "daughter of Thomas Ormerod gives the same account," viz., Stanley, first Earl of Derby." This is quite unintelligible to me, for Mr. Ormerod nowhere printed a pedigree of the Savages. All he did was to reprint the narrative pedigree of that family which Sir Peter Leycester wrote for his 'Bucklow Hundred,' and which, as might be expected, is perfectly clear and correct. "Sir John Savage, of Clifton, senior, knight......married Catharine, daughter of Sir Thomas Stanley, after[wards] Lord Stanley, and sister to Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby" (see Ormerod's History of Cheshire,' new edition, vol. i. p. 713). J. P. EARWAKER. Pensarn, Abergele, N. Wales.

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MURIEL (7th S. ii. 508).—Muriel is at least as old as the thirteenth century, and it is one of the few names used alike by Jews and Christians at that date. I have met with it as a Christian name in 1240, and as a Jewish one in 1248. Unless very strong evidence is available in favour of a Greek derivation, I should think it extremely questionable. I cannot recall to memory one name then in use of Greek origin which was not found either in Scripture or the classics. Muriel may possibly-I do not say probably-be a softened form of Marabel or Mirabel, also used about that date, and apparently of Eastern origin, as most old names which end in -bel seem to be. Some, I believe, have suggested an affinity with Mary but Mary was a most uncommon name in England before 1250 or thereabouts, and was not in frequent use before the sixteenth century. I have never met with the form Meriel on the Rolls, where the name is invariably Muriel. Mirabel occurs first within my knowledge in 1236.

Is there a possible connexion with merle, the blackbird? I have found two instances of Chauntmerel or Chauntemarle as a surname.

"Marra the rede" occurs on the Close Roll for 1253.

and Mirabilia (Mirabel) appears as used by them Meyr was a favourite name among the Jews;

in 1282.


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lete English name, derived from μôpov (myrrh). Both it and Meriel were once common""; and from its early use among some old Celtic families (e.g., Thanes of Cawdor and the Stewards of Strathern) suggests its being the Gaelic equivalent of Marion. Other correspondents give evidences of its use in England as far back as William the Conqueror, which would strengthen the theory of those who contend for its being of Norman origin. For further information on this subject I would refer MR. W. J. GLASS to 'N. & Q.,' 3rd S. vi. 200, 239, 278, 404, 444, 518; vii. 82.

1, Capel Terrace, Forest Gate.

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Miss Yonge, in her 'History of Christian Names, says (vol. i. p. 275): "Muriel, an almost obsolete English name, comes from pûpov (myrrh). Both it and Meriel were once common.' Camden is more accurate when he writes, "From the Greek Muron, sweet perfume," for the Greek word= L. unguentum, whilst the Greek for myrrh is oμúpva, Aeol. μúppa, though, of course, myrrhoil would come under the head of μupov. Dr. Charnock, in his 'Prænomina,' says, with respect to the name in question, "It is found written Muriell, Meriall, Meriel, Maryell; and as a surname, Merrell, Mirihel, Miriel, Myrill, Muryell, and Muriel; and is no doubt derived from Muireal, a Gaelic diminutive of Muire, i.e., Mary.


Gael. Muireal, dim. of Muire, i.e., Mary. Conf.
the baptismal names Muriell, Meriel, Meriall,
Maryell; and the surnames Muriel, Muryell,
Mirihel, Merrill.

This was the name of the Countess of Strathern
in 1284. Nisbet, in his 'System of Heraldry,'
states that her shield of arms, supported on the
left side by a falcon standing upon the neck of a
duck lying under the base point of a formal shield,
and all placed within a lozenge, was the oldest use
of supporters that he had ever met with (part iv.
p. 31).
A. G. REID, F.S. A.Scot.


French origin. I have no French dictionary older
than Palsgrave; but if it could be shown that there
ever existed in Old French such a word as fret=
ferry, the derivation of this word would be settled.
I would observe that fretum in Low Latin some-
times means "toll," our freight, or hire.

