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the rotation of crops, are being carried for the whole amount accruing from the sales of ward with spirit by our farmers in various material-thus leaving the Society in a most localities, and there is a growing spirit of en- excellent financial condition. The grounds quiry as to the advantage of these processes were desired, however, by the Governor, for and the best methods.
the use of our volunteer troops, and the ExecuIt is also worthy of mention in evidence tive Committee, feeling that in this time of naof the progress of our agriculture, that agri- tional peril, the interests of the Government cultural implements and machinery of various were paramount to those of the Society, cheerkinds, of the most approved patterns and in a fully tendered them to the Executive for milirapidly increasing ratio as to numbers, are be- tary occupation, and subsequently relinquishing introduced in every part of our State. It ed the holding of the proposed Annual Fair, is to be regretted, however, that so few of these rather than subject the State to an expense of implements are manufactured by our own me- several thousand dollars necessary to the fitchanics. Hundreds of thousands of dollars ting up of another camp. And the conseare annually sent out of the State for the pur-quence has been that the society has lost the chase of reapers, threshing machines, horse- net receipts of the fair, the cost of printing the powers, grain-drills, plows, harrows, cultiva- premium list therefor, the Madison subscriptors, and every other kind of implement and tion and the advantage of selling the timber machine in use by our farmers, who, as a ne- and other material while it was yet new and cessary consequence, pay, in addition to cost of comparatively uninjured-advantages whose manufacture, the dealer's profit and the cost value, in the aggregate, could hardly have of transportation. This is certainly bad econ- fallen short of five thousand dollars. omy, and the Society wauld reiterate what has / These facts will account for the embarrassed heretofore been said on this subject, in hearty condir
condition of the finances, as seen by the acapproval of the recommendation of the Execu- lor
companying report of the treasurer, and tive of the State, that measures be adopted for
should hardly fail to place the State Governthe better encouragement of manufactures, in
ment and the patriotic people of Wisconsin in general, so that foreign capital, so much need
a friendly, if not generous, attitude towards ed, may be induced to invest in this important
the Society. branch of our industry as a State.
Moreover, it should not be forgotten that Upon Agricultural Societies the past has
the holding of exhibitions-one very important been a very trying year, for the reason that
means of promoting the industrial interests of the public mind has been in a constant fever
the State-is not the only office of the Society. of excitement upon subjects connected with
| The law under which the Society has a corthe welfare of the country, and has conse
porate existence (see Chap. 80, Sec. 4, Revisquently found much less interest than usual in
ed Statues,] provides, that the amount annuthe industrial enterprises which engage the
ally appropriated in aid of the declared objects efforts of associations of that class. Most of
of the organization, shall “ be expended by the county societies held fairs, however-some
said Society in such manner as it may deem of them, with even more than usual success.
best calculated to promote and improve the The State Agricultural Society has suffered condition of agriculture, horticulture, and the from special causes worthy of mention by the manufacturing, mechanical and houshold arts Committe and of consideration by the Execu in this State, either for the payment of pretive and Legislative Departments of State and miums at the annual cattle shows and fairs of by the people. Reference is made to the oc the Society; or in the purchase and distribucupation of the Society's Fair Grounds by the tion of choice seeds, cuttings, plants or tubers, troops of the State, to the exclusion of the So- which have been tested and found adapted to ciety therefrom. This has been not only an em- the soil and climate of this State ; or in the barrassment but a serious damage. From mo prosecution of scientific investigations and extives of economy, the Society located the An periments, and the collection and diffusion of nual Exhibition at Madison for two years.- information tending to develope the natural But this made it necessary that the buildings, and agricultural resources of Wisconsin.”— fences and other improvements should be of a Under authority of this act, and with the conmore substantial character than had been usu- viction that a thorough knowledge of the inal, though, at the same time, it warranted a dustrial capacity of our State would tend to neatness of construction which very materially the more rapid development of its resources, added to the attraction of the grounds and the and at the same time immediately aid in secucomfort of the people in attendance upon the ring to Wisconsin an honorable rank among exhibitions. Still the society would have the enterprising and progressive States of the made a considerable gain by the said location Union, the Society has undertaken the imporfor two years, could it have held the second tant work of making agricultural surveys of exhibition as arranged, since, in addition to the several counties of the State. The work putting a large proportion of the receipts of will be under the immediate supervision of the the Fair and the Madison city subscription in- Secretary, and will be carried forward as fast to the treasury, it would have added thereto as the funds of the Society will warrant. The
survey of the county of Dane bas already pro- months of January in each year, to be by him laid before gressed to a considerable extent, and will be
the Legislature. reported in full in the 7th volume of Transac- Now, it cannot but be apparent that the pretions of the Society.
