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culties as in severe climates. Till the whole Last year a part was trimmed early and a part subject is better understood, such must in their late, and that pruned late made but little
growth during the summer. very nature form the best popular safeguards. 1 H. N. Langworthy had found that pruning Alas that such should be so few and widely pear trees when growing, always checks and
often stops growth altogether. If large limbs scattered! The trial of faith and patience and
are taken off old trees about the first of April, endurance has been in a great majority of bleeding ensues and the wood decays; but if cases too o severe and so the great evils remain done in April, the wood seasons before the sap
moves, and remains sound. as yet in a very great measure uncorrected.--|
Mr. Hooker agreed with Mr. Langworthy We have always argued, (as we know must be and Mr. Ellwanger, and thought the best time right,) that it is idle to attempt to grow orch
grow orch. I for removing trees was the present, or about
| the middle of winter. ards where nurseries cannot be successfully reared.
| What! "Sixty Bushels of Blackberries ?" And now having striven to point out the So says a correspondent (A. G. Hanford) wrong path, let us briefly sketch the right was raised in “Michigan" the past season and one. 1st, For any orchard or nursery plant- brought "in Chicago five dollars per bushel. ing, for any change of locality with trees or Three Hundred Dollars per acre!” A-stonishplants especially to more trying climates, let ing(?) And argues that “with a little care, all stress be laid on getting only of the very | all might add this delicious fruit to their garhardiest varieties and the most perfect speci-dens." Why? Because Col. Crocker succeeds mens—sound, fresh, well-rooted, low-headed, admirably with them in Milwaukee. Now, Mr. free from noxious vermin--to be planted out Editor, we are somewhat skeptical in some in the spring.
branches of fruit-growing, and it often grieves
and plants as near home as possible.
ferred to from our mutual friend, published on F. K. Phoenix.
page 57, Feb. No. It has a wrong impression BLOOMINGTON, III., Feb. '62.
-does more harm than good. The import of Best Time for Pruning.
it is that Mr. Merritt in Michigan grew a fine [At the Annual Meeting of the Fruit Grower's Society of
crop; Col. C. in Milwaukee, only across the Western New York, the following discussion was held
lake, did also ; and any one by laying down in relation to the important work of pruning.)
the canes north of Egypt can be like successV. - What is the best form of an Apple tree, and which is the time for pruning ?
ful. Would to the credit of the State, climate Mr. Huntington said that in his early days and soil, they might,-but such is not the he grafted a great many thousand trees, and had to take off many large limbs. In many
case-in my humble opinion. No sir, it is no orchards large limbs had been taken off by more designed as a fruit for the million (comthe axe previously, and he always noticed that pared to currants, gooseberries and strawberlimbs removed in the winter or early in the spring healed badly, often causing rot; while
ries upon the western prairies) than Mr. Chamthose taken off when the leaves were out heal- berlain's “moss baskets” of fruit are for every ed rapidly, forming a lip of bark around the novice of an amateur. Our soil and climate are wound, and apparently without injury to the tree.
not the thing. We have watched its progress Mr. Elwanger had found the latter part of from its first introduction at the west ; voted winter the best time to prune. The wound
it up and voted it down again, and down it then becomes calloused, and there is no bleeding; but later in the season, when the buds seems to us it is destined to be to the majority begin to swell, if limbs are removed, bleeding of the State. In isolated localities where it often results and the wood becomes injured and often rots. If trees are pruned when in way or does suco
in may or does succeed, mark it as the exception leaf, growth is arrested for the season.
and not the rule. A strip of land along the Mr. Fish agreed with the previous speaker, I lake usually but a few miles wide, is found and recommended pruning in the winter.
Mr. Sharp, the year before last, trimmed a quite desirable for fruits of every class. In pear orchard early, and got a good growth.- the village of Waukegan last summer we saw
the Lawton, as Mr. H. terms it, “immensely of a few inches, it must be tied to a stick, and full,” equaling anything seen in Western N. Y.