ORIENTAL CHINA (7th S. iii. 27).-Here are the
subjects of two "Jesuit china" plates which I
handsome lady, which, from the robes and crown
possess. One is a carefully executed likeness of a
at her side, seems intended for some Queen of
Portugal early in the last century. The other
represents two ladies side by side, with a page
behind holding a very tall umbrella over them.
They are evidently talking to a young man, whom
a monk is anxious to hurry off the scene. The
dresses are all European (1700-50), treated from a
Celestial point of view, and the hands and feet are
decidedly out of drawing.

34, St. Petersburg Place, W.

I have an old silver seal-I do not know its

history-of the subject mentioned by H. A. W. Would he like an impression of it?

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro. [From a private source we learn that the subject is difficult of discussion in our columns.]

decide who invented this word? I cannot help SQUARSON (7th S. ii. 188, 273, 388).-Who is to thinking, with CoL. MALET, that Sydney Smith first used it; and I believe it is to be found in one of Theodore Hook's works.

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him to deal with the Irish army. The leaders and officers of the confederates sought safety on the Continent, and the rank and file were pressed to enlist in foreign service. As many as 34,000 men were thus hurried into exile.

CONVICTS SHIPPED TO THE COLONIES (7th S. ii. 162, 476). It was Oliver Cromwell who first introPONTEFRACT=BROKEN BRIDGE (7th S. i. 268, duced this plan of dealing with British subjects. 377; ii. 74, 236, 350, 510).-Pontefract, pro-On his reduction of Ireland it was necessary for nounced Pomfret, is, I suspect, merely an Old French translation of Ferrybridge. There is a place called Ferrybridge two miles from Pontefract. Dr. Pegge, in Anonymiana,' ed. 1818, p. 292, says the true form is Pontfrete, as Drake always writes it. He says that "Pons ad fretum answers exactly to Ferry-bridge, or 'Bridge at the Ferry."" am not aware that fretum ever does mean a ferry in classical Latin, but it may in Low Latin, for the Cath. Angl.' (ed. Herrtage, p. 127) has "A fery man; transfretator." One does not like to derive an English place-name directly from the Latin, as such a derivation would be prima facie very improbable, but this name is apparently of

"There remained behind of necessity great numbers of widows, and orphans, and deserted wives and families; and these the Government proceeded to ship wholesale to the West Indies-the boys for slaves, the women and girls for mistresses to the English sugar-planters. The merchants of Bristol-slave dealers in the days of Strongthe wretched people. Orders were given them on the bow-sent over their agents to hunt down and ensnare governors of gaols and workhouses for boys who were of an age to labour' and 'women who were marriage.

able or not past breeding.""-Vide Walpole's,' Kingdom of Ireland.'

I fancy that at this distance of time it would be impossible to supply details," with names, dates, places, and numbers," as MR. BUTLER desires, but this exodus was undoubtedly the origin of the transportation of convicts to the West Indies and Virginia. J. STANDISH HALY. Temple.

SERMON (7th S. ii. 448).—A copy of this sermon is in vol. iii. of the ten volumes of "Long Parliament sermons in the Forster Library, South Kensington Museum. It is perfect. R. F. S.


PEY'S AUNT (7th S. ii. 28, 136).-"Davis, in the American Nimrod,' says that the whalers call the light Ampizant, and have a tradition that it is the spirit of some sailor that has died on board," &c. See 'Legends and Superstitions of the Sea and of Sailors in all Lands and at all Times,' by Fletcher S. Bassett, Lieut. U.S. Navy (London, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1885), chap. viii. p. 315, where St. Elmo's Light is very fully treated. H. G. GRIFFINHOOFE.