paration of such a report necessarily involves Nor are the operations of the Society, out- a vast amount of labor, which neither the Soside of the management of the annual fairs, ciety nor the State can afford to spend in vain. limited to this important field of scientific in- | And the inference is plain and legitimate that it vestigation, as will appear by the following is the intention of the law said report should sections of the By-Laws, defining the duties of constitute a volume of considerable dimensions, the Secretary, who is the only salaried officer: and that it should be published by the State,
and in creditable style for preservation “2. To open and carry on such correspondence as may be advantageous to the Society or to the common cause of and use, and for distribution to other States in agricultural improvement, not only with individual agri-exchange for similar publications. In many culturists and eminent, practical and scientific men of
of t other industrial pursuits, but also with other societies or associations whose objects are kindred to ours, whether thousand copies, well printed, with costly enin this country or foreign lands, and to preserve a journal of such correspondence in the archives of the Society.
distributed, with the most satisfactory results. 3. To collect and arrange for convenient examination, standard agricultural works and periodical publications,
But, for some reason, of which this Society is together with such models, machines and implements as ignorant, a like liberal course has not been may be donated to, or otherwise acquired by the Society. I pursued-at least not uniformly-by the Legis
4. To investigate as far as practicable, the nature of fertilizers, indigenous and cultivated plants, insects inju- lature of this State. It is seldom that provisrious to vegetation, &c., and to colleci and preserve such ion is made for the publication of this Sociespecimens therof as will illustrate the natural history
ry ty's Report until long after it should actually and agricultural resources, condition, and progress of the State.
be in the hands of the people, and even then, 5. To institute, and collect reports therefrom, needed in some instances—as was the case with the experiments relative to the preparation of the various | last volume distributed the Legislature has soils of the State for economical culture; the cultivation of different grains, fruits, and garden vegetables; the forced the Society to pay for the work out of breeding and raising of stock, &c., &c.
its own moderate and mueh needed appropria6. To visit, by the advice of the Executive Committee,
ee, tion. A course of this kind must necessarily or as his own judgment may direct, the various portions of the State, and to give lectures on the science and prac-hamper the action and diminish the usefultice of agriculture, wherever and whenever they may bu ness of the Society, while, at the same time it deemed most necessary or desirable.
7. To co-operate with the Supointendent of Public Instruction and the Agent of tho Normal School Board for young but richly endowed agricultural State. the introduction and use, in the schools of Wisconsin, of standard works on agriculture and other industrial arts and sciences, and for the general promotion of the cause
unanimous in an expression of the earnest of industrial education.
hope that the present Legislature will so far 8. To attend as many as possible of the industrial exhi
appreciate the important work in which the bitions of the country, particularly the County Fairs of
Society is engaged as to inaugurate a more Wisconsin.
just and liberal policy in this respect. If the 9. To carefully prepare and superintend the publication of the Annual Report of the society to the Guvernor of the Stato; embodying therein the proceedings of the State Agricultural Society, an abstract of the reports of
mittee respectfully challenge an investigation the incorporated County Agricultural Societies of the State, and such reports, essays and addresses or other matter of information ay may be calculated to enhance the value of said Report. Finally, it shall be his duty, not only by tho means
then it ought to enjoy the confidence and fosabove named, but also through such other instrumentali-tering care of the State, and suffer less of the ties as he may devise, and the Committee approve, to de- unreasonable suspicion, detraction, and abuse vote himself faithfully and unreservedly to the promotion
which have been its annual portion in times of the industrial interests of the State.
