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ness to support themselves and alone. For, in the first place, your list their families.
of churches is avowedly, and, for the I think the suggestions of Vigil present year, unavoidably incomas to the means of counteracting plete; and, secondly, from the face this growing evil of considerable im- of that very list, it is evident that portance, and in addition to them, a lamentable destitution of minisallow me to ask,- .
ters exists, and that years must 1st. Whether the term of study elapse before the actual supply of in those institutions, where it is now our colleges can repair the present three or four years, ought not to be deficiency. And then there reextended to six ?
mains in England alonè much land 2d. Whether any student, ex- to be possessed. A few years will cept under very peculiar and show, I trust, that our denominaurgent circumstances, ought to tion is at present but in the infancy leave the institution until the full of its proportions. term of study be completed ?
It may be a fact, “ that there CANDIDUS. are many ministers of irreproach
able character at this time unable GENTLEMEN — Your correspon. to obtain pastoral engagements," dent Vigil has touched a very de- but it is not true that this difficulty licate string, but as the subject is arises from the actual repletion of one of considerable importance to our churches. Many stations, exthe honour and efficiency of our re- ceedingly interesting and imporligious community, I may be per tant, are suffering incalculably mitted a few words in reply. That from the want of ministers; and Vigil has not intentionally con- nothing, perhaps, operates more cealed from himself or his readers powerfully to prevent the immeany facts, which relieve the dismal diate settlement of such ministers picture he has drawn, I readily and churches, than their mutual own; but can scarcely believe that poverty. his ingenuity was displayed, for Were accurate returns of destiany other purpose than to give the tute churches and disengaged mi. worst features of the case. For nisters forthwith to be made, the assuming that the exact number of number of churches would greatly our churches is 1072, and that our preponderate. Such lists, on vadirect academic supply for 28 rious accounts, would be valuable, years is 1162 ministers, and even if they could be constantly filed conceding that the indirect re- at some honourable but accessible sources are yet more abundant than depository. In addition to these Vigil would represent, it would considerations, Vigil cannot be ige even then be found that the ordi- norant that many students and minary demands of an increasing po- nisters, educated for British serpulation would more than consume vice, have become missionaries, the ordinary supply which Vigil and from the properly increased calculates our colleges to yield. conviction of the magnitude of misThe memoirs of any considerable sionary operations, it would seem number of ministers will clearly that this direction of rising talent prove, that 28 years is a very will often occur. And here, Genhigh average for the period of mi- tlemen, allow me for a moment to nisterial labour. I will, however, advert to the illiberal policy of the allow even thirty years as a fair committees of some of our dissenting average of ministerial existence, colleges, who demand that the exand then I will contend, that our pense of a student's board and edu. existing colleges are not adequate cation be refunded, if he prefer mis. to the supply of British churches sionary to British labours. I call the policy illiberal, because it assumes It is inconsiderate to the young that a national or geographical men, and is an imposition on publimit must bound the labours of lic time and property. students, while, in fact, reason Query 3d. Whether tutors and and Christianity alike condemn collegiate committees ought not to distinctions so arbitrary. Happy reduce the number of students should I be if this notice should under their patronage? Certainly prevent the repetition of those not; unless, as a Christian denoexorbitant demands which have mination, we are anxious to relinbeen made on the private purse of quish our present stations, to the individual, or the public funds forego the widely extending opof the Missionary Society. But portunities, which annually occur, to the point in hand; and it will of establishing churches at home, be necessary only to advert to or to withdraw from the mighty Vigil's queries to educe all that conflict in which we are engaged the subject further requires. with the powers of darkness in
Query 1st. Whether a new es. every nation under heaven. If tablishment in a midland county we wish to maintain these objects be necessary? I reply, no; and with the vigour and success they my reasons are, first, our present demand, then ought we immehouses are not filled. An institu- diately and almost indefinitely to tion, within ten miles of both the increase the number of our stucounties of Derby and Notting- dents. The nations of the earth ham, and which, of course, could are directing their attention to us; answer every purpose necessary we have awakened their inquiries, for the midland counties, at this and woe be to us if we mock their very hour contains ten students spiritual wants. No possibility of less than it is calculated to accom- a surplus ministry can ever occur; modate; and therefore, secondly, but I am serious when I say, that till our existing establishments, we ought to dread a famine of the which are under the direction of word of God. Our existing colmen of distinguished talent and leges experience painful neglect, worth, are properly supplied, it and exhibit the sad reverse of would be highly indecorous and those evidences of a revival of reliextravagant to found new colleges. gion, which the biographer of Let justice be done to others, and Dwight asserts have always octhen one of the midland counties curred in the United States. If might be selected with admirable the number of rising ministers, effect to the interests of religion for and the extensive support of col. a new college.
