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5000 parts of atmospheric air, a quantity too

South Down Sheep. minute to exercise any injurious action upon animals.

Mr. Editor :-I am in frequent receipt of Ill ventilation, therefore, produces a two-fold letters of inquiry concerning my South Down injury: the life-giving oxygen is withdrawn, and not returned in sufficient quantity, and the

Sheep, advertised in the FARMER'last fall. In poisonous carbonic acid is substituted for it.- order to save from disappointment, as well as The agriculturist must, therefore, pay particu

unnecessary correspondence, permit me to say lar attention to the sheds and houses where his cattle are kept, and have them so constructed the

that I sold the greater portion, retaining only that they will admit of a plentiful supply of a few select animals as the nucleus of another fresh air, without, at the same time, there being flock. I have disposed of an interest in these any unnecessary draughts, which, by cooling the animals. would increase the quantity of to Mr. James Davis, of Waukesha, who now food necessary to maintain their animal heat. has them upon his farm, some two miles West

There are many other points of much practical importance, as, for example, the particu

of the village. Mr. Davis is well known as a lar breed and formation of the animal, its age most excellent farmer and successful stock and condition, and the purposes for which it

breeder. I feel confident the stock in his is fed, which exercise a considerable influence on the kind of treatment and food required;

| hands will maintain its reputation for superior but these I must pass over.

excellence.

There are none now for sale, unless possibly Care of Cows before Calving.

a buck might be spared. I expect, however, The following extract from a Prize Essay on to be able to furnish lambs by another fall. the “ Rearing of Calves," by Thomas Bowick,

A. G. HANFORD. published in the Journal of the Royal Agricul- COLUMBUS, Ohio, Jan. 1862. tural Society, (Eng.), is applicable to all latitudes :

How to Feed Out Roots. "The health and condition of the cow before As root culture is greatly upon the increase calving, greatly influence subsequent results. in this country, and many are trying their first A late milked, lean, raking, ill-cared for beast experiments with them this winter, we will has oftentimes an easier parturition than those drop a few hints upon their economical use. that are better furnished in these respects. But Nothing is more common than for beginners in her after milking has a tale to tell of neglect the business to confine an animal entirely to somewhere; and the scraggy, “set” condition the use of roots. They go upon the principle of the calf throughout its after course, often that you cannot have too much of a good thing, arises more from this cause than from any oth- and give one to three bushels of turnips in a er. Hence, we would say, dry the cow a fair day. The change in diet probably sets the time before calving, and see that she has some- animal to scouring, and turnips are voted a thing better than barley straw to live on, else humbug, when the humbug lies altogether in the calf and its owner will assuredly lose by ignorance of the feeder. All animals like a it. But what is regarded as a fair amount of variety of food in their diet, and hay or straw time for being dry? If a cow brings her first should always form a part of their daily fodcalf when from two to three years old,—which der, no matter what else may be added. This the majority probably do, though all will ad- course should be followed, whether we are seekmit that it is too early-we should not care to ing to make milk or beef, or merely to keep milk her more than five or six months after an animal in thriving condition. In fattening calving. By this means she will grow and in- a bullock, a bushel or so may be given, accordcrease in size and value her second calf. But ing to size, making out the rest of the feed in a cow from the fourth to the eighth year, if in hay, with some kind of grain or meal. In good condition, need not be dry more than six feeding milch cows, the same quantity may be weeks or two months before calving; i. e, if given, mixing the sliced roots with the cut hay, fed with a thoroughly liberal hand throughout at three meals daily. The meal will add more the year, If more sparingly fed, or if the cow to the quality than to the quantity of the milk. exceeds the latter age, then we should prefer Stock cattle with plenty of hay and roots will her being dry three months before calving.- not need meal to keep them thriving. A good But, of course, there are exceptions to be met root cutter is indispensable in feeding out roots. with, which cannot come under any general Then, as to the order in which the various rule, such as the case of animals whose flow of roots should be used up, we always begin with milk is so strong as to continue almost up to the white, or soft turnips. These grow quickthe time when a new lacteal secretion com- ly and remain in their best condition but a few mences.”

weeks. By the first of January they begin to sprout, and lose something of their value. The a box, covered at the top, with a backside ruta bagas and white French turnips keep well aperture for light, and a side door by which through the winter, and may be used at any she can escape unseen. A farmer may keep time; carrots and sugar beets may be used as one hundred hens in his barn, and allow them soon as they are dug. The mangel wurzel free liberty to trample over his hay-mow, and needs to undergo a curing process, and should set where they please, and lay if they pleasenot be used before February. They are excel- and get fewer eggs than one who has a departlent keepers, and will hold on until June. If ment especially for his fowls, and keeps but fed out the first part of the season, they make half as many, and furnishes them with corn, the bowels loose, and lead to a false estimate lime, water and gravel, and who takes care of their value. Analysis shows that the man that his hens are not disturbed about their gel has nearly twice the nutritive matter con- nests. tained in the Swedish turnip, and experiments « Three chalk eggs in a nest are better than in feeding confirm the results of the laboratory. a single egg. Large eggs please them. PulThey will yield from fifty to a hundred per lets will commence laying earlier in life when cent. more in quantity, under ordinary circum- nests and eggs are plenty, and other hens are stances, and are much the more profitable root cackling around them. A dozen fowls, shut up to raise. We find our root crops enlarging from away from the means of obtaining other food, year to year, and that, perhaps, is the best will require something more than a quart of testimony we can give of their value. Our list Indian corn a day. I think fifteen bushels a this year embraces several varieties of the year a fair provision for them ; but more or white turnips, rock turnips and ruta bagas, less, let them always have enough by themyellow and white carrots, sugar beets and man- and after they have become habituated to findgel wurzel. -Am. Agriculturist.

