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"Go take his paper, Richard, go, And give a dram to make him glow." Such was thy cry,
More precious far than gold it is,
When newsmen feel,
Of real grief unfolded is,
The means to live
To those who feel how cold it is.
Perhaps some soldier, blind or maimed,
For what they've done, sure bold it is;
"Bless my heart, how cold it is!"
And now, ye sluggards, sloths, and beaux,
Go beat the air and pace the ground;
Though sharp the gale,
And frozen you behold it is,
Your blood shall glow,
And swiftly flow,
And you'll not cry, "How cold it is !'
SPENSER'S VISIONS OF PETRARCH,' Having in 7th S. ii. 443, said a few words on Spenser's 1569 'Sonets'-afterwards in 1590 reformed and added to and called 'The Visions of Du Bellay'-I would now turn to the history of his Petrarchian pieces. In 1569 six of these 'Epigrams,' as he then called them, appeared in Vander Nordt's Theatre,' &c., of that date. And on reference to Petrarch I find that these were translated from canzone 58, as the Venice edition of 1584 has it, or as that of Milan, 1805, numbers it, 54, commencing
Standomi un giorno solo alla finestra. Each epigram comprises in order twelve lines of this canzone, such divisions being marked out in the canzone itself by the subjects treated of, and
by 11. 1, 13, 25, 37, 49, and 61 being put back a little to the left of the others. Similarly l. 73 is put back, and 11. 73-5, the concluding lines of the canzone, form the untitled conclusion or postscript to Spenser's epigrams. But Spencer did not, I find, translate directly from the Italian. In 1568 Vander Nordt published in England, John Day being his publisher, with the same dedication to Queen Elizabeth, the same booklet, but all in French, that was republished in English with Spenser's translations of the poems in 1569. From this prior edition, unnoticed by the editors of Spenser, he translated its six Epigrammes' and its untitled conclusion, each "epigramme" in it being in twelve lines, like the portion of the canzone from which it was translated, and rhyming thus, 1, 3, 4; 2, 5, 6; 7, 8; 9, 12; 10, 11. The four lines of the conclusion again, that is 11. 73-5 of the original, are, like Spenser's, in couplets. These are followed, as in the 1569 edition, by the sonnets of Du Bellay, and these by the four Revelation sonnets, on which I shall speak hereafter. Having carefully collated the canzone with its French and English translations, and also with Spenser's reformed version in his 'Visions' of 1590, I can say first, and with the utmost confidence, that the Epigrams' of 1569 were translated from the French Epigrammes' of 1568. Out of various examples these eight will prove this general conclusion.
Con fronte umana, da far arder Giove Belle pour plaire au souverain des Dieux, So faire as mought the greatest God delite: where, besides translating the French epithet for "Jove," he, as more than once elsewhere, omits, like the French, "Con fronte umana," and hence, instead of giving the equivalent of "arder," translates the French "plaire" as "delite."
Ll. 13, 15 (ii. 1-3), are, the French and English additions being italicized :
Indi per alto mar vidi una Nave
Puis en mer hault ung navire advisoie
The sailes of Golde, of Silke the tackle were, and there are six or more instancas of this transposition of clauses or words made in the French and followed in the English version. I add, as a matter of interest otherwise, that while Spenser, in his F. Queene,' thrice uses "Heben for "ash," he here, at an earlier date, uses it as the equivalent of the French Hebène-ebony.
L. 29 has "angelli," ii. 4-5 have "oiseaux" and birds."
Ll. 54-5 and (v. 6-8) differ thus :—
ed al Fonte che la terra invola.
Ogni cosa al fin vola:
Et au ruisseau, que terre à devoure
What say I more? Eche thing at length we see
L. 67 has, "Ma le parti supremi "(probably the head, neck, and shoulders); vi. 7, "Mais en sus la ceinture"" above the waist."
L. 71 (vi. 10, 11) is especially noteworthy, as its sense is distorted. Of a lady bitten by a deadly venomed serpent it is said
Lieta si dipartio, non che sicura
And well assurde she mounted up to joy.
