common organ of the preceding; in short, all the socalled liberal arts and sciences, the possession and application of which constitute the civilization of a country, as well as the theological." EDWARD H. MARSHALL.


Wynd, the Gow chrone (bandy-legged Smith) would not have been forgotten. HENRY H. GIBBS.

St. Dunstan's, Røgent's Park.

SQUARSON (7th S. ii. 188, 273, 338; iii. 58).See Coleridge's 'On the Constitution of the Extract from a leading article in the Standard, Church and State, according to the Idea of Each.' Wednesday, February 17, 1887, on the Bill for The occasion of publishing this book was the pass-facilitating the Sale of Glebe-lands: "Sydney ing of the so-called "Catholic Emancipation Act." Smith might say what he liked about squarsons, The work attracted considerable notice; a third and the inefficiency of the clergy in general." WM. GRAHAM F. PIGOTT. edition was published, with additions, in 1839. É. LEATON BLENKINSOPP.

Abington Pigotts.

ARMS OF THE MEDICI POPES (6th S. vii. 507; SITWELL, STOTVILLE (7th S. iii. 27, 154, 314).— xi. 488; xii. 75, 142, 210, 237, 313, 337, 356, 389, Stuttgart stallion enclosure. Conf. Stuttpferch, 470; 7th S. i. 35, 196, 254, 417; ii. 511).near Carlsruhe. See my 'Local Etymology,' Egli Those who have been interested in the corre-Etym. Geog. Lex.'), and Lamartinière (Grand R. S. CHARNOCK. spondence on this subject may like to know that Dict. Géog. et Critique'). there is still in existence a representative of the Milanese Medici. I observed the name of a "Medici, Marchese di Marignano," gazetted to the command of the "Brigata di Acqui” in the Italian papers lately.

I subjoin another note or two concerning the same family.

In Michelangelo Prunetti's 'Viaggio PittorescoAntiquario' (ed. 1820), vol. iii. p. 123, in describing the Cathedral of Milan, occurs the following passage, which I give as it stands, without correction:

"Nel Coro esistono molti depositi dei Duchi di Milano; ma il più ornato è quello di Giacomo Medici, Marchese di Marignano, titolo che gli fu dato dopo di essere stato assunto al pontificate il di lui fratello col nome di Pio IV. Questi è quel Medici che alcuni scrittori appellano Medicino, per differenziarlo [verbum desideratum] dei Medici di Fiorenze; giacchè il suo padre non fu che un barbiere di professione al che volle alludere la satira di Michelagnolo architettata [other verbum desideratum] nella Porta Pia di Roma."*

A bit of testimony useful to a certain extent, though not entirely accurate, as may be seen by comparison with earlier notes.

On the other hand, Platner, the well-known German writer about the things of Rome, quotes Gaetano Cenni, 'Bullarium Vaticanum,' t. iii. p. 383, to the effect that Pius IV. had the same arms as Leo X., because "discendeva da una linea collaterale della famiglia Medici, stabilitisi a Milano." R. H. BUSK.

Gow FAMILY (7th S. iii. 288).-This quest would seem to be as difficult as the tracing of the pedigree and origin of any Jones, Brown, or Robinson of the day. Allowing for the difference of population, there should be as many Gows in the Highlands as there are Smiths in London. I fear the present generation does not read its Scott's novels with the assiduity of its predecessor, or Hal of the

* See 'N, & Q.,' 6th 8. xii, 211, 391.

MR. YEATMAN asks what is the meaning of Stuttgart. It is derived from the German stute, a mare, being the place where the Dukes of Würtemberg had their breeding "stud." In vol. iii. of Memminger's 'Würtembergisches Jahrbuch' there is an article by Schmid, " Ueber den Namen Stuttgart." Before speculating on the etymology of "stout" MR. YEATMAN would have done well to have referred to Prof. Skeat's 'Etymological Dictionary.' ISAAC TAYLOR.

MASTER AND SERVANT (7th S. iii. 45, 89, 157).— It is forty years since that I heard my grandmother, then sixty years of age or more, repeat the formula heard it elsewhere or from any other person. In as she had heard it as a girl at Goosnargh. I never her mouth it ran, "Rise, master, rise from thy easy degree, put on thy crackers and down treaders and come down and see; for white-faced Simeon has run up the high cock-a-mountain, with hot cockalorum a-top of his back, and without resolution we all are undone." I was very much surprised to see this curious old formula in 'N. & Q.,' for it had been my intention to make a note of it. I may say here that successive male cats at our house received the name of Simeon for many a year. JOHN E. Norcross. Brooklyn, U.S.

