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after His baptism the special maternal tie was loosened, I will not offend by saying dissolved. When one said unto Him, "Behold thy mother and thy brethren stand without desiring to speak with thee," "He stretched forth His hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren." This was not repudiating human ties, but extending them, as only could be done by the representative of mankind.
was it an unsuitable Rebuke (for the words impart no more) that in the business of manifesting his Glory by Miracles she was to leave him to do what he thought proper ?" Supposing the term not to be one by which in the days of the translators any one would have addressed any lady of his family," is it not likely that the translators, wishing to emphasize the rebuke, gave the translation woman, and, afterwards finding the same appellation in the speech from the cross, felt constrained to translate the same Greek word by the same English one? But after all, is it so certain that woman was or is a disrespectful address? It is constantly used now among Scotch servants one to another, and among the English agricultural poor; certainly among equals only, but as certainly without any meaning of disrespect. It is among what we are pleased to call the lower classes" that the old significa-pressed in language of deepest reverence, surely those tion of words lingers longest.
JOHN E. T. LOVEDAY.
Much of this article is beside the point. Woman, in John ii. 4, is simply copied from Tyndale, and Tyndale copied it from Wyclif. The Gothic uses kwino, our queen, in similar cases. The use of lady in Middle English would have been less suitable. Langland and Chaucer use madame as a term of respect; but we can be only too thankful that we do not find madam in our Bibles.
I make no pretence to Greek scholarship, but I have always understood that "What have I to do with thee?" is the only possible English of Tí èuoi Kai σol; Cardinal Newman uses this translation in his Letter to Dr. Pusey on the Irenicon' (original edition, notes, p. 146, published 1866), in which a few valuable remarks will be found on this passsge. In a book, Eutropia,' by Father Pius Devine, a Passionist monk (Burns & Oates, 1880), the question of yúval woman is discussed at p. 323; but, pace Father Pius, I must say that the translations of certain Greek passages at p. 322, bearing on this matter, require revision and correction. GEORGE ANGUS.
The Presbytery, St. Andrew's, N.B.
I cannot conceive a more honourable title than woman. God did not create ladies and gentlemen, but men and women, and from the seed of the woman the Saviour was to come. The term gentlewoman is to me more distinctive than lady, which is now applied without reference to station or circumstances.
If affection and care for another were ever ex
words from the cross, "Woman, behold thy son," and to His disciple, "Behold thy mother," contain all that could be desired. Conventional terms, belonging to polite society, would have been wholly out of place.
Shakspeare and the writers of his age followed, I presume, the fashion of their day; but Walter Scott shows, in the death of Marmion, how the mind turns to the use of the natural generic appellation:
O woman, in our hours of ease,
When pain and anguish wring the brow,
ALFRED GATTY, D.D.
anent the clowns, who only laughed to set on the
When Eve brought wo to all mankind,
ALTAR LINEN (7th S. ii. 345).-As MR. COBBOLD's note upon his two pieces of German altar linen has not at present elicited any reply or further information, perhaps I may be allowed to communicate another note upon two pieces of old linen of the same character in my possession, with the hope that by the comparison of several
examples some definite information concerning such things may be arrived at and recorded. No. 1 is a linen cloth 7 ft. 0 in. long by 6ft. 4 in. wide. The upper edge has a chequy border I in. wide, the sides being finished with a border of arabesques 4 in. wide. A series of scenes are set forth. Scene i. begins in the upper dexter corner of the cloth, and shows a house dimidiated against the side border; immediately below the house Elijah, in loose robes, with a full beard and wearing a Phrygian cap, delivers the child to the widow; she wears an angular head-dress, loose robes, and tight sleeves. Above the head of the prophet is ELIAS; between the two figures, which are 10 in. high,
And over the widow's head are three vases of the usual amphora form. Within an inch of the upper border, and between it and the vases, part of a running stream is shown, which will be explained later on in its proper place. Immediately below scene i. is scene ii. The prophet, dressed as before, is seated under a tree by the side of the brook Cherith, and receives bread and flesh from two ravens flying towards him. Behind him,
ELIAS. II1°. RE. ΟΑΡΙ.