Pastorn Nycare must be taken to tie every two or three
inches of growth to this stick, or a high wind about the same time. We also saw plants in / will break the plant or bend it to the earth and Milwaukee which promised all that was desi- destroy its beauty. An awning of thin muslin rable. A few miles inland at Waukegan, be found of much benefit in prolonging the pe
stretched over the bed in bright sunshine, will not more than eight or ten, the Lawton is riod of bloom. voted a “humbug," and plants dug up as cum The culture of Hyacinths in pots in the berers of the ground. A friable clay soil, well green-house or parlor is easy and satisfactory,
as with proper treatment the bloom will be drained, seems to suit their nature. .
finer than in out-door cultivation from the ease An immense amount of money has been ex- with which the flowers can be protected from pended for the Lawton in Wisconsin, and we
storms and other causes tending to injure
them. The present is the proper time for would now dislike to see such inducements planting in pots for winter bloom. The size of held out as to lead people to think that by the pots used should be about five inches in
diameter for single bulbs, and six or seven simply covering the plants, such a “fortune"
inches for two or three bulbs. The soil may can so soon be realized. We have advised consist of equal parts of good loam, leaf-mould hundreds to this effect during the past two and sharp sand. The pots should have an
abundance of drainage, and the bulbs planted years. The day has come that Nurserymen so that the tops
so that the tops may be about half an inch beand Fruit-Growers are looked to as a kind of low the rim. After planting they should be “Fruit God,” and it behooves them to mark
ir kthoroughly watered and set away in a cool,
dark place until leaf growth has commenced. well their doings, as well as to have an eye to The object of this is to facilitate the formation the justice of the hereafter, and not always of roots before the commencement of growth
above ground. If kept in a light and warm cater to “the popular taste" in supplying
in supplying place at first, the leaves would immediately high headed trees, when “we believe, fruit commence their growth, deriving their suptrees of all kinds are greatly to be preferred port from the bulb instead of the ground, thus
weakening it very much, and from which it with them quite low." 0. S. WILLEY.
would not recover so as to flower another year.
When the leaves have made a growth of an Hyacinths.
inch or two they may be brought into the
green-house or room, kept near the light, and Of hardy bulbs the Hyacinth stands deserv-l if early flowering is not desired, in a cool place edly in the front rank. While the tunp 18 with abundance of ventillation. If they are more showy, the Hyacinth adds to great beau- desired to bloom early, they must be kept ty the quality of delicious fragrance, in which closer and warmer, Bulbs that have been the Tulip is wanting. There are three meth
planted in pots once should not be used again ods quite commonly adopted in the cultivation
for that purpose, but may be planted in the of the Hyacinth; in glasses, pots, or the open border the next season, where they will do border. For the open border, the manner of well thong
well, though not as well as fresh bulbs, as they cultivation is the same for Tulips. In al
are somewhat weakened by forcing. thoroughly prepared bed, open and airy, but
f! In cultivating Hyacinths in glasses, dark sheltered from cold winds, a fine assortment of Hyacinths will give much satisfaction. The colored glasses should be selected, as the roots
of all plants dislike and avoid the light. following arrangement of colors we find in the of
Fill American Agriculturist for October, credited
the glasses with soft water to within a quarter to a British source.
of an inch of the bulb, but not touching it.
They must now be set in some dark, cool place Dark White Light
until the roots have travelled half the distance Dark Light Waite. Red. Blue. Red.
to the bottom of the glass, when they should
Dark be removed to a light and airy place. The Red. Red.
water should be changed every fortnight, Light Dark !