34, St. Petersburg Place, W.

spearian student. The three plays, which were performed in St. John's College, Cambridge, A.D. 1597-1601, are curious, inasmuch as they contain no female character whatever. Not much more decorous are they for this, many of the passages being sufficiently coarse. Some of the sketches of character are, however, excellent; the language, which, though principally in prose, breaks into verse, sometimes blank and sometimes rhymed, is on a par with that of the providers of comedy of real life as distinguished from that of imagination. Lively, if rather satirical pictures of contemporary manners are furnished, and the

complaints of the hardships imposed upon scholarship are in accord with the general expression of Renaissance literature. In every respect, accordingly, the plays are welcome. Philologically the new portions have much value.

There is another sorte of smooth faced youthes, Those Amorettoes that doe spend their time In comminge [combing] of their smother-dangled heyre, seems to point in the direction of confirming a suggestion of Payne Collier's folio with regard to a passage in Cymbeline,' "Whose mother was her painting." "Smother" is a local word for daub, smear (see Halliwell's Dictionary,' and cf. Nares, s. v. "Smore"). A speech of Dromo, p. 22, throws a curious light on the practices of clowns upon the stage. "Sacket" for sack (wine), p. 38, is an unfamiliar form. "Congey" (congé) is employed as equivalent to a bow at p. 56. The sentence in which it occurs is indeed peculiar: "I stood stroking up my haire, which became me very admirably, gave a low congey at the beginning of each period, made every sentence end sweetly with an othe." Again, we have (p. 64), "Who coulde endure this post put into a sattin sute, of the 'Catena Græcorum Patrum.' It is the well- this haberdasher of lyes, this bracchidochio, this ladyeknown inscription on the prize books of the Sor-munger, this meere rapier and dagger, this cringer, this foretopp, but a man that 's ordayned to miserie ? Here, bonde. I suppose it stands for "Patres Sor- apart from anything else, a question asked 7th S. bonnenses." J. C. J. ii. 389 as to the duel in Hamlet' is answered. The spelling of the word "cashier" (p. 70), in "Thy Mæcenas here carceeres thee," is at least peculiar. The word at that time was generally written casses.' tence spoken by the page (p. 121), "Hang me if he hath clocke or tell the meridian howre by rumbling of his any more mathematikes then will serue to count the panch," has some resemblance to well-known lines in Hubidras.' Our readers must turn for themselves to the references to Shakspeare, which have much interest and significance.

NAME OF BINDER WANTED (7th S. ii. 408).P. S. neither denotes the bookbinder nor the owner

A volume (dated 1564) with the same pattern of binding is in the Dyce Library, South Kensington Museum. I used to please myself with thinking that P. S. might stand for Philip Sydney, but the date of your correspondent's example, 1637, puts an end to such a fancy. R. F. S.


NOTES ON BOOKS, &o. The Pilgrimage to Parnassus; with the Two Parts of the Return from Parnassus. Edited from MSS. by the Rev. W. D. Macray, M.A., F.S.A. (Clarendon Press.) THE recovery of the first two parts of this trilogy of the time of Queen Elizabeth is one of the most gratifying results of the close investigation to which our MSS. stores have been subjected. In an able and ample preface the editor explains how the find was made in a volume of miscellaneous collections by Thomas Hearne, now in the Rawlinson Collection in the Bodleian Library, and depicts what is worthy of note in the MS. These things are interesting in themselves, and the speculations to which they give rise are ingenious. In the endowment, however, of scholarship with two works of genuine value belonging to the most important period of our literature is the chief gain. The third portion, which has been frequently reprinted, is, of course, well known. Nowise inferior in interest or value are the new portions, and the references they contain to Shakspeare, which are among the earliest, will commend them especially to the Shak