Scene iii. follows close below. Elijah, bare-headed, is seated with upheld hands in a four-wheeled fiery chariot, drawn on clouds by three horses to the sinister. Above him,—
ELIAS IN OVRRV IIII. RE. CAP. II.
Scene iv. represents Elisha in a Phrygian cap, large beard, and full robes, facing to the dexter, and smiting the waters of Jordan with the mantle of Elijah (2 Kings ii. 14); on his dexter side,
Scene v., Elijah, habited as in scene i., is ascending Mount Horeb, bearing a cake in one hand and a cruse in the other; the juniper tree is behind him. In front of his feet,
Scene vi., the altar of Baal is dimidiated against the side border. It consists of a sphinx-like face in the middle, flanked by two bearded monsters or chimeras. It is raised upon a base, upon the blocking course of which is inscribed BAAL. To the immediate sinister of this altar stands Elijah,
who with hands upraised in prayer and with his back turned to the altar of Baal, faces his own altar. This, like that of Baal, is a wide structure with a long panel in the front, and having on the upper course the word ELIAS, afterwards repeated with the letters reversed. Around the altar are flames of fire, and a stream which, surrounding the whole, and flowing fuller and wider in front, impinges upon the amphora-like vases mentioned in the description of scene i.
Thus, it will be noticed, we come to the end of the scenes, and in the storied linen under our notice we only have as much more of the material as will take in the heads and shoulders of the prophet and the widow, the whole abruptly ending with a hemmed edge and finishing without any bottom border.
It will have been observed that Elijah's altar is inscribed in duplicate, and backwards, and that we have described the designs as they run downwards, or vertically. Taking them horizontally from dexter to sinister, from border to border, we have each subject repeated six times, with each alternate picture exactly reversed, thus making a series of set patterns throughout, and adding immensely to the richness of the composition. The whole cloth is apparently decorated in much the same way as MR. COBBOLD's examples; but whether it was made to serve as a fair white linen cloth" I am not at present prepared decidedly to say. Its dimensions and proportions seem hardly proper for the usual purpose, though it might have been suitable enough to cover a small table for the Puritan arrangement of communicants sitting round about it. The cloth is thin, white, and in fairly good condition.
No. 2. This cloth measures 8 ft. 8 in. long by 7 ft. 1 in. wide. It is quite complete, with an arabesque border 51⁄2 in. wide all round; the sides have selvages, and the top and bottom edges are hemmed. As the scenes in this cloth are fewer and more connected than those in No. 1, it will be convenient to describe it by reading it from dexter
Immediately below the upper border is the lower portion of a scene showing the bodies up to the shoulders of huntsmen blowing great horns, dogs, These figures are repeated in pairs three times across the cloth, and form part of a large hunting scene, to which attention will be more particularly called presently.
Scene i. consists of a stately and spacious Palladian palace, showing, in excellent perspective, a vista of courts and buildings, with a gateway at the end. In the front, or fore-court, are flower beds, trimly laid out, and in advance of these is a large fountain flowing into a basin. On either side of the fountain stand a man and a woman, 11 in. high, in full costume, so well and clearly expressed that we can almost date it with certainty to the actual year, 1660. The palace,
garden, fountain, and figures are alternately direct and reversed, so that the scene is symmetrically repeated three times from border to border. The palace, indeed, appears as one long and continuous architectural composition, with capital effect.
Scene ii. represents a hunting lodge in a forest, with numerous dogs and deer in attitudes of active movement. There are two sportsmen, in broadbrimmed hats and full-bottomed wigs, and carrying guns, and two huntsmen or beaters bearing stout staves, and blowing" bloody sounds" from great curved horns with long slender mouthpieces. The
bodies of these beaters have been noticed as
Below is a town with spires, surmounted by the crescent and a gateway and bridge; below these again is a zigzag line of stockades with a man firing a cannon.
