Cundale (31 Hen. VI., Inq. p.m. and 'Hist. Westmoreland,' p. 466, vol. i.)? Cundale is near Bedale, co. York. Ralph de Cundale was fined forty marks (Fin. in Exch., 22 Hen. II.). Henry de Condal or Cundale, one of the Drengi of Westmoreland (Oblata Roll, 2 John). H.

'ECCE HOMO.'-In the Scots Magazine, vol. lxxvi. p. 878, the death is announced at Deptford on August 22, 1814, of Daniel Isaac Eaton, a bookseller, and it is said of him :

"He was lately prosecuted for a work called Ecce Homo,' for which he suffered judgment to go by default. He was not, however, brought up for judgment, in consideration of his advanced years and of his having given up the author,

I shall be glad of any information about this book

and its author.


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LORD MAYOR'S DAY.-In the 'Travels of Tom Thumb over England and Wales,' 1746, the following appears in reference to the celebration :

"The Lord Mayor of London, annually chosen out of the Court of Aldermen, is reputed, for the time being, the greatest Citizen in the Universe. The show he makes on the 29th of October, when he goes in State to be sworn at Westminster, every child in the City knows to be very grand."

When was the day changed to November 9 ? GEORGE ELLIS,


St. John's Wood, WOODPECKER HICKWALL.-Looking through an old book on bird architecture a few days ago, I came across this passage, quoted from Cary's translation of the 'Birds' of Aristophanes, p. 109, Messenger, Those carpenter fowls, the hickwalls, Who with their beaks did hack the gates out workmanly: And of their hacking the like sound arose As in a dockyard.

There was a foot-note attached giving the explanation "woodpeckers." I have frequently heard this name given to the green woodpecker in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, where the bird is very common. I have never heard this word used anywhere except in Dean Forest. Could any of your readers oblige me with a similar use of the word elsewhere ? Derby.


CHARLTON FAMILY.-Edward and Mary Charlton were living at Ladbrook, Warwickshire, 1743. Their eldest son, Edward, was married 1771 to Elizabeth The sponsors of baptism of Edw. William, their first born, were, "Wm. Palmer, Esq., Madam Palmer, and the Revd. Williams of Napton." The sponsors to seventh and last child at baptism were, "Bro Wm Parker & Wife & Uncle John Palmer & wife," 1783. The courteous replies to former questions, and the information so fully and generously given, are hereby thankfully acknowledged; and, as I am personally interested in present questions, replies direct will be esteemed a favour.

Query: Is anything known of the Charlton Who was Mary and family previous to 1743?

who was Elizabeth Charlton ? Byfield R.S.O.


NATIONAL SUBSCRIPTION.-Can any of your readers inform me if there is any record of a national subscription of any kind in the end of the seventeenth or beginning of the eighteenth century? One of my ancestors-born 1671 and died 1747-8-has always been known in the family as "Tommy 10,000l.," the tradition being that he gave this sum either to the national debt or to pay off the king's debts, neither of which seems possible at that date. L. T. C.

BASTINADO.-Lilly says, in his 'Autobiography,' that his scholar Humphreys having deluded the governor of Colchester many times with hope of relief," had the bastinado," was thrown into prison, and then forced to become a soldier. Does this merely mean that he was well cudgelled? Č. A. WARD.

Haverstock Hill.

"NULLUM TEMPUS OCCURRIT REGI VEL ECCLESIÆ. -Whence the origin of this frequently quoted maxim? Referring the query to a friend in high position at Oxford, he replies that he believes it 'to have been originally a maxim of feudal lawyers in the royal interest. Of course it properly refers to the king, not to the church." It was in the last century that Sir James Lowther, before his elevation to the peerage as Earl of Lonsdale, determined to put in force this eminent legal maxim, and procured a lease of the king's interest in the Forest of Inglewood, Cumberland. This act provoked Nullum Tempus Bill, to secure the property of a the passing of a Bill in Parliament, called the subject after sixty years' possession.

JOHN PICKFORd, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

PICTURE QUERY.-Among the engravings sold from the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch on March 15 I see mentioned (Athenæum, No. 3100) a proof engraving of Mrs. William Hope, by C. H.

Hodges, sold for 53l. Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' inform me where a copy of this engraving can be seen; and if such a thing is to be had in any other state? RITA FOX.

1, Capel Terrace, Forest Gate.