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The sen

Henrici Bulloci Oratio, 1521.-Fidelis Christiani Epis-
tola, 1521.-Papyrii Gemini Eleatis.-Hermathena,
1522. Reproduced in exact Facsimile. With Ap-
pendixes, Illustrations, Bibliographical Introductions,
&c. By the late Henry Bradshaw, University Libra-
rian. (Cambridge, Macmillan & Bowes.)
SIX years have elapsed since Messrs. Macmillan & Bowes
commenced to reprint in facsimile the few books, eight
in all, known to belong to the press of John Siberch, the
first Cambridge printer. Linacre's Galen De Tempera-
mentis' was issued in 1881 to a limited number of sub-
scribers. After a long but excusable delay the task has
been resumed, and three works from the same press,
constituting, with the previous volume, half Siberch's
productions, have seen the light. The books now given to
the world are all in Latin, and consist of the 'Oration of
Henry Bullock' ("Bovillus," Erasmus styles him) to
Cardinal Wolsey on the occasion of the visit of that dig-
nitary to Cambridge in 1520; a volume containing a
letter of wholesome admonition" ad christianos omnes,"
by a certain faithful Christian, and St. Augustine's dis-
course, De Miseria ac Brevitate Huius Mortalis Uitæ ';
and Hermathena, seu de Eloquentiæ Victoria' of Papy-

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rius Geminus. These works are, as is to be expected, curious and rare rather than interesting or important, and two of them occupying, indeed, only a few pages. The Hermathena,' which is dedicated to Richard Pace, chief secretary to Henry VIII., is a fair specimen of the kind of allegory, which in prose und in verse, in Latin and in the vulgar tongue, was in high favour in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The scene is laid in part in the Elysian fields, and Wisdom, with her daughter Eloquence, sails to Britain, where she is welcomed by that most illustrious prince Henry VIII., and is held in great reverence.

From the bibliographical standpoint the works are all rarities. Of Bullock's 'Oration' four copies are known: one in the British Museum, a second in the Bodleian, a third in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, a fourth in Archbishop Marsh's library, St. Patrick's, Dublin. Of the epistle a single copy is found in the Bodleian. Copies of the Hermathena' are in the library of the late Henry Bradshaw, in St. John's Coll., Camb., Archbishop Marsh's library, Lincoln Cathedral, and the British Museum, One on vellum is in the possession of the Duke of Devonshire. Besides these some fragments of another copy exist. What will probably most interest the reader is the admirably exact and conscientious manner in which Mr. Bradshaw, whose interest in these reprints was inexhaustible, ascertained the exact date of the various works and arranged them in their order. The result of his investigations is that Linacre's translation of Galen, which Cotton (Typographical Gazetteer') mentions as the first book printed in Cambridge, is relegated to the sixth place, the first being taken by Bullock's afore-mentioned Oration.' In the case of the Hermathena' Mr. Bradshaw proves that the work exists in three states, and gives a minute detail of the differences. On the bibliographical introduction to these volumes Mr. Bradshaw was engaged when death arrested his labours. Concerning Siberch little that is definite has been traced, and the place whence he came for his brief residence of little over a year in Cambridge and that to which he betook himself remain conjectural. The supposition of the editor who has taken up Mr. Bradshaw's labours is that he may have come from Strasbourg. Why Cambridge should, in respect of printing, have come far behind Oxford is not easy to understand. Putting on one side the disputed Expositio S. Hieronymi,' which bears date 1468, Oxford can point to two works printed in 1479; while the earliest work of the sister university is forty-two years later. The printing of the facsimile is admirable.


THE Christmas Illustrated Number of the Publishers' Weekly (New York) is as full as usual of varied illustrations of American art. It is difficult to single out our special favourites where all are so good in their several lines, but we may mention a specimen of the 'Book of the Tile Club' of New York, being a sketch of New York Harbour by Arthur Quartley, the book of which it is a sample containing, we read, twenty-five sketches, each selected by its artist, while the club itself includes not a few of the names most conspicuous in American art. Among the other salient features we may cite a view of Prague, from The Great Cities of the Modern World '; the illustrations representing the Photo-Engraving Co.'s process and the Ives process respectively; the delightful sketch of The Class,' from One Day in a Baby's Life,' where the child-professor strongly reminds us of Mr. Verdant Green; the speaking portraits of Fair Ines and Fair Margaret, from Fair Ines' and the Lay of the Last Minstrel respectively; the charming little children who are making a Christmas tree for the birdies, from 'Children of the Week'; and the striking illustrations from The Closing Scene.' We feel that we are far from

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having exhausted the attractions of this Christmas giftbook from the Empire City.