past. This work of the Society is always going on, and during the past year has been prosecuted
| Wisconsin possesses vast resources of wealth. without interuption and with more than usual Indeed, for industrial capacity, it is surpassed vigor, because of the omission of the Fair. by no State of equal area in the Union; and, The “Annual Report” referred to in section
accordingly, it should be the policy of the 9 of the By-Laws, is likewise provided for in
State Government to foster and strengthen all section 6 of chapter 80 of the Revised Statutes,
| institutions and agencies faithfully and effi which reads as follows:
ciently devoted to the promotion of its indus
trial interests. Especially is it important that 880. 6. It shall be the duty of the said Executive Com this should be done in time like these, when mittoo of the Wisconsin State Agricultural Society to
the tendency is is to forget that industry is collect, arrange and collate all the information in their power in relation to the nature, origin, and preparation
ire of soils; the cultivation and growth of crops ; the breed-foundation of our strength and prosperity as a ing and management of stock; the application and character of manures and fertilizers; the introduction of new cereal and other grains; and other agricultural subjects, On behalf of the Executive Committee. and report the same, togethor with a statement of their own proceedings, to the Governor of the State, in the
J. W. HOYT, Sec'y.
Sugar Cano.---Successful Experience. To the Executive Committee of the Wis. State | FRIEND HOYT :-Most cheerfully do we con
Agricultural Society : The Treasurer of the Wisconsin State Agri- | tribute to your agricultural pages some items of cultural Society would respectfully submit the experience of the past year in this interesting following report of the receipts and expendi
department. tures for the year 1861 :
Not at all discouraged by the general failure RECEIPTS. Dec. 11,... Balance in Treasury, as per
of planters of 1860, we saved some well ripenreport of 1860......... 1861.
ed seed, of an early variety, planted that year, Feb......... Received on loan of Bank of Madison,........
called Nee-e-za-na, and May 25th to 27th March 2...Rec'd amount of State appropriation, ............
planted nearly two acres, upon high prairie Rec'd of J. V. Robbins, rents, 116 00
ridge, sloping south-west, one half cane stubRec'd of Gov. Randall, rent of grounds.....
ble of last year, and balance millet stubble; Rec'd of J. W. Hoyt, cash collected on rents,...
recently plowed and put in ordinary condition $3,569 40
as corn ground; the seed was sprouted, rolled 1861.
in flour, planted by hand, rows one way, three cancelled, (package markod " A,")......$3,568 44.
and four feet apart, one to two feet in row. Leaving a balance in the Treasury, Dec. 10, 1861, of.....
.: $96 00 Seed came well in four to six days; fifteen All of which is respectfully submitted, days from planting commenced hoeing; hoed David Atwood, Treasurer.
and wed twice during summer; run the horse
hoe once and cultivator twice; more than REPORT OF AUDITING COMMITTEE.
twice the work to cultivate well the millet
stubble land than the cane land; (the old cane I hereby certify that the Auditing Committee of the Society have examined the foregoing re- stubble was plowed under or removed before port of the Treasurer, together with the ac- planting) but as it was, the labor was about companying vouchers, and that they find the samo in all respects just and true.
the same as with an ordinary corn crop, with The disbursements have been as follows: I some extra hand labor in weeding and thinFor servicos of clerks and laborers at Fair of 1860, $211 05 ning. It grew rapidly after it once got under 4 livery in 1860,............ + use of furniture during Fair of 1860,............ 17 30 | way; August 3d it was about four feet high, " redemption of refreshment tickets used at Fair, ..........................
and showed some seed panicles ; August 228 * premiums awarded in 1860, and previously,.. rent of Pair grounds......
mostly headed and in bloom ; Sept. 11th gathfurniture bought of Church & Hawley,.... office expenses in Dec. 1859, (claim of D. J.
ered some ripe seed for exhibition ; Oct. 1st Powers) ............................................ Amount to cancel loan of N. H. Leffingwell.
seed ripe, cane about ten feet high, even, canos
... 1,035 00 State Bank,..
500 00 " "
small, hard, and very sweet. " Bank of Madison,.....
200 00 For rent of Agricultural Rooms,... * muslin used at Fair,........
75 30 Early in October we commenced harvesting pump for Fair grounds..........
15 60 " expenses of Executive Committee,...............
159 50 the crop, and saving the seed; this brings us < office expenses, including stationery, postage,
to the manufacture, of which we design to express charges, wood, gas, etc.......... Amount paid on salary of Secretary, including
speak fully in another article, and will now $200 due in 1860,...... For all other purposes.......
41 72 give some directions how to grow it successfully. Total,.....
$3,568 44 Plant upon warm alluvial or sandy land, sitBills and vouchers for all the above items l uated high and dry if possible, if rich, all the are on file and open to inspection in the office of the Society. B. R. HINKLEY,
better, southern aspect is preferable; give it a President and Ch'n of Auditing Com. thorough preparation, as if for corn; fresh MADISON, Jan. 1, 1862.
plow and plant about the time of corn planting, County Societies are earnestly requested to or the 10th to 20th of May, when the soil is furnish reports of their proceedings and lists warm and dry; mark one way, drop five or of their officers, with P. O. address for publi- six seeds at intervals of two feet, covering cation in the FARMER.
| lightly one half inch with fine soil.