Canzon tu puoi ben dire :
O chanson mienne, en tes conclusions
A mon seigneur donnent ung doulx plaisir De brievement soubz la terre gesir. My song thus now in thy conclusions Say boldly that these same six visions Do yelde unto thy lord a sweete request Ere it be long within the earth to rest. This evidence is decisive as to Spenser having translated from the French. Nevertheless there seems a very little, yet conclusive evidence that he had had a transient, if very transient and occasional, glance at the original. By little I mean that I have detected only two more or less probable and one certain instance. (1) Ll. 33-4 and iii. 9-10 give :—
Folgorando 'l percosse, e da radice
dont la fouldre grand' erre Vint arracher celluy plant bien heureux. When sodaine flash of heavens fire outbrast And rent this royall tree quite by the roote. This in itself is doubtful, and might be a mere coincidence, for the full force of "arracher" is to pull up by the roots. (2) In l. 66 (vi. 6), where a dress is described, the English adopts the Italian "testa," and omits the French addition "en tel art" yet follows its sequence of "neige, & or ":
Si testa, ch'oro e neve parea inseme.
yet woven so they were,
As snowe and golde together had bene wrought. (3) The decisive instance is in 1. 64 (vi. 4):Umile in sè, ma 'ncontr' Amor superba : Humble de soi, mais contre amour rebelle, Milde, but yet love she proudely did forsake,
The question of how it was that Spenser translated these twelve-line 'Epigrammes' by making i. and iii. of twelve lines alternately rhymed and 11. 13-14 a couplet, making them, in other words, of sonnet form and length, while ii, iv, v, and vi are each in twelve alternately rhyming lines only, will be discussed in a subsequent note. Meanwhile I pass on to say that these twelve-line pieces are increased to the sonnet length in 1590, mainly by Spenserian, and not by Petrarchian additions. Nor do they show any evidence, beyond that of 1569 already given, that recourse had been had to Petrarch. Ll. 10, 12, of ii. of 1590, and the two end lines of Vision vi. are entirely Spenser's, as are 11. 14 of Visions iv. and v. L. 13, however, of iv. is 1. 48 of the canzone, and 1. 13 of the French 'Epigramme,' which he had formerly omitted; and 1. 13 of v. is a variation and extension of part of 1. 60 (French vi. 12), which he had also left untranslated. So Vision vii. is in its first eight lines founded on the conclusion-now omitted-and on the general tenor of the visions generally, while the address in this conclusion to "My lord" is altered and expanded into a gracefully flattering warning of six lines to the "faire Ladie Carey," as he calls her both here and on his title-page to the assemblage of poems entitled 'Muiopotmos,' 1590, he varying these praises in his highly laudatory dedication to her.
It now only remains to say, in regard to the probable authorship of the French epigrams, that, judging by some small signs, they are not by a Frenchman, but by a foreigner, and hence, in all probability, by Vander Nordt himself, this being the more likely in that in this 1568 edition he merely says that they are Petrarch's. BR. NICHOLSON.
'1 HENRY IV.,' II. i. 72.— Nobility and tranquillity, Burgomasters and great oneyres. "Burgomasters" gives the hint to search for a Dutch original of the oneyres of the Q. 1. The nearest companion I can find here for such dignities as burgomasters is oneer groot infinitely great. Whether oneer groot may have travelled by way of groot oneer into English slang (of which "great many choice blossoms are Dutch) as oneyers" is a question about which I have an opinion which may or may not be that of others. W. WATKISS LLOYD. "RUNAWAYES EYES (ROMEO AND JULIET, III. ii.). An explanation of this puzzling phrase, which has the singular merit of being both intelligible and plausible, was suggested to me in correspondence by my late friend Edward Spencer, He proposed to read :
That Veronese eyes may wink,
I need not point out to any Skakespearian how exactly this fits in with Juliet's wish that Romeo may come at bed-time, and come unseen; nor to any reader of sixteenth century literature that the word "Veronese" would, in Shakespeare's time, have been written ueronayes" or "ueronaies" (see F. 1 and F. 2); like the common "genowayes" (Berners's Froissart') or "genowaies" (Greene's Philomela') for Genoese. In the manuscript of that time ueronayes" and " runawayes" would have been easily confounded.
Some years ago I submitted this emendation to the doyen of all Shakespearians, Mr. HalliwellPhillipps, asking his opinion. He replied that it was enough to take one's breath away," but committed himself no further.
WM. HAND Browne.
Yet if that, quarrel, [or —] Fortune do divorce,
that is, amplifying the passage, "Yet if that [either] quarrel, [or] Fortune [under which last I include every other chance occurrence not derogatory to the Queen's honour] doth divorce her from her pomp, then 'tis," &c. The two nominatives, "quarrel" and "Fortune," demand
though I admit not necessarily in that age-the plural verb "do." Also, not only is a quarrel, as a cause for seeking a divorce, a likely one to an outsider, but it is the one which actually followS on Anne previous speech, as a guessed-at cause of the king's proceedings. BR. NICHOLSON.
'MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM,' II. 1 (7th S. iii. 42).-If it is worth while to make a serious controversy of this, it may be said that A. H.'s interpretation is untenable, because a sudden fall back[See 1st S. viii. 3, 216, 361; 2nd S. v. 270; xii. 85; 3rd wards will not split petticoats as it will trousers. S. ii. 92; xii. 121; 5th S. iv. 285; 7th S. i, 286.] C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.
'KING JOHN,' III. ii. 5.—
K. J. Hubert, keep [thou] this boy-Philip make up. With extreme literal, though not literary, accuracy, some of the commentators have descried that John, i. e., Shakespeare, here forgot that he had given Philip the name of Richard and knighted him; Theobald even altered "Philip" to "Richard," while Hanmer chose "cousin," and Dyce notes all this nonsense without a word. An ordinary eye can, however, see that the dramatist made John make this lapse that he might the more contrast the brother and son of Cœur de Lion. The battle is, according even to the son," wondrous hot "— hot that he characterizes it still more forcibly, and speaks of a devil pouring down mischief. The king shows himself weak in resolution and fearful, gives Arthur into other keeping, asks another to make up, that is, withstand his assailants, and fears that his camp is assailed and his mother taken. The deed-doing and resolute son of King Richard has, unknown to the nominal leader of the army, rescued her and warded off the danger. The king, in his flurry and fear, recurs to the name under which he first knew the supposed son of Sir Rob. Faulconbridge. Like new-made honour, fear forgets the new names of men. BR. NICHOLSON.
'HENRY VIII.,' II. iii. 14.—
Yet if that quarrell. Fortune do diuorce. Here all who have attempted to explain the passage have taken quarrell" as an epithet of Fortune," and have punctuated accordingly. Yet why should it be an epithet? Quarrel" as " quarreller" may, I think, be set aside, since Anne is not poeticizing. Quarrel," ," the arrow of a crossbow, may be a little, but a very little, better. It is an odd instrument, whether used practically | or metaphorically, to divorce persons and their pomp, or anything but life and the body. Why should not we adopt a plain sense, and punctuate
Treneglos, Kenwyn, Truro
There were tailors for women in most countries of the West and East, as there still are in many. In London tailors make riding breeches for women. HYDE CLARKE.
THE CHANDOS PORTRAIT OF SHAKSPEARE.The following is from the 'Etymological Compendium,' by William Pulleyn (London, 1828):
"It was first in the possession of Sir William Davenant, who died insolvent, and afterwards of John Owen, actor, bought it. Betterton made no will, and died very his principal creditor. After his death, Betterton, the indigent; he had a large collection of portraits of actors, which were bought at the sale of his goods by Bullfinch the printseller, who sold them to one Mr. Sykes. The portrait of Shakspeare was purchased by Mrs. Barry, the actress, who sold it afterwards for forty guineas to Mr. R. Kech. Mr. Nicol, of Colney Hatch, Middlesex, marrying the heiress of the Kech family, this picture devolved to him. By the marriage of the Duke of Chandos with the daughter of Mr. Nicol, it became his Grace's property, and by the marriage of the Duke of Buckingham into the Chandos family, it now adorns the collection at Stowe."
ROBERT F. GARDINER.
BACON AND SHAKESPEARE.-In Bacon's 'Life of Henry VII.,' ed. Lumby, p. 35, Bacon likens Lambert Simnel's army to a snowball, remarking of it, that "their snow-ball did not gather as it went." In 'King John,' IV. iv. 175, Cardinal Pandulph prophecies that a French army, if once landed in England, would soon be increased, and used the very same image, saying—
Or as a little snow, tumbled about,
From which it follows, as a mere matter of course,
LORD ERSKINE'S PARODY OF HAMLET.'-The following parody of the "closet scene," III. iv.,
Look here, upon this picture, and on this, occurs in a speech made by Lord Erskine, the famous Lord Chancellor, when he sat in the House of Commons for Portsmouth. Speaking on January 12, 1784, in reference to the new Prime Minister, Mr. Pitt, he said ('Lives of the Lord Chancellors, by John, Lord Campbell, vol. vi. p. 421, from "The Parliamentary History,' vol. xxiv. p. 272):— "I never compare in my own mind his first appearance in this House......but I am drawn into an involuntary parody of the scene of Hamlet and his mother in the closet:
Look here upon this picture, and on this:
Dark secret influence, like a mildew'd ear,
ROBERT F. GARDINER.