ing enough at all times, they take but a few

kernels at a time, except just before retiring Bots in HORSES:--The editor of the Indiana to roost, when they will fill their crops. But Farmer says he publishes a recipe for the third just so sure as their provision comes to them time, by special request, of those who have scantily, so surely will they raven and gorge used it with perfect success. It is as follows: themselves to the last extremity, and will stop

"Take a tablespoonful, a little heaped, of laying. One dozen fowls, properly tended, alum, and the same quantity of copperas, pul- will furnish a family with more than 2,000 verize them fine, and put them into a pint of eggs per year, and 100 full grown chickens.--vinegar. Pour it down the horse's throat. It The expense of feeding the dozen fowls will will generally afford relief in five or ten min not amount to eighteen bushels of Indian corn. utes."

They may be kept as well in cities as in the country, and will do as well shut up the year

round as to run at large—and a grated room THE POULTERER well lighted, ten by five feet, or larger if you

can afford the space, partitioned off from the

stable or other outhouse, may be used as a henSomething about Hens.

house. In the spring, (the proper season,) A correspondent of the N. H. Journal of Ag

five or six hens will hatch at the same, and the riculture says: “It is a pleasant recreation to

fifty or sixty chickens give to one hen. Two tend and feed a bevy of laying hens. They

hens will take good care of one hundred chickmay be trained to follow the children, and will ens, until they are able to climb their little lay in a box. Egg shells contain lime, and in stick roosts. They should then be separated the winter when the earth is bound with frosts from the hens entirely. They will wander less, or covered with snow, if lime is not provided and do better, away from the parent fowls.they will not lay-or if they do lay the eggs

Chickens put in the garden will eat up the will of necessity, be without shells. Old rub

May bugs and other destructive insects; but bish lime from chimneys and buildings is for my own part 1 much prefer four or five proper, and only needs to be broken for them. good sized toads; for they are not particular They will often attempt to swallow pieces as about their food, but will snap up ants and large as a walnut. I have often heard it said bugs of any kind, and will not, if & good buckwheat is the best food for hens: but I chance offers, refuse the honey bees, but will doubt it. They will sing over Indian corn down

down them in a hurry. In case of confining with more animation than any other grain.- fowls in summer, it should be remembered that The singing hen will certainly lay eggs, if she a ground floor is highly necessary, where they finds all things agreeable to her : but the hen can wallow in the dirt, for they like it as well is such a prude, as watcbful as a weazel, and as the hog likes inuck.” as fastidious ag a hypocrite--she must, she will have secresy and mystery about her nest 09 Of all domestic fowls the common all eyes but her own must be averted-follow chicken is the most agreeable and profitable. her, or watch her, and she will forsake her Turkeys, Guinea and pea fowls are, in our nest and stop laying. She is best pleased with way of thinking, "more plague than profit.”

THE BEE KEEPER and feeble wings for flight, and short and fee

ble teeth for labor, fitted only for her own feedRandom Thoughts Upon the Boo---No. 4. I ing, together with a feeble sting and a mild

temper, to shield her from exposure to violence DESCRIPTION OF THE QUEEN BEE. In our last, we noticed the character of the

and death. The Queen not only governs the bee, and the instinctive character of a swarm,

swarm by their affections, but she leads them or community, with its queen bee, the moth

wherever she goes, and is their rallying point, er and ruler of the family, as an elective

both in and out of the hive, whenever she renmonarchy upon the death of the Queen, and a

tures abroad. All this, together with every monarchy with a community of property, and

movement and operation of the bee, is the renature's immutable instinctive laws as their

sult, not of their particular municipal laws, only guide. This number describes the Queen

but of that general law of instinct, derived Mother, as not formed by nature for labor, but

from God, their Creator, at their first formaformed only to rule and to breed. Her teeth

tion Much visionary speculation has infested

the minds of Apiarians upon the fecundation and her wings are unfit for labor, being much

of the Queen Bee, but all are agreed in this, shorter than the common bee's and the drones. The body of the Queen is much longer and

that the cell in which the Queen Bee is born, slimmer than the other bees’; her belly of a

is perpendicular and circular, whereas all the bright yellow, and her back and wings of a

others are hexagonal and horizontal; and the brighter hue. The Queen possesses an aston

Queen Mother knows what will be the offspring ishing fecundity, unequaled by anything in

of the egg that she lays in the circular cell. — nature, except the fish; her body is replete