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THE RING IN MARRIAGE (7th S. iii. 207, 275).— The validity of a marriage depends upon its being performed in the manner prescribed and in the presence of officials recognized by the State" (Holland's 'Jurisprudence'). With regard to the ring, therefore, we have to make a distinction between marriages celebrated according to the method of the Church of England and marriages otherwise solemnized. In the first case, by 4 George IV., c. 76, ss. 21, 28, the rules prescribed by the rubrics prefixed to the office of matrimony in the Book of Common Prayer, and not altered by the Act, shall be duly observed, and this is re-enacted by 6 & 7

Will. IV., c. 85, s. 1. The use of a ring is therefore obligatory under these statutes, as forming part of the ceremony in this case by law prescribed. In the second case, by 6 & 7 Will. IV., c. 85, two additional modes of celebration are sanctioned, viz., marriages by registrar's certificate, with or without licence. Here, if the ceremony is not according to the method of the Church of England or the usages of Jews or Quakers, certain declarations must be made in a set form before a registrar and witnesses, and these declarations of ability to contract and mutual agreement go to the root of the matter and actually constitute the ceremony. And thus there is no need of any ring at all, and the use of one, though common, does not in any way affect the validity of the marriage.



quently found in excavating and draining boggy
ground and peat mosses. In the case of a sudden
raid, everything of value that could not be carried
off was thrown into such places for concealment.
I have one which was found in a bog during
the construction of the railway between Newcastle
and Berwick. It is bellied, stands on three feet,
and has 66
lugs" for the handle which suspended
it over the fire. It is 8 inches high, greatest
circumference 28 inches, and weighs twelve
pounds, a great weight for its size. They have
been found up to 12 inches high. Some, of older
date still, are bronze. See Transactions of the
Berwickshire Nat. Club, vols. vii., ix.


SIR THOMAS ERPINGHAM (7th S. iii. 309).— According to a paper in Archeologia, vol. xx. The fact that the portion of the marriage service p. 131, note m, Sir Thomas Erpingham (who had in the Prayer Book which refers to the ring is landed at Ravenspur in 1399 with Henry of Lanworded in the imperative, coupled with the pre-caster) was in that year placed in command of the amble to the Marriage Act of 1836, which enacts body of troops which the Earl of Northumberland that "all the Rules prescribed by the Rubrick had posted in a defile near Conway Castle to concerning the solemnizing of Marriages shall intercept King Richard II., and who, "in his continue to be duly observed by every Person in advanced age," gave the signal for the battle of Holy Orders of the Church of England," would Agincourt. For the authority of the latter stateseem to render the ring indispensable at a marriage ment the writer quotes Rapin, who makes no in church. Unless the statute of 2 & 3 Ed. VI., mention, however, of Erpingham's age on that which legalized the marriage of "spiritual persons," occasion. Froissart, in common with other hishas been swept away by the broom of some revis-torians of that date, frequently applies the term ing statute, it would seem as if the register office is closed to any one in holy orders, for that statute provides that no spiritual person shall marry without asking in the church and other ceremonies appointed by the Book of Common Prayer." Can any clerical correspondent enlighten me as to

veteran" to men in the prime of life, and even Shakespeare refers to the "old limbs" of King Henry IV. at the battle of Shrewsbury, though that sovereign was then under forty years of age. It is, however, improbable that Erpingham was only in his fiftieth year in 1415, for he had been created a Knight of the Garter in 1401, and this The following words are taken from the Book of until they could count long, as well as honour was never conferred upon commoners Common Prayer (1549):tinguished military service.