CHINESE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA. C. U., writing in L'Intermédiaire (the French 'N. & Q.') of January 10, says:—
"Une découverte archéologique faite dans une localité appelée Copan, de l'Etat de Honduras, semblerait confirmer l'opinion que les Chinois auraient découvert l'Amérique dix ans avant Colomb. En effet, cette localité possède un monument en ruine sur lequel on a reconnu une figure sculptée, qui n'est autre que Taï-Ki, l'un des symboles les plus vénérés des Chinois. On pense que le monument de Copan remonte au treizième siècle de notre ère, mais que c'est dès le neuvième siècle que les Chinois et les Japonais ont pour la première fois abordé en Amérique."
The fact is worthy of preservation in N. & Q.,' and perhaps some archeologist this side the Channel may be able to throw further light on the matter. J. B. S.
ANOTHER Blunder in THE TEXT OF SCOTT.MR. C. F. S. WARREN lately noted a blundering correction of Scott's text in Young Lochinvar (7th S. ii. 65). I think I can point out another of like sort. In the description of the battle between the Clans Chattan and Quhele (Fair Maid of Perth,' ch. xxxiv.) it is said, "Arms and legs lopped off, heads cleft to the chine, slashes deep through the shoulder into the breast, showed..... the fury of the combat." So the first edition, 1828. But so early as the edition of 1832, which contains Scott's later preface, dated August, 1831, and therefore, as we may say, under the author's very eye, the word chine is altered to chin. It
cannot be doubted that Scott wrote chine. The phrase has just that flavour of the old romance which he loved; and among modern authors it had quite lately been used by Byron and Washington Irving. Yet the hand of that corrector who knew Scott's mind better than Scott himself, has prevailed. So far as I can find, all later ediC. B. MOUNT. tions retain the reading chin.
"No FRINGE."-May it not be a boon to the antiquaries of a future day, who find themselves puzzled by this frequent intimation in modern advertisements for maid-servants, to discover a note in 'N. & Q.' to the effect that the objection was not to the dress-trimming which has been known as fringe for above five hundred years, but to a mode of dressing the hair which concealed the forehead, by the front hair being cut short and falling over it after the fashion of fringe? Now that this fashion is disappearing, except for children, the word is not seldom applied to an untidy style of massing the hair at the top of the forehead; but this, properly speaking, is a frizzle, not a fringe. HERMENTRUDE.
"ON THE HIGH SEAS."-Might I suggest, if it has not been suggested before, that this phrase does not refer to the high waves seen at sea, but is a mistranslation of the Italian "In alto mare" (Fr. "En haulte mer ")?-for alto in Italian (as altus in Latin) means either high or deep, according to circumstances. I need add nothing as to the extent of Italian or Venetian commerce in old days. The answer to this will depend on the date on which the phrase "high seas" first occurs in English or in Anglo-Latin.
"The King and Parliament are infinitely zealous for the rebuilding of our ruines......Everybody brings in his idea, amongst the rest I p'sented his Matie my owne Conceptions......But Dr. Wren had got the start of me." We read that Evelyn's plans were printed by the Society of Antiquaries, one part being to lessen the declivities "-Ludgate Hill, Holborn, &c.?"and to employ the rubbish in filling up the shore of the Thames to low water mark, so as to keep the basin always full." "There is nothing new under the sun, except that which is forgotten." I may be wrong in surmising Evelyn to have been forgotten as the originator of the embanking of the Thames, but we see no mark of recognition in monument or statue as we hurry along the best road in London.
HAROLD MALET, Colonel.
NUTTALL'S STANDARD DICTIONARY,' NEW EDITION, 1886.-In this revised edition a special stress is laid upon the correct pronunciation of words, and yet the compiler has gone out of his way to ascribe to the Italian letter a a sound which I am sure no educated Italian would tolerate. He employs an a with a dot over it to denote "that the vowel has an open Italian sound, as a-vale (avail); a-wate (await); so-she-a-bl (sociable), &c." And he employs an a with two dots to "indicate a broad open sound, as in father, &c."
Now, every one conversant with Italian knows perfectly well that the sound of a in that language is precisely similar to that of a in the English word father, and quite unlike the short a in await and avail. J. DIXON.