A NEW work on the Great Seals of England,' commenced by the late Mr. A. B. Wyon, and completed by Mr. Allan Wyon, is announced by Mr. Elliot Stock. The work will be illustrated with facsimiles of the seals, the size of the originals.

THE catalogue of old books of Mr. Wm. Downing, of the Chaucer's Head, Birmingham, offers for sale the first five series of 'N. & Q.' on singularly reasonable terms.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith,

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

LIEUT.-COL. FITZGERALD, Army and Navy Club, is anxious to know how to procure the French drinking song, one verse of which is quoted by Miss Braddon in The Mohawks,' ii. 70.

T. F. ("Registers of Waldron ").-At the present moment it would be impossible to find space for a list such as you obligingly offer.

well-known cheese, is a town of Northern Italy, about OLDHAM.-Gorgonzola, which gives its name to the twelve miles E.N.E. of Milan.

F. S. SNELL (" Books on Nursery Rhymes ").-For an account of The Archæology of Popular Phrases,' by John Bellenden Ker, see 6th S. xii. 109, 374. C.

Two souls with but a single thought,

Two hearts that beat as one,

occur in the translation by Mrs. Lovell of 'Ingomar,' by the Baron von Münch Bellinghausen. See 6th S. v. 388, 479; vii. 58, 78, 98, 119.

S. P. M. ("Longevity ").-This subject, the interest of which seems exhausted, has long been banished from N. & Q.'


Keep the word of promise to our ear. 'Macbeth,' V. vii, S. W. (" Filius naturalis ").-For a long article on this subject see 4th 8. viii. 140. See also 6th S. x. 167, 284; xi. 292.

GEO. ELLIS ("Wearing Hats in Church ").-The authority for women wearing head-gear in church is St. Paul. See 1 Cor. xi. 5-15.

MR. W. H. BURNSIDE wishes to know where Talleyrand's phrase "Surtout pas trop de zèle" is to be found.


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The Editor of Notes and Queries'"-Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher"-at the Office, 22, Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C.

We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no exception.tar


NOTES:-Domesday: Wapentake, 61 Burke's Landed
Gentry,' 62-King of Denmark's Masquerade, 64-Library
Arrangement-Lord Mayors not Privy Councillors-Peter
Schlemihl'-Bandalore, 66.
QUERIES:-Brabazon Family-Skinner-Arms of Scott, 67-
The Treasure of Pore Men-A Question of Grammar
Vaughan Family-Latin Couplet-" Pulping"-William
Noble-John Corbet, 68-J. M. W. Turner-Charles Dance
-Pyecroft's Oxford Memories'-Warner-Anton's 'Philo-
sophers Satyrs-Name of Painter-Lives of White Kennett
-St. Erconwald, 69.

REPLIES:-Izaak Walton's Clock, 69-Anglo-Israel Mania-
Earldom of Strafford, 70- Plou--Llan--Folifate, 71-
Picture of Puritan Soldiers-A.M. and P.M.-Hotchkiss
Family-Two-hand Sword, 72-Poems attributed to Byron,
73-Bishop Ley burn-Precedence in Church-"A sleeveless
errand," 74-' Pickwick '-" Sele of the morning"-'Eliana'
-Elisabeth, Reine d'Albion '-'Berkshire Lady's Garland,'
75-Arms of Duchy of Cornwall-Ancient Burial-place at
Dunbar-Brash, 76-Together-Burcell : Bussell-Wm.
Henry, D.D.-Cardinal Quignon's Breviary-King's Court
of Redlevet-Belle Children-Baree Show, 77-Garnet as a
Christian Name-Jewish Intermarriages-Jordeloo, 78.
NOTES ON BOOKS:- Stokes's 'Ireland and the Celtic
Church-Schaible's Die Geschichte der Deutschen in Eng-

land'-Burke's 'Peerage.'