Dark | Light Yellow!
using for this purpose water which bad stood Blue. Red.
in the apartment at least twelve hours, to enDark Light | Dark
sure that it shall be of the same temperature Blue. Blue. Red. Blue.
as that thrown out of the glasses. The roots Light Dark
sometimes become foul; when this is the case Blue.
the bulb with its roots must be drawn out of Light
the glass, and washed with great care in a ba
sin of clear water. When the roots are clean When the flower-stock has attained a height they must be replaced with a great deal of
White. / Light
pains to avoid breaking them. When the cut out the old canes. Three to four thousand flower stems begin to appear the glasses must | quarts may be regarded as a fair average be frequently turned to keep the stems straight, as they always turn to the light. The vigor of yield per acre. The improved black raspberthese bulbs is very much weaked when grown ry is now becoming quite abundant, and plants in glasses, so that they may be considered as
may be obtained of most nurserymen and at a useless afterwards.
G. B. .
very moderate "price. A. G. HANFORD. The Doolittle or Improved Black Raspberry. | Columbus, Ohio. A variety of the common black cap selected
THE BEE KEEPER. and improved by cultivation. It is perfectly hardy, thrives under garden culture and in
Care of Beos in March. any good corn land; is very productive com
So long as the cold winter weather lasts, mences to ripen just after strawberries are bees should be disturbed as little as possible. gone; and continues in use for two weeks or
They must not be allowed to starve, however, more.
while waiting for the honey-gathering season Though not of the highest flavor it is a very
to come. It may be well, therefore, to heft the good dessert berry, excellent for cooking and
hive, as the Hoosiers would say, in order to best of all for drying. From its juice a very
determine whether it be empty of honey ; in agreeable wine is made.
which event, a sufficient quantity of sugar Like the Wilson's Albany among strawberries
candy should be put in their way. It will also and the Concord among grapes, this is emi
be well when the first warm spell comes-warm nently the farmer's berry, bearing neglect and
enough to tempt the bees out into the sunshine thriving with the simplest culture.
-to clean off the bottom board and put the As a market berry we know of none which
"hive generally in a cleanly condition. The affords so sure returns for the required outlay,
bees will be thankful for it and will thrive the fruit is easily gathered, bears carriage
correspondingly well. . well, and is of ready sale in our cities and
For the reason that breeding usually comvillages.
mences early in the spring, it is well to supply For field culture, manured, if the soil is not
the bees with a quantity of dry, rye flour, to already rich, and ploughed deep, depth and
serve them instead of pollen. It may be put richness being the sine quanon, now in raspberry
in shallow troughs about the hive. When a culture. Set the plants 3} feet apart in rows
pleasant day comes they will be very likely to 7 feet apart. Young plants produced from
find where it is and carry load after load into the tips are best, two or three in a hill. The
their workshops. roots should be carefully spread out and cover
Upward ventilation should be shut off as ed half an inch deep, being careful not to in
soon as the severe weather of winter is fairly jure the young sprouts.
over. The first season a row of corn or other hoed crop may be grown between the rows, after
Axioms for Boo-Koopers. which the whole ground will be needed by the Langstroth, in his work one “The Hive and canes. Keep the ground loose and free of Honey-Bee,” lays down the following axioms, weeds by the use of cultivator and hoe. Early which may well be treasured up by overy in summer mulch heavily about the hills, suffi- keeper of bees : cient to keep down the weeds, with corn stalks & 1st. Bees gorged with honey never volunteer or strong manure. When the canes have at-|
2d. Bees may always be made peaceable by tained the higt of 34 feet, nip the ends, which inducing them to accept of liquid sweats. will cause the growth of strong side roots. In 3d. Bees, when frightened by smoke, or by
drumming, fill themselves with honey early spring, shorten these to three or four
and lose all disposition to sting, unless eyes each. After the bearing season is over they are hurt.
4th. Bees dislike any quick movements about 6. Complete set of pendulum experiments.
their hives, especially any motion which 6. Sets of magnetic experiments at Port jars their combs.
