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harbour, where they were received Treating of the Codex Argenteus, with the greatest demonstrations p. 484, Dr. Hug is represented in of friendship. Such was the case the translation as making the folwith the sale of Alexandrian com- lowing statement respecting the modities throughout Italy. Ac- way in which Isaac Vossius becording to the course then pur- came possessed of this invaluable sued by this vessel, Paul went relic of antiquity :-" It was then direct into this harbour and no fur- deposited in the Royal Library at ther, either backwards or forwards, Stockholm, and said to have been on land.Here, among other in- given as a present to the celebrated coherencies, we are presented with Isaac Voss, by Queen Christina, the Alexandrian sailors, arranged whose particular favour he enjoyed. in the form of a fleet, and con- Others, however, reverse it, say. ducted into the harbour of Pute- ing, that he himself presented it to oli. Can any thing be more per- her." Here the translator discovers fectly ridiculous ? What the au- his ignorance both of the German thor affirms is, that the “ merchant language and the history of the vessels, sometimes by fleets, and Version in question. Dr. Hug's sometimes singly, entered the har- words are : er habe es sich selbst bour, where the crews, adorned geschenkt, literally, according to with wreaths and festive garments, the German idiom-he presented it were received with demonstrations to himself, i. e, in plain English, of friendship.” Equally unhappy “he stole it,”—a charge actually is the concluding sentence in the brought against Vossius, from the quotation. Certainly no person imputation of which his character would gather from it, that the has never been cleared. author meant to say, that Paul Similar instances might be mullanded precisely at this harbour, tiplied in abundance; an, indeed, and not at any other point, either without having the original at higher or lower, in Italy. Yet hand, the reader never can be certhis is actually wbat is expressed tain that he is put in possession by the original.

of the real meaning of the author. Speaking of Frumentius, the We are the more disappointed by Apostle of Abyssinia, it is said, the present specimen of transla. “he must have thought of a version tion, as we had been led to enof the Sacred Scriptures in the tertain considerable expectations language of the country, if not for from the Museum Theologicum, the use of the nation, yet for the which is projected to “ comprize use of those who attended his mi- the greater part of the biblical nistry," p. 424. The German is, die researches of the continental sich zum Lehramte bildeten—"who scholars ;" and do most seriously were preparing for the ministry." advise the translator, if he wishes

We read, p. 480, in reference to that work to be continued bea the Vulgate; “ Since it happened, yond the first number, to comthat the book met in this state the mence, without delay, a thorough eyes of the public, which was dis revision of his manuscript. We posed to form a strong judgment are equally desirous with himself upon it, upon this let it rest." to see our countrymen put in poy, According to the original the pas- session of many of the treatises sage reads thus : “ How it hap- with which he stands pledged to pened that the book met, in this furnish them; but we had rather state, the eyes of a public which see them kept a little longer in was disposed to form a severe expectation, than obliged to spend judgment upon it, we shall not their time in attempting to dedetermine." o . . .. cipher an obscure and unintelli

gible, because a hasty and negli till ther period at which this volume gent translation."

commences," says Mr. G in his adver

tisement, “ the great leaders among the It is also devoutly to be wished

Commonwealthsmen may be considered as that Dr. Wait would expunge front merely engaged in clearing away obstacles, these works, as they pass through and obtaining an adequate area for redochis hands, those profane and wan

ing their speculations to practice. In the

commencement of the year 1649, they ton passages or phrases with which

abolished kingship and the house of lords: many of them abound, but which

they had no old institutions standing in ought never to find a place in any the way to impede their efforts. Now it work professedly devoted to the was that they were to erect their re

public. elucidation or examination of the

“ But, if there remained no old insti. HOLY SCRIPTURES. We have tutions to thwart their endeavours, the no desire to shut out any light our memory of these institutions still subGerman neighbours may pour upon sisted, and presented a formidable dith

culty with which for them to contead. us; but we deprecate the spirit in

We shall see in what manner they tried which many of their investigations to surmount that difficulty. Their ultiare carried on, and the language mate success was not equal to their which they too often employ in

courage and their talents. But, if they

did not build up a Commonwealth as treativg subjects of such grave

durable as the foundations of the world, and transcendent importance. they at least subdued every declared

enemy, both from within and witbout,

and caused themselves to be respected History of the Commonwealth of and feared by all surrounding uations