A. H. D.

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"Then shall they again loose their hands and the man E. B. DE FONBLANQUE. shall give unto the woman a ring and other tokens of spousage, as gold and silver, laying the same upon the The Erpingham gate, built by Sir Thomas Erpbook. And the Priest taking the Ring shall deliver it ingham, who fought at Agincourt, unto the man to put it upon the fourth finger of the upon St. woman's left hand. And the man, taught by the priest, Crispin's Day" in 1415, may yet be seen at Norshall say, With this ring I thee wed: this gold and silver wich, opposite the western front of the cathedral. I thee give with my body I thee worship: and with all His kneeling figure is in a niche, as are also my worldly goods I thee endow. In the name of the his arms, with those of his two wives (Clopton and Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, Amen." Walton). He is buried in the adjacent cathedral. The following prayer has these words, after "Isaac Erpingham, once the home of the knightly family, and Rebecca," in parentheses ("after bracelets and is near Aylsham, and is a parish united with jewels of gold given of the one to the other for Blickling, once the property of the Boleyns. tokens of their matrimony "). W. LOVELL. Cambridge.

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It seems probable that in those times the estimate of age was different from that in our own day, for, according to Shakespeare, Richard II. addresses his uncle as "Old John of Gaunt, timehonoured Lancaster" ("K. Richard II.,' Act I. sc. i.), and he was then fifty-eight years of age. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

CARPET (7th S. iii. 105, 152, 231).-The word carpet occurs in Canon lxxxii. (1604), where it is ordered that the Holy Table shall be "covered, in time of divine service, with a carpet of silk or other decent stuff." E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP.


The lines commencing "If a state submit" are from
Lord Tennyson's tragedy The Cup,' and are as follows:
Sir, if a state submit

At once, she may be blotted out at once
And swallow'd in the conqueror's chronicle.
Whereas in wars of freedom and defence
The glory and grief of battle won or lost
Solders a race together-yea-tho' they fail,
The names of those who fought and fell are like
A bank'd-up fire that flashes out again
From century to century, and at last
May lead them on to victory.

These lines were spoken by Miss Ellen Terry with great
effect when the tragedy was performed at the Lyceum
some years since.

From whence came Smith, &c.
This is to be found in Verstegan's 'Restitution of
Decayed Intelligence, p. 310. In quoting this distich
(Essays on Family Nomenclature, second ed., p. 87),
Mr. M. A. Lower remarks, "The antiquary should have
been aware that the radix of this term is the Saxon
smitan, to smite; and therefore it was originally applied
to artificers in wood as well as to those in metal,
as wheelwrights, carpenters, masons, and smiters in
general." Of the latter fact, if fact it be, Verstegan
was not ignorant. He expressly says (p. 231) that Smith
was so called "because he Smitheth or smiteth with a
Hammer. Before we had the Carpenter from the French,
a Carpenter was in our language also called a Smith for
that he smiteth both with his Hammer, and his Axe."
It may, perhaps, be as well to add that the theory that
Smith was a smiter does not square with what are now
delivered as phonetic laws.

(7th S. iii. 349.)

Oh! chide not my heart for its sighing, &c. The lines quoted by your querist are the first verse of a song, written many years since, by Mrs. Aylmer; the music is by W. T. Wrighton; and the publishers are Robert Cocks (lately deceased) & Co., New Burlington Street. FREDK. RULE.

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NOTES ON BOOKS, &o. Some Municipal Records of the City of Carlisle. Edited by R. S. Ferguson and W. Nanson. (Carlisle, Thurnam; London, Bell & Sons.)

MR. FERGUSON is a well-known antiquary, who has devoted many years to the study of the history of the Border city of which he has on two occasions been the chief magistrate. Mr. Nanson, who for some time filled the post of deputy town clerk, has from his official position gained much knowledge of the city's records, There are probably no two gentlemen in England who could have performed the work which they have undertaken in a more satisfactory manner. There is, indeed,


but one fault that the most captious reviewer could find with the volume before us. The notes which are given been more of them. The present city of Carlisle must are always good and to the point, but we wish there had claim as its parent one of the worst of our English kings. The 'Saxon Chronicle' tells us that in 1092 William the Red King repaired the city, built the castle, and drove out Dolfin. Before this it had, we may assume, been a waste place, with no living connexion with the old Roman time. Before the days of Rufus, it may well be the era of its refoundation Carlisle, though now and then questioned whether it was in England or Scotland. From it may have received a Scotch garrison within its walls, has always been a part of England. The editors have not printed the various charters which the city posWe are sorry for this; but we trust that they may yet see the light in some future publication. They have, perhaps, done wisely in giving us these records in a separate volume. The preface is itself as interesting as any of the documents which follow. That portion relating to the seventeenth century is especially instructive. The great Civil War we can all of us more or less understand; its events appeal strongly to the imagination of the dullest of us; but there is some strain on the attention and the memory when we reach the gloomy period comprised between the Restoration and that revolution to which the term "glorious" was wont and corruption. Every new document that comes to to be applied. It was an era of low intrigue, meanness, light impresses this on us more and more fully. Messrs. Ferguson and Nanson's labours give additional weight to this accumulation of evidence.