Prepare the seed (about two lbs. to the acre) ducts, as well with manure as with milk, was by soaking a few hours in water, then put into
the quality of the food given her. He added (as
reported in the N. E. Farmer,) “You can get a bag, envelope with cloths snugly, keep in a nothing out of her which you do not put in.warm place until it sprouts, which will require An Englishman will buy a bullock, keep him a
time for his manure, and then sell him for what from one to three days. When the sprouts
he gave, or less. Mr. Lawes of England, had begin to show well, roll the seed in plaster or made experiments in feeding cattle on cotton flour, for two reasons: to preserve the moisture seed meal, and found that while a given quan
tity of voidings from the food was worth in the sced, and to enable the planter to dis- $27 86. th
$27 86, the same quantity produced from cartribute and cover it evenly. It is well to ash rots and turnips was worth only 86 cents." In or plaster the hill immediately after planting. 11
was high feeding.–Country Gent. Prompt and early cultivation with the stimulus of the plaster or ashes, will secure an early
Top-Dressing. growth. Experience proves that nine-tenths of the chances of success and failure lie in the The utility of top-dressing, especially grass first few weeks of the young plant, and one
lands, cannot now be questioned; but it is not
certain, that all who practice it, understand in acre extra well started and cared for, will yield what manner and at what time, top-dressing more profit than several with ordinary care.
can be applied to ensure the best results.
Saying nothing now of liquid manures, which As to the question of profit we are fully sat
are of little account unless applied after the isfied :
frost has left the ground in spring, I doubt if 1st. That it will pay to grow as a fodder my b
my brother farmers are aware of the import
ance of selecting the right time when to apply crop equally as well as corn, yielding a large top-dressing of any description. amount of leaves, tops, and seed.
The fall has hitherto been regarded by the 2d. The stalks alone are equal in value to
majority as the best season of the year to top
dress grass lands; and, upon close, hard soils, corn, acre for acre, as food for swine, if fed upon flat and level surfaces, it has been pracduring mild weather.
ticed with excellent success. But taking New
England lands, with rare exceptions, is it cer3d. The cost of manufacturing into syrup
tain that the fall is preferable to the spring? equal in value to the southern syrups-need I think not, and the reasons for this conclusion not ordinarily be more than twenty cents
are obvious. In the autumn, more than in the
spring, top-dressing is exposed to hazards of per gallon; and with well ripened cane, good loss. If the succeeding months are wet, and sugar is easily made any where.
the earth is washed by continuous rains, much
of the fertilizing quality of what has been apIn regard to varieties it is safe to plant only
plied is rendered valueless. It is different in the early kinds in our State, as a moderate the spring. crop of well ripened cane and seeds, will prove Manures or composts applied just after the
frost has begun to leave the ground, are abmore valuable than a great growth of unaccli- sorbed more readily, and the temperature of mated cane with very small percentage of the surface is rendered several degrees warmer sacharine. The reader will perceive from the by the cover
Grass lands that are top-dressed in the spring above that our Early African Imphee ripened
en will be found to come forward earlier than those in 105 days from planting. It gained ten days thus treated in the autumn, and the crop will over the previous year in time, and will gain | prøve npon trial, to be larger. some undoubtedly in the next year; at the same I am aware that most farmers can more contime, it was the richest cane we ever have than in the spring, and I fear that this is the
veniently attend to this sort of work in the fall seen, though medium in size, yet stood up well, principal reason which has led them to adopt and was a fine yield.
J. C. PLUMB. the practice now so common. The heaviest Vine Hill Nurseries, Madison, Wis.
crop of grass that came under my observation during the last hay season, was a piece of
ground of about three acres which had been TEST OF THE VALUE OF MANURE.- Hon. Jo-top-dressed in the last of May; and a piece of siah Quincy, Jr., at the first Legislative Agri- mowing, upon which was spread, in October, a cultural Meeting in Boston, remarking on cow generous dressing of stable-manure, did not manure, said the test of the value of her pro- yield nearly so well as a piece of ground ad
joining, of the same quality, top-dressed in the The Mission of Agricultural Papers. same way in the last days of February.