Foulke, Cape Isabella, in Whale Sound at Up6th. Bees dislike the offensive order of sweaty ernavik and Godhavn.
animals, and will not endure impure air! 7. Topographic and hydrographic survey, from human lungs.
including tidal observations. 6th. The beekeeper will ordinarily derive all 8. Large collections of specimens of natu
his profits from stocks strong and healthy ral history and geological and mineralogical in early spring.
collections. 7th. In districts where forage is abundant only 9. A continuous set of meteorological obser
for a short period, the largest yield of vations.
views. 8th. A moderate increase of colonies in any one 11. The accomplishment of a more northern
. season, will, in the long run, prove to be latitude than ever before attained upon land.
the easiest, safest, and cheapest mode of 12. Fresh confirmation of theories respectmanaging bees.
Jing the open Polar Sea. 9th. Queenless colonies, unless supplied with a
queen, will inevitably dwindle away,
The Pacific Telegraph.
On Thanksgiving day, the 28th ult., says the ordinarily be confined to the season
Rochester Union, a large party of the workmen when bees are accumulating honey; and
engaged in constructing the Pacific telegraph if this, or any other operation must be
from the western borders to Salt Lake City, performed when forage is scarce, the
under the direction of Mr. Creighton, arrived greatest precaution should be used to
at Omaha on their return. The line had been prevent robbing.
constructed previous to July, 1861, as far The essence of all profitable bee-keeping is west as Julesburgh, which is on the Platt contained in Oettel's Golden Rule: KEEP YOUR River, 300 miles east of Denver. From that STOCKS STRONG. If you cannot succeed in do
point to Fort Bridger, about 700 miles, the line ing this, the more money you invest in bees,
was constructed by the party of which Mr. the heavier will be your losses; while if your
Starr was one. Mr. Creighton had from 75 to stocks are strong, you will show that you are
| 80 men employed, and they were divided in a bee-master, as well as a bee-keeper, and may
three trains. The men of one train dug the safely calculate on receiving generous returns
holes, those of another cut down the poles and from your industrious subjects.”
set them, and the third put up the wire. In the three trains there were about 75 wagons
and 700 cattle, including a few milch cows, to MECHANICAL & COMMERCIAL. furnish milk for the men. The wagons con
tained from 35 to 45 hundred pounds each, Dr. Hayes' Late Voyage.
consisting of wire, insulators, tools, camp
equipage and provisions. The trains were Since Dr. Hayes arrived at home he has said to be the best that ever started over the been invited by the American Geographical plains—the cattle being excellent, the wagons and Statistical Society, New York, by the good, and all that pertained to the comfort of Academy of Natural Sciences, the American the men was in keeping with the rest. Good Philosophical Society and the Board of Trade, tents were provided, also cooking stoves, and of Philadelphia, to give before them a summary all the necessary utensils for providing meals, of the results of his expedition. These results and-what was quite in keeping with thesehave been stated as follows:
the best food that could be conveyed over the 1. A detailed survey of the west coast of plains and mountains. north Baffin's Bay, Smith's Straits and Ken- The first pole was set on the 4th of July, at nedy Channel, and the extension of the survey Julesburg, and the last on this section at Fort to the north of any previous exploration. This Bridger, about one hundred miles this side of survey embraces about 1,300 miles, of shore Salt Lake City, on the 15th of October. The
diggers' train went ahead and got along at 2. The discovery of a new channel or sound, the rate of about twelve miles per day, opening westward from Smith's Strait, paral- digging about twenty-four holes for each mile. lel with Jones and Lancaster Sounds.
The train which put up the poles only made 3. A detailed survey of the coasts of Whale about ten miles per day, and was one hundred Sound and the coasts to the north and and fifty miles behind the diggers when the south of it. This survey embraces about 600 latter reached the end of the route. On the miles of shore line.
plains the digging was easy, and the work 4. Surveys of glaciers, by which their rate went rapidly on; in the mountains it was of movement is estimated.
slow, owing to the rocky soil.