This cloth is to commemorate the retaking of Bude from the Turks by Charles, Duke of Lorraine, for the Emperor Leopold I., in 1686. The Turks had held it 145 years. Offen, otherwise called Bude, and Pesth are one town, but on opposite sides of the Danube. ALBERT HARTSHORNE.
occurring at the top of the cloth. The hunting Byron's mistake of using "lay" for lie is one that BYRON, CHILDE HAROLD' (7th S. ii. 366).lodge is a well-proportioned building of two stories has long prevailed. It occurs in Shakespeare's 'A and an attic with dormers in the roof. Its posi-Lover's Complaint,' l. 4:tion in the cloth is directly below the fountain, so that it is three times represented across the linen, together with the trees indicating the forest, the dogs, the deer, the two sportsmen, and the two
Scene i. now comes over again as before, and the cloth finishes with the border as at the top and sides. This piece of linen is in beautiful order and of a soft, brilliant, and glossy texture. The designs are bold and striking, and the sportsmen and animals full of life. It may be mentioned that, owing to the alternate reversion of the designs, the stags and dogs seem to caper and run about in all directions in a most cheerful and amusing way, apparently quite unconscious of the seriousness of the business in hand.
With regard to the nationality of these cloths, the first is possibly of Flemish origin. The other, judging from the costume of the figures, the material, and various details, might perhaps fairly be considered as English work.
I am indebted to Sir Henry Dryden for some notes on an old linen table-cloth in his possession. As this is another, and a dated, example of objects which, from their very nature, must be far from common, its description will find a proper place
The cloth is 7 ft. 2 in. across by 3 ft. 11 in. deep. The sides are finished with a border of military trophies; the upper and lower borders are gone. There is one scene represented six times, direct and reversed, from side to side. In the upper part of the scene is a wreath containing the inscription,
D.G. ROMANORVM IMPERATOR.
Below is the emperor on horseback, facing to the sinister; he wears a wreath, and carries a baton in his right hand. On a line with his head, and in the centre between this and the next (reversed) scene, is the shield of the empire on the breast of a spread eagle, and the orb and cross. Under the horse's feet,
And down I laid to list the sad-tuned tale.
Here laid is used for lay, the past tense of lie. C. Marlow, in his translation of Ovid's 'Elegies,' ii. xii., has :
About my temples go, triumphant bays! Conquered Corinna in my bosom lays. In the 'Boke of Brome,' a common-place book of the fifteenth century, p. 63, the same mistake is made:
A mercy, fader, wy tery ye 80,
And let me ley thus longe on this heth?
F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. the ocean was a favourite piece of recitation. I When I was a young man Byron's address to always spoke the line in question thus :And dashest him again to earth: there let him slay. WM. GURNER.
THE ELEPHANT (7th S. ii. 68, 136, 212, 272). -In the church of St. Mary, Kersey, near Hadleigh, Suffolk, there is a well-executed elephant on the cornice of the north aisle. I cannot say what the material is, as it is covered with whitewash. It occurs in what looks like a long procession of animals, possibly representing the creation, or the exit from the ark. The style of the aisle is perpendicular. WILLIAM DEANE. Hintlesham Rectory, Ipswich.
out from it. Another, and almost more familiar equivalent is, "Ça, c'est de l'ancien Testament!" R. H. BUSK.
MCWILLIAM (7th S. ii. 468).—J. H. G., quoting from the Irish State Papers of 1586, mentions the Burkes, and asks "What is a McWilliam ?" as though a McWilliam were some inanimate object. By referring to Burke's 'Dormant and Extinct Peerage,' p. 66, it will be seen how the McWilliams and the Bourkes were once interwoven. See also FitzPatrick's 'Life of Very Rev. Thomas Burke' (Kegan Paul), vol. i. p. 5.
DATE OF ENGRAVING WANTED (7th S. ii. 447). -Henry Maydman was the author of Naval Speculations and Maritime Politicks: being a Modest and Brief Discourse of the Royal Navy of England,' &c. (London, 1691, 8vo.). The engraving described by Mr. Hankey is prefixed to the volume. In the " 'Epistle Dedicatory to "the Right Honourable Thomas, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery......Primier Commissioner for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of England," &c., Maydman states that
"the Author of these ensuing sheets, approaching
According to Haydn, Thomas, eighth Earl of
occurs, but have an impression it is in one of his
Queen's Coll., Oxford.