HENRY WARBURTON, M.P. FOR BRIDPORT.I lately came across a print of this gentleman by Mote. Can any reader inform me concerning his F. W. D. parentage and descent ?

GODSALVE, GODFREY, CROSSE, AND DAY.-The Gentleman's Magazine gives, "1795, June 20. At Great Baddow, Essex, John Thomas, of Hertford Regiment of Militia, to L. Godsalve, daughter of late Admiral Godsalve, and niece of Dowager Duchess of Athole Strange." Can any correspondent say how Mrs. John Thomas, née Godsalve, was niece of the Dowager (1795) Duchess of Athole Strange? A William Godsalve, of Much Baddow, married Sarah Godfrey, whose sister Mary married, July 15, 1746, at St. John the Evangelist, Westminster, Sir John Crosse, Bart. (see Burke's 'Extinct Baronetage'). Peter Day, whose mother was a Crosse, took the surname of Crosse 1770, and died April, 1780, when John Godsalve, son of William Godsalve, son of William Godsalve and Sarah (Godfrey) took, July 20, 1780, the surname of Crosse. The family of Crosse were from Maulden, co. Beds.


He was the soul of goodness;
And all our praises of him are like streams,
Drawn from a spring, that still rise full and leave
The part remaining greatest. H. P. ARNOLD.

I canter by the place each afternoon
Where perished in his youth the hero boy,
Who lived too long for man,

Too short for human vanity,

The young Defoy.


Posterity will find no marble white enough, &c. Quoted by Canon Farrar in his funeral sermon on Lord Iddesleigh.


"After life's fitful fever he sleeps well" (Shakspeare).

To "shuffle off this mortal coil” (Shakspeare).
To "fall on sleep" (Acts of the Apostles).
To "fall asleep" (Acts viii. 60).
To "pass through the ivory gates."
To "pass through the gates of horn"
To pass through “the gates ajar.”

And when my guide went up he left
The golden gates ajar (Mrs. Judson).
A touch of grim humour mingles with some :-
"To kick the bucket."

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66 rests

May I suggest to MR. DELEVINGNE that Gray's line in 'The Bard,' "Gone to salute the rising morn," has no reference to death? The poet has just been describing the sad desertion of Edward III. on his death-bed; he then asks, What has become of the Black Prince? a question he answers by saying plainly that the prince among the dead." He then continues, What has become of the swarm of gay butterfly courtiers who disported in Edward's "noon-tide beam"? a question he also answers by saying that they have the morn gone to salute the rising morn," being Richard II., as, indeed, the poet himself explains in the next quatrain, describing, as a note, " magnipresumably by Gray himself, says, the ficence of Richard II.'s reign." This is how I understand the passage; but I should be glad to hear the opinion of either MR. DELEVINGNE himself or of any one else on the subject. One of Longfellow's poems begins


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I like that ancient Saxon phrase which calls
The burial-ground God's Acre;

and Scott, in 'The Lord of the Isles,' vi. 26, speaks of " that dark inn, the grave."


According to Crusius's Lexicon, the Homeric phrase un Ti Táoŋ, which, with various inflections, occurs both in the Iliad' and 'Odyssey,' is exactly equivalent to the English euphemism " If anything SOME EUPHEMISMS FOR DEATH AND DYING. should happen to him," used daily by people who


(7th S. iii. 404.)

This list is so interesting that it is worth increasing. I am sorry I cannot give the origin of the various phrases. I write from memory:"Gone to find out the great secret." "Gone to solve the great problem." "Gone home."

"The dark angel."

"Death and the doctor closed her sparkling eyes" (Chatterton).


Sleep the sleep that knows no waking" (Sir Walter Scott).

have little idea that they are quoting Homer. JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

Ropley, Alresford,

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The Scriptures contain a very large number of such euphemisms. The following may be added to MR. DELEVINGNE'S list :

"Slept with his fathers" (occurs thirty-five times in the Old Testament).

"Put off this tabernacle " (2 Peter i. 14).
"God requiring the soul" (Luke xii. 20).
"I shall go the way whence I shall not return"
(Job xvi. 22; cf. 'Hamlet,'" From whose bourne,"

"Was gathered unto his people" (Gen. xlix. 33).
"Go down into silence" (Psalm cxv. 17).
"Gave up the ghost" (John xix. 30).

"" Sleep" (1 Cor. xv. 57).

"As the flower of the grass he shall pass away (James i. 10).