of oaths, memoranda of customs, and various other The Dormont Book of Carlisle is a valuable collection records relating to the city. It is of sixteenth century date, but we cannot doubt that much that is in it is representative of earlier times. The extracts from the guild records are perhaps even more interesting. None of them is very old; but we may feel certain that the guilds themselves are of remote antiquity. Notwithstanding the labours of more than one zealous antiquary, there is much yet to be learned as to the nature of our old guilds. Those who have suggested that they are a survival from the Roman time we believe are mistaken; but they are of remote antiquity. Their religious, festal, and business properties are all well worthy of consideration. Trade, feasting, and worship were, in the Middle Ages, blended in ways that to us seem not a little incongruous. Perhaps if we more fully realized how matters really stood in those days the feeling of strangeness

would wear off.

These records contain a few curious words we have The editors suggest, doubtfully, that it may mean a kind not met with elsewhere. Lymceroof is quite new to us. of knife. Shevling seems to connote some kind of skin.

Sermons on Subjects from the Old Testament. By J. R.
Woodford, sometime Lord Bishop of Ely. (Riving.

Sermons preached to Harrow Boys, 1885-6. By the Rev
J. E. C. Welldon. (Same publishers.)
IN these two volumes Messrs. Rivingtons make a useful
addition to their already numerous issues of sound
Anglican divinity. The expositions of the late Bishop
Woodford in their dignified and somewhat old-fashioned
sobriety and calmness of tone are a refreshing contrast
to the subjective and emotional declamation which holds
sway in present-day pulpits. Mr. Welldon's sermons,
though addressed to schoolboys, will be liked by many
of a larger growth. They are manly, plain-spoken
utterances on matters of practical moment, such as the
treatment of animals and the right use of holiday leisure,

Hook's Church Dictionary. New Edition, revised by Rev. W. Hook and Rev. W. R. W. Stephens. (Murray.) THE fourteenth edition of this well-known and useful manual of practical information on all matters pertaining to the Church has been extensively recast, and in the case of many of the articles rewritten, so as to stand abreast of modern requirements. Testing it here and there, we find that the latest authorities have been consulted, e.g., in the account of that long debated word "Whitsunday"; while the articles dealing with matters of ritual and legal decisions embody all the most recent information on those subjects. The monastic word "Frater-house," given on p. 504, is omitted from the body of the work. It might be well to explain that it has probably no connexion with Lat. frater.

The Beer of the Bible. By James Death. (Trübner & Co.) THIS treatise is put together in such an extraordinary fashion that we infer Mr. Death is a very novice in the mystery of bookmaking. He may be an excellent brewer, but he is completely outside his métier when he turns his hand to Biblical criticism. His great discovery is that "that which is leavened" was in reality "the Hebrew beer, a substance resembling the Arab bread. beer Boosa, a fermented and eatable paste " and this noble contention gives him opportunity for dragging in a great deal of irrelevant Egyptian learning and fine writing, all "à propos of boots. He can no more keep beer out of his Bible than Mr. Dick the martyr's head out of his famous memorial. If Mr. Death wishes to be taken seriously, he must patiently surmount the difficulties of his own language before tackling Hebrew, and forswear such pitiable puns as disfigure page 41.

THE Classical Review, Nos. 2 and 3, for April, a double number, strikes us as a more generally interesting number than the first. The opening article, on the late Master of Trinity as a Platonic scholar, by Mr. Archer Hind, gives a fair conspectus of the Master's work as a whole, and crowns it with the laurel of a very high, but well-deserved praise, not often so ungrudgingly accorded. Mr. Postgate takes up the "reformed" pronunciation of Latin, as to which some of us are still much unconvinced, holding the pronunciation patronized by the masters of our public schools to be, on some material points, a pronunciation of their own invention. Mr. Maunde Thompson commences what promises to be a useful series of papers on Early Classical MSS. in the British Museum,' and Mr. Hicks continues to give us the fruits of his well-known epigraphic lore in matters connected with the Greek of the New Testament as regards political terms. The report on archæology deals with some interesting finds at Delphi, Assarlik, Kalymnos, &c. The antiquities found near Sesto Calende, on the Lago Maggiore, are, however, very vaguely reported, with no note whatever of finder or date of discovery, or of the authority on which they are reported.