legiate establishments be the index Query 2d. Whether pastors cf religious feeling, then, surely, is should not be more cautious in that feeling exceedingly low. Let recommending candidates to the Vigil, then, and every man of incolleges ?
fuence and respectability, draw I thank Vigil most cordially for the attention of our congregations this hint, for the evil implied is to the present state of affairs, and deeply to be deplored. Nothing let each ask whether more ample surely can be more cruel than to and regular support cannot be send young men to enter on given to our colleges, and whether, studies, for which, in some cases, especially, no method can be deas I know, they are morally, phy- vised to increase the number and sically, and mentally disqualified. efficiency of our religious acaNothing can palliate the conduct demies for pious youth. of some ministers on this head. The present state of society and
the world requires great things, additional means are supplied, it is let us attempt them, and for ever to be calculated, that at the end disregard the tones of a cold and of the year, there will yet remain desponding calculation.
nearly 80 churches without pastors. . I am, Gentlemen, The demand will still farther inYours very respectfully, crease, if the zeal of former years
E. D. WARD. does not abate in the erection of May 11, 1827. :
new places of worship; for it is gra
tifying to find in the reports of the GENTLEMEN,,In regarding the several academical institutions, moral and spiritual condition of that of the number of students who society in general, I have hitherto yearly finish their course of prebeen induced to consider that a full paratory education, many go forth exemplification is afforded of the to supply fresh stations, and to scriptural declaration ; “ the har- plant new churches. And I prevest truly is plenteous, but the la- sume, when the state of society is bourers are tew;" and have prayed considered, and the vast pumber therefore to the Lord of the har- of persons who are necessarily vest, that he would send forth living without the means of Chrismore labourers. I find, however, tian instruction is contemplated, in your last number, that the lucu- your correspondent will not think brations of a vigilant correspondent that the number of Congregational have set the matter in a new light, Churches has attained to its desired and that he would persuade us that maximum. We are told, however, there are now too many labourers. that there are many ministers of May I be allowed to say, in re- irreproachable character, at this ference to the statements and cal. time unable to obtain pastoral enculation's adduced, that I consider gagements; this, I doubt not, is them to be entirely fallacious. very true; but this may, in many The number of Congregational instances, (I do not say in all,) Churches, as taken from the list have resulted from irreproachable which you have furnished in your character having been almost Supplement, is 1,072, of these, I exclusively considered as the quafind about 80 are marked as being lification for the Christian minisdestitute of pastors, besides others, try, whilst the possession of an which are supplied jointly with aptitude to teach, and the necesneighbouring societies. Now the sary talents for the discharge of number of Theological Students ministerial labours have pot been in the different Academies, which sufficiently regardled. I rejoice, your correspondent has enume- however, to know, that though rated, is 166; of whom, consi- this mistake may have been made dering the term of academic in- formerly by the managers of our struction to be four years, 41 will Theological Seminaries, an imporbe prepared in the course of the tant improvement has recently year to meet the demand made taken place, and whilst piety is upon them by these 80 churches, regarded as it ever should, as a leaving half the number still des- sine qua non, examination is also titute. If, in addition to this, we made as to the gifts as well as the consider the average term of mi- graces possessed by the applicant nisterial labour to be 28 years, we for admission. must expect that from these 1,072 With regard, then, to the queschurches, a further demand will tions with which your corresponarise, in the course of the year, dent concludes, I would answer for 38 pastors, so that, unless some the first by saying, let our churches by all means pause, nothing should is recognised as explicitly, if not as be done rashly; but whilst they extensively, where science and repause, let them consider the nunc finement have never dawned, as bers who are perishing for lack of where they have reached their knowledge, and the paucity of in- zenith. There are on record many structors, and let them do all they striking instances of the power of can, and increase the amount of eloquence. It has won victories faithful labourers.