DATE OF BIRTH OF RICHARD, DUKE OF YORK (7th S. ii. 367, 471).—I have to thank MR. W. G. STONE, of Bridport, for a most interesting private communication on this subject, which anticipated HERMENTRUDE's answer in last week's N. & Q.' MR. STONE referred me to a MS. in the British Museum, which my friend Mr. P. Z. Round has kindly examined for me. The MS. is No. 6,113 of the Additional MSS., fol. 48 b., which appears to be a contemporary MS. with notes and additions made at slightly later periods; and it would appear from this that the Princess Margaret was born 1471 (the day of the month not given), and that the Duke of York was born Aug. 17, 1472, at Shrewsbury. The entry in the MS. with reference to the Princess Margaret is as follows:"A° D'ni M iiij' and lxxj.
my lady Margarete and Dyed yonge and ys Berryed' at the Auter end fore Saint Edwardes Shryne at Westmester."
The entry as to the birth of the Duke of York is as follows:
"A° D'ni M iiije and lxxij. Was Borne my Lorde Richarde Duke of York at Shrewesbury on the xvijth Day of Auguste.”
I find the following passage on the subject of the young Princess Margaret's tomb in 'The Antiquities of Westminster Abbey,' 1742, fifth edition, vol. i. p. 199:
"Joining to the last, is a little raised Monument of grey Marble, on which was formerly the Image of an Infant engraven on Brass, but now decay'd, or rather taken away: However, there is so much of a Latin Inscription remaining on the Ledge of the Tomb, as informs us, that here lies interred, the body of Margaret,_the Daughter and Fifth Child of Edward IV. King of Eng
land and France, by Elizabeth his Queen. She was born
Margareta illustrissimi Regis Angliæ & Franciæ Domini Edwardi Quarti & Domina Elizabethæ Reginæ, sereHenry Maydman was elected Alderman of Ports-nata fuit 19 Die Mensis Aprilis, Anno Domini 1472; & nissimæ Consortis ejusdem, filia & quinta proles, quæ mouth in 1701; Mayor from Feb. 14, 1711, for obiit 11 Die Decembris: cujus Ánimæ propitietur Deus. the remainder of the year, in place of Henry Amen. Seager, removed by mandamus from the Court of Queen's Bench, "a great political struggle existing at the time." JAMES HORSEY.
[MR. J. INGLE DREDGE refers to Noble's continuation of Granger, i. 277. Other contributors supply the same information as G. F. R. B.]
ORIGINAL OF FRENCH BALLAD (7th S. ii. 488).
Nobilitas & forma, decorque, tenella juventus,
Ut genus & nomen, sexum, tempus quoque mortis,
If the date on this epitaph be the right one, it would seem that Sir John Paston was not in error, but that the Duke of York must have been born in the subsequent year, 1473, as conjectured by your correspondent HERMENTRUDE, in spite of the statement in the MS. quoted above.
8, Bloomsbury Square,
F. A. MARSHALL.
PARAGUAYAN TEA (6th S. xii. 466).-It is to the Jesuits that we owe the introduction of the use of the Paraguayan herb. They exported it so early as the beginning of the eighteenth century, and hence it is frequently called Jesuit's tea :
"In the reign of Queen Anne the London physicians forbade Jesuit's tea as productive of barrenness in men and women, but possibly they were jealous of its origin, although they certainly encouraged the use of Jesuit's bark." Mulhall's Hand Book of the River Plate.'
The herb yerba is cultivated in Paraguay and the neighbouring districts, the yerba of the firstnamed state being considered preferable to that of any other. On being gathered it is scorched and suspended in sheds exposed to a slow wood fire. On the following day the twigs are ground, and it is ready. It is sewn up in raw or untanned hide (hair on the outside), and this hide, being wetted at the time it is used, dries and contracts, rendering the bundle tercio or sobernal, as it is termed, compact. These bundles weigh from 200 to 250 lb. Brazil exports 30,000 and Paraguay 5,000 tons annually.