Notices to Correspondents, &c.



the absence of any special jurisdiction, the manorial lords or thegns were required "ut ante Justiciam Regis faciant rectum, etiam in hundredo vel in wapentagiis vel in schiris."

After the Conquest we find the same parallelism between the hundred and the wapentake.

In the Domesday Record the evidence taken as to the claims of parties in cases of disputed title is quoted indifferently as given by the hundred, the wapentake, the treding, or the comitatus. Thus in Gloucestershire we read, "Antecessor, Wihanoc tenuit, sed comitatus affirmat," &c. In Bedfordshire, "Unam virgatam reclamant homines Willelmi spec; et hundredum testatur," &c. When we get into Yorkshire and Lincolnshire the phraseology changes. In Yorkshire, "Nesciunt homines de wapentaco quoniam modo," &c. In Lincolnshire, "Homines de treding dicunt quod soca jacet in Gretham," &c.; "Dicit wapentacum non habuisse," &c.; "Dicit wapentacum et treding quod Siward tam bene tenuit," &c.


In 1194, in the form of procedure in the pleas of the Crown, we read that four knights were to be elected for the whole county, "Qui per sacramentum suum eligant duos legales milites de quolibet Hundredo. vel Wapentaccio"; and these were to select ten knights, "De singulis Hundredis vel Wapentaccis."

A.D. 1215.-In the Great Charter, sec. 25, we read, "Omnes comitatus, hundredi, wapentakii et trethingii sint ad antiquas formas absque ullo incremento," &c.

In 1225, in a writ issued by the Great Council (See 5th 8. xi. 413 (note); 7th S. ii. 405, 449.) for the collection of a subsidy, it is commanded As there seems to be some difference of opinion "elegi facietis quatuor legales milites de singulis as to the nature of the "wapentake" and "hun-hundredis vel wapentaccis secundum magnitudinem dred" during the Saxon and early Norman periods of our history, I wish to offer a few remarks towards the elucidation of the subject.

hundredorum vel wapentaccorum.”

The fact is, these terms were applied very loosely and interchangeably to the local divisions and districts. Bishop Stubbs (Constitutional Hist.,'

The term hundred in a legal sense is first met with in England in the laws of King Edgar, 959-975, "Ach. v. p. 100) observes :thief shall be pursued. If there be present need, let it be made known to the Hundredman, and let him make it known to the Tithingman," &c. The word and the institution had, however, been in use long before on the Continent. In the laws of Childebert, King of the Western Franks (A.D. 511-558), we read, "Si furtum factum fuerit, capitale de præsenti centena restituat, et causator centenarium cum centena requirat." Again, in the reign of Clotaire II. (595) the centenas or hundreds are recognized as legal jurisdictions. It may have been that our King Alfred in his legal reforms and adaptations had made a similar provision, but we have no record of the fact.

"It is not easy to determine the origin of the variety of systems into which the hundred jurisdiction is worked. In Kent the hundreds are arranged in Lathes or Lests, and in Sussex in Rapes. In Cornwall in the twelfth shires. Yorkshire and Lincolnshire were divided into century the divisions were not called hundreds, but Trithings or Ridings, subdivided generally into wapentakes; but in Domesday the East Riding is divided into hundreds only, and in Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland the Wapentake and the Hundred are arranged side by side."

In the laws of Edward the Confessor (10431066) we have reference both to hundreds and wapentakes, "Divisiones scirarum regis proprie. Divisiones hundredorum et wapentagiorum comitibus et vice-comitibus, cum judicio comitatus." In

There is great confusion in the application of the terms. In Yorkshire the smaller divisions were anciently called shires, e. g., Cravenshire, Hallamshire, Richmondshire, &c. The city of York in Domesday was divided into six shires. Sometimes the wapentake and hundred are identical, as in the hundred of West Derby, in Lancashire, which held a wapentake court down to a very recent period.

MB. A. S. ELLIS (7th S. ii. 449) explains the

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