CLERICAL ERROR.-The following clerical error is worth enshrining even in the N. & Q.' museum of literature. It occurs in vol. iii. p. 585, of Howitt's History of England,' "Cowley, in his 'Dandies' aspired to the honour of the epopee." The typical transformation of "Davideis" into "Dandies" is simple enough, but nothing can be more ludicrous. E. COBHAM BREWER.
'EAST LYNNE.-I read in Truth that the plot of Mrs. Wood's 'East Lynne' is absolutely original. This is too much! The story is that an erring wife flees from her husband, and after much suffering returns to die in the presence of her wronged husband. This is also the plot of Scribe's play 'Dix Ans de la Vie d'une Femme,' written at least twenty years before East Lynne,' though, of course, the French dramatist and the respectable English matron treat the subject somewhat differently. 'Frou-Frou' is also an imitation of Scribe's play. I mentioned all this long ago in 'N. & Q., but apparently without effect. E. YARDLEY.
P.S.-I do not feel sure as to the catastrophe, whether Lady Isabel dies in the presence of her husband or not. I do not remember, but I feel convinced that the story is in the main that of 'Dix Ans de la Vie d'une Femme.' I know that I formed this opinion when I read the play and the novel. The subject is almost identical, though there is a diversity of treatment. An abstract of 'Dix Ans de la Vie d'une Femme' appeared in the 'Memoirs of Alexandre Dumas,' a generally known work. 'Frou-Frou' in outline is almost a reproduction of the older play, but less harsh and, to my mind, less forcible. But it must be allowed that if the authors of Frou-Frou' appear to have borrowed their plot from Scribe and his coadjutor, they have borrowed nothing else. The characters and dialogue are their own. But I am repeating much that I said before in your periodical many years ago,
UTRECHT.-The origin of this place-name is somewhat obscured by opposing theories authority telling us that it was the Roman Trajectus ad Rhenum, later the Ultima Trajectum from which U-trecht is directly formed. This view of the matter makes trecht a local corruption of trajectus, cf. traho, tractus, Eng. track. Against this almost conclusive case we have the suggestion of a Teutonic form as Oude Trecht, meaning, we are told, "old ford"; but could the Rhine ever have been fordable at this point? We ought to know the precise historical date when this form of Oude Trecht was current; besides, the German treck, Dutch trek, mean "drag," or "draw." Nor do I find any adequate authority for adding 'ferry" to these meanings. Further, when did such Teutonic forms first spread to Holland? On this head it becomes very important to note that an additional name for Utrecht is registered as Wiltaburg, supposed Slavonic, cf. our own Wiltshire, Wiley, &c. In the time of Dagobert Utrecht was occupied by Frisians. Surely a Slavonic wave of population preceded all forms of Teutonic! and though Flemings and Frisians do now speak such languages, their origin may still have been
I have a fine view of Utrecht Cathedral with an
open-air statue sheltered in one angle of the isolated choir; the inscription is illegible. Who is this male figure, clad in Spanish plate armour, intended to represent ? A. HALL.
PRICES IN 1722.-Excerpta from "His Grace William (King) Ld. Archbp. of Dublin's acct for the month of October (1722) at the Bath and on the Road, with the Expence of the Yatch, &c., Included (by Mr Wm. Green, his Grace's Steward). 4 weeks Tot., 1371. 19s. 9d." Mutton was then 3d. per pound; beef, 23d.; butter, 6d. and 7d. per pound; a fowl, 18. 4d.; a duck, ls. 3d.; a rabbit, 7d.; "" a Larded Hare," 48.; 66 an 100d Oysters," 66 a neck of veal," 4s. 4d.; 1s. 6d. ; a lemon, 2d.; a bottle of wine (not specified), 2s. 6d. 12 Dozen of Hott Well Water and Bottles p. rect, 21. Os. Od.
A pr of Boots for Will Green p. order, 1s. 18. Od.
To the Beggars when yr Grace took Coach, 18. Od.
C. S. K.
DATE OF BISHOPS' NEW TESTAMENT WITHOUT VERSES.-Only two copies of this edition are known to exist-one in Lambeth Palace Library, the other in the Chetham Library, Manchester. The text is the Bishops' version from the quarto of 1569, a revision of the first edition of 1568. The notes, &c., are taken from Jugge's Tyndale of 1552; the epistles from the Old Testament, "as they be