England, from its Commence The five years treated of in this rolame, ment, to the Restoration of

may challenge any equal period of English

history, in the glory of its rule, and perCharles the Second. By W. baps in the virine and disinterestedness of Godwin. Vol. 3. 8vo. Price many of its most distinguished leaders." 148. Colburn.

pp. V. vi. Of the two former volumes of Mr. The account of the state o Godwin's work, we have already ties at this crisis, would be esteemrecorded our favourable opinion, ed too long to copy, did we not feel (Feb. 1825, and Sept. 1826,) and

assured, that it will weigh more a few lines, in testimony of our

with our readers, than any comcontinued approval, on the ap

ment from our own pen, to conpearance of a third volume, might, vince them that we have not erred perhaps, have been deemed suffi- in our estimate of Mr. G.'s qualicient. But the period of our na- fications for the task he has untional history which is here illus- der

dertaken, and of the impartiality trated, is one of such powerful he has evinced in its execution. interest; and the events which we have, therefore, extracted then took place, have been, on

nearly the whole of it. all hands, so grossly misrepresented, and so distorted by party " It was a great and perilous experispirit, that we cannot deny our

ment that was made upon the inhabitants

of this country, by the men who, in the selves the gratification of a more

middle of the seventeenth century, reextended notice. Not that it is

solved to communicate to the Englislı naour intention to enter into any tion, the blessiog, such they deemned it, of detail of the events here narrated ; a republican government. We are told of

a dancer, who had been accustomed to but to show our readers, by a few

perform his figure with a chest standing extracts from the volume, that it

against one side of the room, and who is one which well deserves their felt, when the chest was removed, unable attentive. perusal, both as Eng to repeat tbe lesson in which be had been

instructed. Things immaterial and unJishmen and as Nonconformists.

essential are felt by us to be of the utmost The account of the death of importance, where we bave never been Charles closed the former volume. accustomed to do without them: "and,

independently of the question, whether cluded from offices of trust and emolu. monarchy is absolutely a good or an ill, ment, whereas the whole order of the this consideration was of the utmost mo. peers was indiscriminately proscribed. ment in the present instance. It was of " But the entire abolition of tlie House no consequence that the republican leaders of Peers at this time was a proceeding of might be able to persuade a certain qum a very different magoitude. And every ber of their countrymen that their system member of that class must be supposed was excellent. Those who remained un- to have deeply felt this' privation of one convinced were still a clog and an impedi. of the highest honours and privileges, to ment to such as deemed themselves of which by the constitution of tbe govern. more ripened judgment: and it was of ment of their country they were born, tbe last importance to calculate the num- Here was then a body of about one hunbers of tbose who adhered to the old im dred and twenty persons, the richest and pressions, bow tenaciously they would most influential in the community, that resist innovation, and in what degree, were pecessarily rendered, more or less whether with a quicker or slower pro actively, the enemies of the new estacess, they were likely to be brought overblishment, and many of them persons by persons who desired to enlighteu wbo bad taken & distinguished part in tbem.

laying the first foundations of the cbange. " But the Parliament, at the same time A very few of these, (for man is a being that they determined the office of king capable of acis of disinterestedness and to be uónecessiry, voted that the House self-denial; and some might be seduced of Peers was useless. At this period there by a love of singularity, or by inducewere in the list of the peerage, two dukes, ments more powerful than those which two marquisses, fifty.six earls, seven were common to the whole of them as a viscounts, and filly two barons, exclu- body)—A very few of them might sinsively of five persons, eldest sons of cerely unite with the authors of the Comearls, who had been called up by writ to monwealth : others might be led to make that house, and who only added to the a show of neutrality; and the rest awed number temporarily, till they sbould into silence and forbearance, by the tresucceed to the title which they were in mendous power at this time possessed by order to inherit. Many of these persons the regicides and the heads of the army. possessed the amplest estates in the coue But the alienation of mind of so imtry, and were in the receipt of the largest portant a body was no small drawback revenues. A considerable number of them on the probable felicity of the new instituhad taken part with the King in the great tion. breach between him and the Parliament, " When we speak of the extinction of aod, therefore, according to the usual the House of Lords, it is natural at the fate of a defeated party, might expect same time to recollect the lords spiritual, for a time, but not always, to be ex- or order of bishops, twenty-six in nomcluded from their honours and influence in ber, who were not only deprived of their the state : they might expect it; but it privilege, as members of the great council, does not follow that they would be con- but they had also lost by the change that tented under this eclipse. They would had taken place, the greater part of their naturally, under any ordinary change, emoluments and rereques. If we add to have looked forward to a gradual restora these the remainder of the bierarchy, deans tion.