"Fleeth as a shadow" (Job xiv. 2).

"The way of all the earth" (Josh, xxiii. 14). "To depart" (Philip i. 23).



"That sweet sleep which medicines all pain" (Shelley,' Julian and Maddalo ').

Death is an equall doome,

To good and bad, the common In of rest.

Spenser, Faerie Queene,' ii, canto i. 59. "Death is the shadow of life" (Tennyson,' Love and Death').

"The safe port, the peaceful silent shore" (S. Jenyns).

"A prive thef, men clepen Deth" (Chaucer, " Pardonere's Tale').

"The white fruit whose core is ashes, and which we call death" (O. W. Holmes, 'Professor at the Breakfast Table,' cap. xi.). "Mors janua vitæ."


Oak Cottage, Streatham Place, S.W.

MR. DELEVINGNE, who gives us the valuable selections at the above reference, may be interested in being referred to G. E. Lessing's Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet' (Berlin, 1769) and Julius Lessing's 'De Mortis apud Veteres Figura' (Berolini, Bonnæ, 1866). R. H. BUSK.

COPYING LETTERS (7th S. iii. 369).-Lettercopying presses were invented by James Watt. Dr. Smiles writes, in his 'Lives of the Engineers' (Boulton and Watt, chap. xi.) :—

in May, 1780. By that time Watt had completed the details of the press and the copying ink. Sufficient mahogany and lignum-vitæ had been ordered for making 500 machines, and Boulton went up to London to try and get the press introduced in the public offices."

Dr. Smiles further records how the bankers and others feared that it could be used for forgeries and denounced it, and that Boulton wrote and said that "the bankers mob him for having anything to do with it: they say that it ought to be suppressed" (!)

The original press is preserved in the Watt Room at Heathfield; and at the recent meeting of the British Association in Birmingham some of the old-fashioned presses, with printed instructions how to use them-giving many curious detailswere shown at the exhibition in Bingley Hall. Watt retained his special and personal interest in the invention as "James Watt & Co.," and sold the powders to make the copying-ink, as well as the presses. These were made for large folio paper, and the pressure was given by two large metal rollers, and there were drawers and divisions to hold the damping brushes, &c.

There is some evidence tending to show that Priestley had something to do with the improvements, if not the invention, which remains almost unaltered, except that now screw-presses instead of roller-presses are used. The prices of the original presses varied from 10l. to 20%., and some of that old form have been made for foreign markets within the last few years.


The present method of copying letters was discovered by James Watt, who took out a patent in the year 1780, and doubtless the correspondence of the establishment at Soho was so copied ; but I know not if any early examples still exist. GEO. E. FRERE.

CHARLES O'DOHERTY (7th S. iii. 428).-The arms with which MR. HARDY has been struggling are the ancient arms of O'Doherty or O'Dogherty, as given, s. v., in Burke's 'Gen. Armory' (1878), where they are thus blazoned: Ar., a stag springthe relative crest being a hand couped at the wrist ing gu., on a chief vert three mullets of the first; erect, grasping a sword, all ppr. The motto given appears to belong to another crest, also blazoned for the same family. This sept is stated to be of the same race as O'Boyle. Their possessions were in co. Donegal. After the forfeiture of Sir Cahir O'Dogherty, Lord of Ennishowen, in 1608, an entirely different coat appears to have been granted by Fortescue, Ulster, in 1790, to certain Spanish descendants of the sept.

"This invention was made by Watt in the summer of 1778. In June we find him busy experimenting on copy; ing-papers of different kinds, requesting Boulton to send him specimens of the most even and whitest unsized paper,' and in the following month he wrote to Dr. Black, I have lately discovered a method of copying writing instantaneously, provided it has been written the same day, or within twenty-four hours. send you a specimen, and will impart the secret if it will be of any use to you. It enables me to copy all my business letters.' For two years Watt kept his method of copying a secret; but hearing that certain persons were prying into it, with DATE OF ENGRAVING WANTED (7th S. ii. 447; the view of turning it to account, he determined to anti-iii. 15, 114, 251).-I can supplement the valuable cipate them by taking out a Patent, which was secured information kindly supplied by MR. EVERITT in


New University Club, S.W.

answer to Mr. HANKEY's request by the following particulars.