more astonishing than any that To the second I would say, were ever won by the force of I have no objection that an in- arms; and wrought effects far surcreased caution should obtain in passing all that has been wrought the recommendation of candidates by the other talents and faculties to the several colleges. But let pasof man. We need not wonder at the tors and churches beware how they effects said to have been wrought prevent those, on whom God has by eloquence in ancient times, nor bestowed necessary qualifications, at what we may have witnessed or from entering into a work for felt ourselves; for eloquence is the which those qualifications, with combination of excellence in all the abounding need of the world the faculties of the mind, and in at large, form an imperative call. the gift of speech, that noblest of
And, therefore, thirdly, I would bodily endowment, which the bard say, rather than the number should of Israel pronounced the glory of be reduced, I think urgent de- our frame. What force and point mands present themselves, in the does it give to reason, what a soul condition of our perishing fellow does it infuse into truth! Contrast creatures, to use every effort to the same sentiments uttered by two increase the number of those to different tongues. The one is the whom the benefits of such pre- landscape in winter, the other, the paratory education might be af- same landscape in joy-inspiring forded, and the churches of Christ spring. There are the same trees furnished with a suitable succession and rivers, the same hills and of educated and holy men for the vales, the same earth and sky, but work of the ministry.
yet the scenes are not the same, I am, Gentlemen,
and the effects upon human feelings Yours respectfully, are vastly different.
But though, strictly speaking,
there is only one kind of true eloTHE TRUE ELOQUENCE.
quence, yet in the common lan
guage of men, there are many vaThe gift of speech is a wonder- rieties of this magical gift. It is ful and most valuable faculty. Of not easy to set up a standard that all the bodily properties which the shall meet all opinions, or to give Creator bas bestowed upon us, a definition that shall include the there is, perhaps, no one, with ideas of the various parties who which the pleasures of life, and profess to admire and to feel elothe enjoyments of human society quence. Much, however, that are so closely connected. But pleases one class of men is diseloquence of speech-that high de- gusting to another; and he who is gree of this faculty by which man eloquent among the populace, is enabled to express his thoughts would be esteemed a babbler in the clearest and most impressive among the educated and the crimanner, has always commanded tical. Yet whatever in speech admiration. ' It is a quality felt obtains a general ascendancy over by savages as well as sages; and the minds and feelings of men, must be admitted to be eloquent, other express itself in its own way though it may not be of the purest will be the best eloquence for every kind nor in the highest degree. man. There is a native charm in There is an artificial or affected truth, and an enchanting power in attainment, not destitute of power, genuine feeling, which makes which some men have acquired, them, when united, powerfully and and which appears to possess the extensively commanding. Edulowest pretensions of all the dif- cation, as the word imports, is the ferent kinds of eloquence. It is leading forth or development of the ambition of little and sopbis- nature's own powers, not the acticated minds. It deals in every quisition of an artificial abstrusething but simplicity and nature. ness in conception and affectation With minds similarly constituted in feeling. The simple-hearted, it has great influence, and becomes truth-enamoured speaker, is the their supreme standard, their uni- man that wins the heart. His versal test. It is imposing, but style may be plain and artless, but shallow in its pretensions. Op- it is efficient. Without rhetoric, pressed with weight of ornaments, and without high-wrought emotion; but deficient in weight of senti- without a laboured quaintness, or ment. Of this showy attainment an equally laborious polishing, it it has been well said by an old makes its way directly to the writer, it makes all its discourses heart; it speaks in a sort of unilike those pictures of Helen, versal language which is common which were all of gold. There is to human nature every where, and nothing but drapery to be seen. which reveals itself to the soul by There is such a redundancy of its own light and power, like nadress, that you cannot distinguish tural signs—they need no index. the foot from the hand, or the head Such was the eloquence of Jesus from the shoulder; or there is such Christ; apart from all considean excess of splendour in the attire, rations of the spiritual influence that the beauty of the form, and of which he could command, there the human face divine are lost. was an eloquence in his words Such talents may subserve the which was the very perfection of cause of error, but they are totally truth and of natural feeling. There unworthy of the better cause with are effects recorded of his elowhich they are not unfrequently quence which transcend every combined. Truth is caricatured, thing recorded of the words and and its real friends disgusted by sayings of every other being that seeing it made only a secondary ever had the gift of speech. object, while the display of the “ Never man spake like this man," orator's eloquence and genius are was the exclamation of a party of evidently foremost in his own officers which had been despatched thoughts, and must necessarily be by public authority to take him so in his auditors'. Truth in the into custody ; but who returned to humblest russet garb is surely their employers with this answer, more pleasing, and far inore likely being themselves in bonds to the to engage the hearts that are worth power of his eloquence. His the winning, than when thus assi- themes were the most interesting, milated to the bedeckings and be- his knowledge the most profound, seemings of a harlot. There is his authority the most commanding, power enough in truth, and elo- and his manner the most courteous quence enough in the vatural feel- and engaging. If the standard of ings of the heart; to let the one pulpit eloquence were placed in an shine by its own light, and the approximation to the words of our