PART XL. of the Encyclopaedic Dictionary heads the list of Messrs. Cassell's publications, and carries the alphabet to "Hymenea." In the various compounds of "Hydro-" its title to the name it bears may be tested. -A singularly interesting number (Part XXV.) of Prof. Ebers's Egypt, Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, is wholly occupied with antiquities, and gives some very striking views of ruined temples and falling statues. The large introductory plate of "Sekhet Statues" is very impressive. Greater London, Part XXII. arrives at Mortlake, Barnes, Hammersmith, and Roehampton, and gives, among other illustrations, several views of the boatrace. It leaves the reader near the end of his journey at Wimbledon.-Part XXVIII. of Our Own Country finishes with the Lizard country, deals fully with St.

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Alban's, and ends in York. Its principal picture is a full-page view of York Minster. Many views of Cornish scenery are, however, afforded, and there is a good representation of the Abbey at St. Albans as seen from Verulam.-Part XVI. of the Illustrated Shakespeare includes an extra number. In it the Taming of the Shrew,' which has some very dramatic illustrations, is completed, and All's Well that Ends Well' begins. Some of the notes to the former play are serviceable.A considerable portion of Part XX. of the History of India is occupied with the Chinese War and the capture of Pekin. A chapter deals with the Isles of British India.-A full-page illustration of the marriage of the Princess Royal accompanies Part XII. of the Life and Times of Queen Victoria, a volume of which is now finished.- Part XXI. of Gleanings from Popular Authors gives an exciting episode from Cooper's Last also Mr. Patmore's poem The Yew Berry.' of the Mohicans,' with a graphic illustration. It has

THE Bizarre Notes and Queries, published in the United States, contains some explanations of current Americanisms by Mr. Marshall O. Waggoner, an occasional contributor to our pages.

Ar a meeting of the Sette of Odd Volumes, at Willis's Rooms, on Friday, the 6th inst., Brother Welsh read a valuable paper on Colour Books for Children.' Mr. Walter Crane and Brother Quaritch took part in the discussion which followed. A large and interesting collection of children's books was exhibited by the lecturer.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

THOMAS SKINNER ("The dram of eale,' &c., 'Hamlet,' I. iv. 37").-You ask for an explanation of this, Seven closely printed pages of Prof. Furness's Variorum' edition of Hamlet' are devoted to the subject, with which also N. & Q.' overflows, and the matter is still

in doubt.

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CONTENTS.-N° 73. NOTES:-Inns of Chancery, 401-Shakspeariana, 402-The Greater Gods of Olympus-"A Banbury story," 403Euphemisms for Death-Travelling on the Continent, 404Pair of Kidderminster Swanns-Husband of many Wives -Capt. Cook's Second Voyage, 405-Jubilee of George III. -Anniversary of Recapture of Buda-Disedify-'Dictionary

of Anonymous Literature'-Only, 406-Autographs in Books, 407.

in 1874, No. 22, Chancery Lane was built, and I well recollect the wretched state of that and Lyon's Inn, on which the Globe and Opéra Comique Theatres are erected, worse than the present dingy and dilapidated condition of Clifford's Inn.

The Inns of Chancery have ceased to serve any purpose for hundreds of years, except the dining of members several times a year, formerly after each term; but terms were abolished by the Judicature Act, so the dates had to be resettled. They are stated to have begun so early as 1571 to leave off admitting students, having existed probably two centuries before.† By the time the leases of the

QUERIES:-Brougham-Charles Mordaunt-French Works
Wanted-Annette, 407-Blazer-N. Middleton-Authors of
Poems-"Make no bones": "Martinet"-Puritan Migra-
tion-Le Dernier Soupir du Christ-Goldsmid-Napoleon
I. at Plymouth-Fragments of Early Scottish Books-Por-
beagle, 408-Spenserian Stanza-Winspeare-Il Moro and
De Lévis Families-Earthquakes, Eclipses, and Comets-inns now existing were granted such purpose had
Château de Montferrand-Bache Family-Authors Wanted,