4. Condition, i. e., whether married or single :
5. Number in family or household:

whether Peer, Baronet, Knight, Member of Parliament,
6. Rank, profession, or occupation. State particularly
Gentleman, Yeoman, Tradesman, Mechanic, Artisan,
Servant, Labourer, &c. If you hold any public office
under the Crown, in the County, or in the Municipality,
the nature of the office should be stated; if an office of
profit, what is the salary?
7. Are you entitled to bear arms?

8. Have you been presented at Court?

9. What is the amount of your income, and how is it derived?

10. At what sum are you rated to the poor? 11. Are you on the list of Parliamentary Electors? 12. Probable amount of your subscription to "Church expenses": Dated this day of April, One thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven. Signature.......

The search for the record of birth in 1716 has been already made in the church registers at Braintree, Coggeshall, and Bocking Deanery, without success. The search, however, in the registers of the chapels of those places, at Somerset House, produced a Joshua Andrews of Braintree, who had a son, Mordecai Andrews (IV.), born 1738 (when Mordecai I. was only twenty-two years old), indicating the probability of the existence of an Andrews of a previous generation already named Mordecai; also a Gamaliel Andrews I. of Braintree, born 1715, who had a son Gamaliel Andrews II., born 1750; whilst a John Andrews of Braintree had a son John, born 1757 (who was father of a Mordecai Andrews VI., born 1786), and a son Gamaliel III., born 1762. The frequent interchange of these two names points to the likelihood that Gamaliel I., born 1715, and Mordecai I., born LANT STREET, BOROUGH (7th S. iii. 269, 371). 1716, were descended from a common parentage-It ought to be noticed that this was the scene of near Braintree. the celebrated supper party given by Bob Sawyer, as recorded in the 'Pickwick Papers,' perhaps one of the most amusing in the book. It may be added, also, that as it was a sketch which Charles Dickens alone could write, so it was one which he alone could do justice to in reading.

The many families of Mordecai I.'s descendants who are interested in this question are much beholden to N. & Q.' for having raised up so devoted a worker in their cause in MR. EVERITT, the antiquary of Portsmouth; and, should another reader in the district of Braintree be found who would thresh out that neighbourhood as MR. EVERITT has done that of Gosport, a large circle who await the announcement of the discovery would be equally grateful to him.

ELIZA ANDREWS ORME. 2, The Orchard, Bedford Park.

PRECEDENCE IN CHURCH (7th S. ii. 361, 495; iii. 74, 157, 394). This is a curious subject, and MR. WALFORD's interesting note shows how enduring our old customs are, especially those connected with the Church. It must be a difficult matter in the present day to determine questions of rank and degree, as several new standards have been established during the last century. We hear, for instance, of "aristocracy of wealth," "aristocracy of intellect," and so on. A friend who is interested in the Beverley case sent me a copy of the circular alluded to by MR. WALFORD. I enclose it herewith, and perhaps you may think it worth while reproducing in your imperishable


Witnessed by............................

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J. F. F.

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

THOMAS BETTERTON (7th S. iii. 349).-A note now before me states that Thomas Betterton, the actor, "first appeared on the stage at the Cockpit in Drury Lane in 1659." He would then be twenty-four years of age.

A. H. THE GOOD OLD NORMAN ERA (7th S. iii. 388). Mr. WALFORD may find a confirmation of some of these details, and references to sources of confirmation (possibly) of others, in an article on Court Rolls' in the Yorks. Archæol. Journal, pt. xxxvii., recently issued. There is a copy in the library of the Society of Antiquaries.

W. C. B.

'KITTY OF COLERAINE' (7th S. ii. 489; iii. 154) -It would be interesting to know the authority upon which the authorship of this song is assigned to Edward Lysaght. It is not included in the collected edition of Lysaght's poems which was published in 1811, shortly after his death; and in the carefully-edited book of Irish songs issued by You are particularly requested to fill in answers to the Duffy, of Dublin, it is classed among the anonymfollowing questions, and forward this paper to the Arch-ous pieces. There is a piece somewhat resembling bishop of York, not later than the 15th inst. His Grace it among Lysaght's songs; but if I remember will then be in a position to assign the seats to the rightly, the heroine, whose name is also Kitty, resides Parishioners according to their degree, as advised in the in Merrion Square, and does not hail from ColeOpinion of Mr. Chancellor Dibdin, raine. W. F. PRIDEAUX,


If sent unsealed this form only requires a Halfpenny stamp.