and chapters, archdeacoas, caoons, pre" But there was a considerable portion bendaries, and the whole body of the inof the ancient nobility, and some of them ferior clergy, we shall find them ainouot. of the most extensive fortunes, who, in ing to a considerable army. It is true the very cominencement of the breach, the majority of the nation was at this time had frankly taken part with the com- anti-episcopal; and it was, therefore, to mons, bad fought under their standard, be expected that their greatness and prosbad taken command in their armies, and perity should cease with this change of bad accepted civil offices, which con- opinion. But they were not less the deferred on them bonours and emoluments; termined enemies of the new order of but at the same time demanded from them things ; tbey considered their cause as the conscientious discharge of duties, the cause of God, and were bent to ens. upon which the success of the public ploy all the advantages they derived from cause more or less depended. The pass learning, and all the influence they pos. ing of the self-denying ordinance in 1645, sessed over their followers, for the de. for the present, at least, put an end to struction of the present system. this. It was felt at the time that this “ As far as religion was concerned, the ordinance fell with an undue weight on English nation was divided at this time the peerage, since, of the order of men into episcopalians, presbyterians, indem constituting the commons of England, pendents, and a numerous tcrd of sects! only a few persons, such as had been apd fanatics. The episcopal party was chosen to represent the whole, were ex. inextricably bound up with the royalists and they fell together, subdued, not ex- qualities principally, that they effected tinguished. Hope and zeal still inspired the great change, and placed a select par. and animated their bosoms. The pres- liament of one hundred and fifty meb is byterians, more numerous than they, had the supreme legislative authority, in the the present ecclesiastical establishment room of a house of commons of fire hus. moulded for the most part according to dred and six, wliich, with the king, and their will, and were in possession of a the house of lords, held a dirided rule ia vast majority of the sacred edifices, and November 1640."- pp. 25, 26. the church revenues of the country. But On looking for a few passages they were defeated as a political party,

ht sufficiently detached to be quoted and felt therefore scarcely less animosity s cienny detached to be quoted to the present rulers than the episcopa- without injury, we were almost lians did. They were also royalists as intuitively led to our author's well as the episcopalians, though after a account of the extraordinary pubdifferent fashion. They to a man adhered to the house of Stuart, aud desired

lication of Salmasius, and the rethe restoration of Cbarles the Second; ply of our admired Milton ; but but upon stipulated and defined condi- we have not left ourselves space tions, and upon terms considerably similar for so long an extract. Neither to those which had been offered to his father in the Isle of Wight.

have we room to quote another

ho Besides the inherent strength and im. passage, which we had marked, portance of these parties, they were both affording particulars of those of them rendered additionally formidable measures favourable to civil and from the irritation they felt at the unpre

political freedom, for which we cedented way in which they had been defeated, and all their energies laid pros

are indebted to the long parliatrate, by the superior talents, and courage, ment,- the writ of habeas corpus; and audacity of their conmon enemy. the tenure of the judges, quanThe royalists have been driven to despera

diu se bene gesserint; (which the tion, for the head of the sovereign bad rolled on the scaffold. The presbyterians

Tories, with their wonted accuhad just voted, that the king's concessions racy and liberality, attribute to were a sufficient ground for settling the George the Third !) the assertion peace of the kingdom, when the army the of religious toleration, " that every next morning took possession of the capital, and seized forty-one of the mem

man should be free to worship bers of the bouse of commons, who were God according to the dictates of most obnoxious to them, while their his conscience; and by conseleaders proceeded with the same steadi

quence, whenever a certain numDess, solennity, and unaltered resolution to complete the catastrophe, as we might

ber of men agreed together to have expected from them, if there bad worship after a given mode, they not been a man in the country who dis. were at liberty to chose their own approved, or was in opposition to their

preacher and church officers, and measures."-pp. 17 - 22.