The gourd from which this tea is imbibed is called the máte, and hence the name applied to the drink itself. This gourd is cultivated in all parts of the country. I noticed that my gardener had placed nearly two hundred to dry in the sun the other day. This gourd is, as a rule, about the size of an orange, circular in shape, a little flat at its sides, and some three inches of the stem is usually left on. brought into the kitchen in the winter, and dries completely in the smoke there. The seeds are then cut out and it is ready for use.
Owing to the fineness of the yerba, the liquid is imbibed by means of a bombilla, a long stem with a perforated bulb, generally made of white metal, though not unfrequently of silver, or even gold. This stem is well embedded in the yerba, warm water is poured over it, and the tea is thus drunk. Men drink it bitter. Women add
sometimes milk. I have never seen lemon-juice used, and I may add that I have been a constant drinker of máte for the past five years.
In the house of the gaucho, or native workman of this country there are certain customs with regard to the use of yerba that are worthy of note. Where five or six are gathered round the fire in the centre of the smoke-begrimed kitchen, the máte is handed round the circle in rotation, served always by the same person. The technical word used is sevar máte (cebar, lit., to bait, to grease, applied in the sense of doughing together the paste formed by the yerba and water and accommodating the bombilla). It is the worst possible etiquette to wipe the mouthpiece of the bombilla when handed to you, or to return the máte only half emptied. As the taste is exceedingly bitter when the yerba is newly placed in the gourd, it is a saying that 66 the fool of the company" drinks the first máte.
"Siempre me toca á mi tomar el primer máte (lit., "I have always to drink the first máte," i. e., "I am an unlucky fellow "). As a beer king in Germany is by his stiff drinking a brave fellow, so is a hearty drinker of máte honoured by his fellows in this country. Not many days ago a woman, com plaining to me of the poor health of her brother, remarked, "En otros años solia tomar tres cebadas* antes de ladrar el cimarront y ya ni ganas tiene !" ("In former years he would drink three replenishings of the gourd before the morning dog bayed, and now he seems to have no desire to drink at all "). We also have the proverb, "Calientar agua para que tóme otro el máte" ("Heat water that another may drink máte," i. e., "Sow that others may reap"). It is a most sustaining beverage, and if one drink seven or eight mátes before sunrise he is better able to resist a day's work and fatigue than had he drunk any quantity of coffee or tea. But it is an acquired taste, and anything but agreeable. The probable reason that it is generally drunk by the people in this country is that they cannot afford anything better, and that its slow process of circulation and imbibing suits their indolent nature. H. GIBSON.
La Tomasa, Cachari, F.C.S., Buenos Ayres.
The notes at p. 409 clearly refer to James Chadwick, who was created Steward of the Honour of Peverel in 1638, and Deputy Recorder of Nottingham in 1642, the Earl of Clare being the Recorder. Chadwick played an important part in local politics, and he had the misfortune to incur the hatred of Mrs. Hutchinson. She abuses him in her usual virulent manner, but there is no doubt that her character of him is grossly distorted. Many notices of Chadwick will be found in her book. Chadwick died in June, 1660. From one of the notes in Mr. Firth's edition of Col. Hutchinson's 'Life' we learn that Chadwick raised a force
LAWYER AND WARRIOR (7th S. ii. 409, 450).—
in the moorlands of Staffordshire, of which he became colonel. Chadwick's description of this command as the office of "Commander en cheife de moorelands in Com. Staff." is somewhat magniloquent. Mrs. Hutchinson states that Chadwick had been a "parcel-judge" in Ireland. It is possible that Chadwick has exaggerated the importance of his judicial appointments in Ireland in the same way as he has done with his military com
W. H. STEVENSON.
His name was Chadwick. He is roughly dealt with by Mrs. Hutchinson in her 'Memoirs' of her husband, the Governor of Nottingham. He
to prepare máte (tech.). A cebada will last out some eight to twelve replenishings of the gourd with water. † Cimarron, a semi-wild dog, yellow in colour, almost extinct now.
* From cebar (Arg. sevar), to grease, to bait, ultimately