REPLIES:-"One moonshiny night "-First Principles of
Philology, 411-Female Heresiarchs-John Zimisces-Thos.
Dekker-Robin Hood, 412-Elephant-Bunhill Fields, 413-
De la Pole-Betty: Bellarmine-Records of Ulster Office-
Crow v. Magpie, 414-Subject of Drawing-Cromwell, 415-
Instructions for Forren Travell"Croydon sanguine"-
Thackeray and Dr. Dodd-The Queen's College-Dr. Watts
-Erskine of Balgownie, 416-Sage on Graves-Bath Shilling
-Bluestockingism-A Question of Grammar-Huguenot
Families Young Man's Best Companion-Tam o'
Shanter-R. Martin-Owner of Coat of Arms-N or M, 417
'The Scourge'-Mincing Lane-Baroness Bellasis-Wed-
ding Anniversaries-Suicide of Animals, 418.
NOTES ON BOOKS:-Devey's Life of Rosina, Lady Lytton'
-Lecky's 'History of England.'
Notices to Correspondents, &c.


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THE INNS OF CHANCERY. (Concluded from p. 283.) One hardly looks at a single article on this subject without finding it partly founded on some rumour or idea which is not strictly accurate. One writer says: 66 The Inns of Chancery have grown to have more especial connexion with the lower branch of the legal profession than with the The Encyclopædia Britannica' writes, "And thenceforth the Inns of Chancery have been entirely abandoned to the attorneys." Is not the opposite rather the fact? The inns were at first attorneys' or solicitors' inns, but in the course of time, chiefly I believe from the difficulty of getting solicitors to join, barristers have been elected. At one ion for years nearly one-half the members have been barristers, including several Q.C.s, and two barristers have been principals for nearly half a century.

Another writer stated that the Inns of Chancery never thought of selling until Serjeant's Inn set the example, whereas Dane's, Furnival's, Lyon's, Scrope's, Strand, Symond's, and Thavies' Inns were at all events sold or dissolved years before Serjeant's Inn.

I was articled in Symond's Inn* on part of which,

The following is the description in 'Bleak House.' If the Editor can allow me the space, it will relieve the

been lost sight of, and those who bought the freeholds or took the leases did so for their own benefit and that of such successors as they chose to appoint.

As to the antiquarian interest of the inns. A great deal has been said about that miserable remnant the Holborn front of Staple Inn, though such a wreck in fact is not worth keeping. There is now no more of the original front than there would be if you took a marble bust and cut off all the features until you had little more than a block left. The knocker on the hall at Clement's Inn seems to be the only thing worth preserving there. Barnard's Inn gave what portraits it had worth having to the national collection. Clifford's Inn is in a most ruinous and dirty condition. There is nothing in it worth keeping. The hall, with its original lath and plaster ceiling and debased style of architecture, bears evidence of having been built soon after the lease was granted. The only thing of any antiquity is a thirteenthcentury arch in the cellar. In fact, any of the inns rebuilt in the style of New Court, with its beautiful red brick Waterhousian houses and central green, would be a far greater ornament to London than the present miserable tumble-down structures, where there is no sanitary provision of any kind, wet coming through the roofs, the floors slanting as much as three inches in seven feet, and, in the case of one inn, costing 800l. a year in repairs.

I will conclude with the opinion of an eminent conveyancer of the present day :-"My opinion, formed after perusal of the title-deeds and documents

begone inn, like a large dust-bin of two compartments dryness of my note: "A little, pale, wall-eyed, woeand a sifter. It looks as if Symond were a sparing man in his way, and constructed his inn of old building materials, which took kindly to dry rot and to dirt and all things decaying and dismal, and perpetuated Symond's bers are on so small a scale, that one clerk can open the memory with congenial shabbiness. Mr. Vhole's chamdoor without getting off his stool, while the other who elbows him at the same desk has equal facilities for poking the fire."

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+ Encyclopædia Britannica,' 1881, vol. xiii. p. 88. In 1618, according to the St. Clement Danes Parish Magazine, April 1, 1874,

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