1. Name:

2. Address:

3. Age last birthday

ANCIENT CUSTOM AT ST. BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT (7th S. iii. 387).-I think I can throw a little light on the dark spot to which MR. VYVYAN

refers. There is no authority whatever for the custom. For many years it has been customary to follow out this idea for idea alone it is. Some time since, in order to give a few old widows of the parish something on Good Friday, the idea of placing a new sixpence on an old tombstone originated, and successive churchwardens, entirely out of good feeling, have kept up the custom. The number of recipients is supposed to be twenty; but it is more often thirty. There is no fund from whence the money is drawn, the churchwardens in every case providing it. There is no record of the benefactor in the parish register. The whole matter is a myth. The tradition is, that a widow, some four hundred years prior to the Reformation, left" so much money," in order that her tomb-in the churchyard of St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield, might be visited every Good Friday morning by twenty widows, who were each to pick up a sixpence from the stone. This, however, like many another tradition, is baseless.

There is in this parish a peculiar toast, that has undoubtedly been handed down for many years. When the health of the rector of this ancient parish is proposed, it is in these terms: "The great rector of the great parish of St. Bartholomew the Great." The late rector, the Rev. James Abbiss, who held the living for half a century, was somewhat proud of this "form," and I have heard him, in responding, refer to the long line of rectors who had replied to this unique toast.



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ONLY A QUESTION OF GRAMMAR (7th S. iii. 406).-It may show ignorance on my part, but confess I cannot see much difference, either in elegance or in sense, between "microscopes were only to be obtained" and "miscroscopes were to be obtained only"; or perhaps MR. WALFORD would read, "microscopes were to be obtained in the arcana of the British Museum only." The same remark applies to the other instances adduced by MR. WALFORD. However, that is not the point I particularly want to notice; it is the peculiar use of the word only in Lancashire and Cheshire, especially in Lancashire. In those counties only generally means except; and a Lancashire man (of course I am not referring to highly educated people) would probably have put three of MR. WALFORD's sentences thus: "Microscopes were not to be obtained only in the arcana of the British Museum"; The contributions of the faithful are not to be received only in the alms

boxes"; "The scheme does not apply only to retired lieutenants." To give an actual, instead of an imaginary instance of this usage, I may say that for many years the following notice was painted up at Bolton railway station: "Do not cross the line only by the bridge." It had an odd appearance; and a South-country man would perhaps have interpreted it, “Do not cross the line by the bridge only, but go any way you like," whereas a Lancashire or Cheshire man would have understood it mean, "Do not cross the line except by the bridge.' The notice may be there to this day, for anything I know; but I have not had occasion to visit Bolton for some years. I was told by a farm bailiff in Cheshire, "Mr. Tdoesn't want only what is right"; which, being translated, meant that Mr. T— did not want anything except that to which he was legally entitled. ROBERT HOLLAND.

Frodsham, Cheshire,

MR. WALFORD's remarks on the frequency of the blunder of misplacing the little word only find an illustration on p. 403 of the very number of N. & Q.' in which those remarks appear, where MR. CARRICK MOORE writes, "Hephaistos only knows of his wife's infidelity because the all-seeing MUS URBANUS. sun tells him of it.”

The misplacing of "the limiting adverb only," to which MR. WALFORD calls attention, is illustrated at considerable length in the late Prof. Hodgson's 'Errors in the Use of English,' in which the rule of the collocation of adverbs and adverbial adjuncts is thus laid down:-"They intended to affect." should be so placed as to affect what they are This rule (says Hodgson) is oftenest violated in the use of not only, not merely, not more, both, and not. C. O. B.

ST. MARGARET'S, WESTMINSTER: THE HISTORICAL TOBACCO Box (7th S. iii. 269, 317).— There were two copies of the work for which NEMO inquires in the library of the late Mr. W. J. Thoms, sold by Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge in February last (lots 1098 and 1467). the auctioneers. I have an impression that both NEMO could probably trace the purchasers through lots were bought by dealers.


It is only fair to state that the article on the above subject in the Pall Mall Gazette of January, 1884, is a mere rechauffé of the account given in 'Old and New London,' vol. iii. pp. 575-6, where its history is told in detail. MUS URBANUS.

LIMEHOUSE BREWERY (7th S. iii. 108).-This brewery, situated by the river, and close to the parish church, was established about 1720, and owned by Salmon & Hare; then by Hare & Har ford; then Harford & Taylor; then Taylor & Walker; and now by Walker & Sewell, the brothers

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