In respect to light, sandy soils, there is not Farming is a science, and is becoming more a doubt that top-dressing in April will prove and more such every day-till eventually it more productive than if done at any other time
fitime will be the chief science of the world, as it is of the year.
already the most important, embracing many Many farmers may be inclined to doubt my of the other sciences. And this science, like statement in respect to the spring process, as all others, must be taught, disseminated. This
reverse; but if they will take the trouble to
-schools, books, periodicals, lectures (public experiment two or three years in succession, and private), and example. The latter is perthey may yield their opinions to one who has haps the most effectual way, providing always aleady made the trial. —* * *., in Co. Gent.
that the means of instruction be efficient. But
this must of necessity, in our present state of Midwinter.
farming, be confined to isolated cases. This
objection holds, in a measure, with respect to The speckled sky is dim with snow,
lectures, and also to books and schools. The The light flakes falter and fall slow;
great lever of the progress of the age, is the Athwart the hill-top, rapt and pale, Silently drops a silvery veil;
press; and in its popularity is its success. If The far-off mountain's misty form
not abused, this is the most effectual instructIs entering now a tent of storm;
or. We are glad to see the farming communiAnd all the valley is shut in
ty so well represented. But agricultural jourring curtains gray and thin. Bat cheerily the chickadee
nalism is still in its infancy; though it keeps Singeth to me on fence and tree;
pace with the progress of the science, which The snow sails round him as he sings,
is constantly stimulating it. This impetus White as the down of angels' wings.
will sustain it, as it is founded in the interest I watch the snow flakes as they fall On bank and brier and broken wall;
of the farmer. Besides, the journal embraces, Over the orchard, waste and brown,
more or less, all the other sources of instrucAll noiselessly they settle down,
tion. It covers the whole field; reviews and Tipping the apple-boughe, and each Light quivering twig of plum and peach.
comments upon books, and gives extracts; reOn turf and curb and bower-roof
ports lectures; becomes teacher, even to the The snow-storm spreads its ivory woof;
teacher, and the most welcome visitor at the It paves with pearl the garden-walk;
college table; most of all, it reports practical And lovingly round tattered stalk And shivering stem its magic weaves
experiments and discoveries. These are the A mantle fair as lily-leaves.
gold sands of the journal, which it regularly The hooded beehive, small and low,
and immediately serves out to its customers, Stands like a maiden in the snow;
fresh with every issue: for there is constant And the old door-slap is half hid Under an alabaster lid.
progress and development. And it is all
brought to our doors, and for a mere pittance. All day it snows: the sheeted post Gleams in the dimness like a ghost;
And this is not its end; it remains with us, a All day the blasted oak has stood
library of constant reference. A muffled wizard of the wood;
But agricultural journalism is not well patGarland and airy cap adorn The gumach and the wayside thorn,
ronized. The reason is, its value is not immeAnd clustering spangles lodge and shine
diately evident, tangible. It does not come In the dark tresses of the pine.
with its profit wrapped up in so many bank The ragged bramble, dwarfed and old.
bills. This profit is felt in the granary, in the Shrinks like a beggar in the cold; In surplice white the cedar stands,
market, on the farm; seen, perhaps, years And blesses him with priestly hands.
hence; but generally little seen, if at all, in Still cheerily the chickadee
connection with the journal. Could this evil Singeth to me on fence and tree:
be remedied, the agricultural press would be But in my inmost ear is heard
established as a success. And it will come.The music of a holier bird ; And heavenly thoughts, as soft and white,
But the journals themselves must be the prinAs snow flakes, on my soul alight,
cipal means to bring it about, by introducing Clothing with love my lonely heart,
greater precision and integrity into their colHealing with peace each bruised part, Till all my being seems to be
umns, which they may now lack, and directing Transfigured by their purity.
themselves more pointedly, more searchingly (Atlantic Monthly, for February. I to the interests of the farmer: in a word, ma
king the journal more efficient; for the public How Much WISER ARE WE?-C. W. Johnson,
mind must first be instructed, before it will in an article on phosphate of lime, in the Lon
know, and then it will be readily convinced. don Farmer's Magazine for June, says, “There
There are many such now; but they are are yet men, I am told, in Sheffield, who are
among the intelligent readers; and they are old enough to remember the time when the Lly augmenting. And it is the journal that rapid Yorkshire farmers were paid for carting away educates them--the great lever of dependence. the refuse bones and ivory turnings of the
Deprive them of this, and they would be a rudSheffield knife makers."
derless ship. As well deprive them of their