to arrange their ceremonies and " Never therefore did any governors

forms unmolested.” (Pp. 503-4.) enter upon their functions under more &c.—But we are the more conforinidable difficulties, than the men who tent with a mere reference, from now undertook to steer and direct the

the hope that our readers will vessel of tbe new Commonwealth. Tbey were, in a certain sense, a handful of men,

hasten to peruse a work of such with the whole people of England against

interest. them. Their hold on the community The character of Lilburne is adwas, by their religious sentiments, those mirably sketched. of the independents, by the rooted aversion of many to the late king and bis " The first interruption of the security family, by the sincere terror that was of the newly constituted Commonwealth, felt of the ascendancy either of the epis- arose from an apparently trivial source, copalian or presbyterian party, and the de- but for a short time seemed to threaten vont adherence of a respectable set of very serious consequences. The author of mi to the principles of religious toleration. the disturbance was Jobo Lilburde; and The character also of the leaders did the mischief assumed the shape of a mo. wonders. Scarcely has there existed a tiny in the army. He was singularly qua. body of more eminent statesmen, than lified for the business wbich be pow naCromwell, Ireton, Bradsbaw, Marlen, dertook. His fearlessness of temper and Vabe. It was by their personal never failed to supply him with a flow of

words, that he could pour out without ap- byterians (pp. 757-260), from prehension in the face of the most formi- the ch

the charge of “inconsistency, in dable adversary. His strong understanding enabled him to furnish his duller

first having been the authors of and more harren avditors with topics, in the civil war against Charles the which they were eager to become perfect, First, and then disclaiming, with and thus assisted them, at second hand, vehemence, the measure of bringing to astonish other hearers still inferior to

him to trial, and putting him to themselves. He was therefore every way fitted to be a demagogue.

death on the scaffold,” is just and "Here we have a striking example manly; but is not very likely to how far it may be in the power of an in obtain for the writer any honoursignificant individual to disturb the pro

able distinction from them as a defoundest counsels. Lilburne was a man of some family, but be had long since dig. fender of their faith. “ The fault played a character which made it impos. of the Presbyterians,” says Mr. sible for persons of discernment to unite G.“was, that, while they sought with or assist him. He was endowed with considerable talent, and a higli degree of

superiority and establishment for courage. He feared no man, and he re

themselves, they were disposed verenced no man. His comprehension in rigorously to deny all toleration to politics was of the narrowest sort; but those who conscientiously differed that very circumstance tended to make

from them in religious opinions. bim proceed right onward, without misgiving or doubi. He had enough of reli

This appears to the liberal appregion to induce him to value bimself as a hension of modern times, an enorsaint, the favourite of the author of the mous error.” How strange an universe. He prided himself upon shewing a sovereign contempt for all those de.

anomaly is presented to us in this cencies and distinctions that society is ac

picture of persecuting Protestants. customed to regard with deference. He They protest against popery, deny was a man of fervent passions; he loved the infallibility of the Romish his wife, his kindred, and his blood; and he hated, with a hatred that knew neither

church, and claim, as their natural moderation nor limit, those that offended

privilege, the right to think for bim, or kindled his displeasure. He loved themselves in matters of religionliberty according to his conception of matters which have so important liberty; but by liberty he understood merely a freedom for himself and others

an aspect on their own personal from the control of arbitrary will. He responsibility ; yet, at the same therefore did not prefer one political con- time, they arrogate to themselves stitution to another; and neither aimed by their acts, if not in words, as at, nor bad any conception of, the ad

perfect a freedom from fallibility vancement of the social character of mankind. His was a patriotism of passion

as was ever claimed by a successor only; and, like the satirist on record, it of St. Peter; uphold their own as was rage that put the sword of war, the the only true church, and persesword of justice, (as he termed it,) or the au

cute, even to death, those who ask sword of assassination, (for this, at least, was his plaything and his boast, though he that right of private judgment on never proceeded to actual perpetration,)

led to actual perpetration) which their own creed is prointo bis hand. He was no true patriot ; fessedly built. for he never thought of looking to ends, Mr.Godwin's remarks on the chabut to rules of privilege and law, which he deemed ouglit never to be dispensed

racter of our countrymen, at that with. He was no true patriot; for again period, as warriors, and the causes and again be offered to abandon his which co-operated in its production, country upon terms of personal compro. although we are friends to peace, mise. He looked with too keen an eye to bis own profit and loss. He began with a

have much pleased us. Having fulness of tone, and an inflexibility of detailed the results of Blake's temper that promised never to yield; but memorable victory over the Dutch, when he clearly saw an abundant harvest off the Isle of Portland, the of pure disadvantage to himself, his perse. verance once and again gave way to a

chapter closes with the following

on concession little in accord with the mag- animated passage: nificence of his outset."--pp. 44-47.

"This, one of the latest of the repubMr. G.'s defence of the Pres- lican battles, must not be dismissed with

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