The poles were selected, cut, stripped of company, and these are all the society the bark by the men, and were then drawn out by operator has. The work of repairing the same the cattle and distributed along the line. In must, for the present, at least, be performed some localities excellent timber was found in by the operators going out when they find great abundance, hard pine being most plenty, communication with the next station interthough some cedar was obtained. Dead or rupted. The duty of an operator and repairer dry pines were often found in large quantities, is any thing but a pastime, and to perform it some of which would make three poles of suita-well requires hardy, courageous men, who are ble size. In some localities the poles had to not afraid to be alone, and to contend with be cut in the mountains, and hauled over one snow storms and whatever else they may meet hundred miles. Each pole is twenty feet in in that vast wild region over which they must length, and is buried four feet in the ground. sometimes travel. The right men will, in time, Through the Rocky Mountain Pags, where the be found in the right places ; and of the sucline runs, there are points where the snow is cessful working of the telegraph to the Pacific, known to cover the ground to the depth of none are more confident than the men who eleven feet.
constructed it, and who, therefore, best know The line is well put up, and is as substan- what obstacles are in the way. tial as such a line can be. It has a single wire, not exposed to damage from the falling of trees, as care was taken to avoid every
The First Steamboat. thing of that kind.
The route adopted was mainly along the We have not far to look for the first germ of road, across the plains and through the moun- steam navigation. That huge model, which tains. To shorten distances, where the road appears to be a combination of two funnels ran in a serpentine form, the telegraph takes a and a number of chains working over wheels, direct line, following the general coure of the is the parent marine engine. As early as the road. The track pursued by the western year 1787, Patrick Miller, of Dalswinton, Scottrains over the plains is very crooked, often land, engaged himself in making experiments made so by the cattle dying in the path.- with double and treble boats, which he proWhen an animal falls, its carcass is seldom re- | pelled by means of wheels placed between moved from the track, except as the wolves them worked by manual labor; in the followcarry it away by piece-meal; and the trains ing year he induced Symington, an engineer which follow turn out to avoid it, thus making at Wenlock Head, to apply to it a marine steam a crooked track, for the bones of thousands of engine he had invented. This engine propelled animals lie bleaching along the great paths the boat along Dalswinton Lake at the rate of that lead from the Missouri to the Pacific. five miles an hour. This was undoubtedly the
The constructors of this line met with no first attempt ever made to use steam as the hostile Indians, though they saw many of the motive power in a vessel, although it was not natives along the way, and sometimes suffered the first practical steamboat. The engine, by their thieving depredations. The Indian which belongs to the earliest history of that Agent at Deer Creek, sixty-five miles above invention, is what is called an atmospheric enFort Laramie, told Mr. Starr that one of the gine, that is, the piston is raised by the action Sioux chiefs conversed with him about the of steam, and then it is forced down by atmotelegraph project before the poles were set, and spheric pressure. The history of this curious said that he understood that poles were to be parent of steam navigation is worthy noting.set sixteen feet high, and strung with wires After the trial in the boat the engine was reclosely from top to bottom. As this would moved to Mr. Miller's library, where it remainmake a wire fence, all the buffaloes and other ed until his death, in 1815; in 1828 it was game would be kept from coming down to the sent by his son, packed in a deal case, to south. He looked upon the project with dis- Messrs. Coutts & Co., in the strand, where it favor ; but when he understood that there was remained until 1837, and finally it found its to be but one wire, and that sixteen feet above way to a plumber's in Edinburg, who flung it the ground, he was quite relieved of his fears, aside with the purpose of melting it. Howevand appeared to be satisfied. Speaking of the er, the model was rescued from destruction in manner in which the natives regard the tele- 1855, and was restored to its former working graph, Mr. Starr says the antelopes were timid condition by Messrs. Penn & Son in 1857. — and distrustful. Herds of them crossing the once a week. plains would stop when they came to the telegraph, and cautiously examine the poles before venturing to pass between them.
SUGAR IMPORTS.--The imports of Sugar in The stations of the telegraph operators are the chiefly at the stations of the mail company,
the four principal ports of the U. S. for the from fifty to one hundred miles apart. There past four years have been as follows: are usually two or three persons at each sta 1858. . 1859.. 1860. 1861. tion, taking care of the mules of the stage 281,64. 296,429. 364,463. 268,979 tons.