The cell of the drone is different still, being with eggs. arranged in two ovaria, and pre

neither circular nor hexagonal, but irregular ; pared for the breeding season. These she de

this has again led Apiarians into much hypoposits in her cells, so long as a cell is vacant,

thetical disquisition, without demonstration, and thus lays the foundation for the young

and all fraught with more theory than profit. swarm. I say lays the foundation, but wheth-1 LITTLE PRAIRIE, Wis. W. H. MORRISOX. er perfect or imperfect, is yet a question ; the

PROFITS OF BEE-KEEPING.--Mr. R. H. Dafecundity of the bee, after all the elaborate vis, a practical farmer, and one of our subscriresearch of man, is yet a mystery unsettled by bers, who has a large and well managed farm

at Larone, in Somerset county, furnishes us Apiarians, I am fully inclined to the opinion with the following notes relating to the profits that the Queen knows no coition, that she is a of his small apiary during the year of 1860. virgin mother; and that her eggs are impreg

In the spring of that year, Mr. Davis had

four swarms, which being wintered through, nated by the drones, after she has deposited he valued at five dollars each, or twenty dolthem in the cells; but a whole host of Apiari-lars. These four swarms sent out during the

useason ten new swarms, eight of which were ans are opposed to the sentiment. Yet all

worth in the fall four dollars each, or thirtyagree in this, that the act of coition has never two dollars. The other two swarms had not been discovered.* The Queen is not only the

honey enough to winter on. It was, therefore,

strained and sold, (thirty pounds), at ten cents mother and Queen of the hive, but the soul of

per pound, which amounted to three dollars.the hive. All is order whilst she lives, and all From the eight new swarms Mr. Davis sold two is confusion the moment she is dead; hence

hundred and fifty-eight pounds of box honey,

at twelve and a half cents per pound, amountthe reason why she seldom, if ever, ventures ing to thirty-two dollars and twenty-five cents. abroad, and why the whole swarm so cheer- There was also some wax made, not taken into

account. The old stocks of bees were reckonfully and affectionately support and protect

ed at four dollars each in the fall, the same as her in the hive. Thus nature provides for their the new swarms. This gives a clear profit of peace and order, by giving the Queen bee short $67.25 from four swarms in one season. Who

can give a better account from so small a lot of * Soveral apiarians claim to have observed this act.-Ed.bees ?-Maine Farmer.

A Successful Wintoring of Bees.

Ants.---To Keep Away from Hives. As the season has come round when the care- When hives are properly constructed, ants ful apiarian looks well to the comfort of his cannot get into them to propagate their young. little busy friends, the writer is reminded of They frequently, however, get into hives in his success last winter, and gives his experi- consequence of not being properly constructed, ence for the benefit of those who have as yet and do much injury, as they annoy the bees, no settled plans for the better preservation of injure the hive by eating into the wood, and their bees during the cold weather.

will eat the honey if accessible. It is very The writer's hives have movable combs.- little trouble to drive and keep the ants away The size is 14 inches every way on the outside, from the hive, although much trouble has been and each one is placed by itself upon a small experienced by many, for the simple reason platform, close to the ground. On the top of that they knew no remedy. To drive the ants each hive are four holes for supers. The cover away from the hive, or out of their retreat, diwhich goes over the supers, is large enough rect upon them a small quantity of the smoke (say 141 inches in the clear) to slip over the of wood or tobacco. Each one will usually hive, and when the supers are off, covers the shoulder a number of their young, and “sehive completely, and still leaves two or more cede" instanter! To keep de ants away from inches space between the top of the hive and the hive, apply, as soon as they have mostly the top of the outside cover. (In summer, this disappeared, thinly in places where they fresame cover is raised sufficiently to place supers quent, with the feather part of a quill, the under, and rests upon cleats, which are screw-spirits of turpentine; they will not be seen ed on to the four sides of the hive at any again, in general, during the remainder of that height desired.) Last winter, the writer open-season; but should they return, repeat the ed one of the holes in the top of the hive, and application. This preventive is very simple as tacked wire-cloth over it, and then put on the well as efficacious; try it.-M. M. BALDRIDGE, cover (or surtout, I call it). The opening in Bee Journal. made in the cover, to correspond with the entrance to the hive, when slipped wholly down, I GET YOUR Hwes Ready.-We trust that is not more than 1.1 inches long, and inch high. Thus, no great current of air can blow

many of our readers who have been denying to the hive, and the moist atmosphere rises themselves the greatest luxury in the whole through the hole in the top, instead of collect

world of sweet, good honey, have made up their ing dampness in the hive.

The writer was never so successful in win- minds, ere this, to do without no longer. In tering his bees as the last season. Upon raising the matter of bee culture, as in many other the covers in the spring, instead of a damp mass of debris, and large quantities of dead things, there is more in dreading than doing. bees, the floor was dry, and the caps of the Get your hives ready, look out for the bees, cells lay along in regular order under the spaces and when another autumn comes, your tables between the combs-showing that the bees had not moved much

may be loaded with the fruits of their labore. The number of dead bees was much less, and evidently those which had died a natural death Way It takes about th. of comb to hold 15 -not the sleek, whole winged ones, but dark, Ibs. of honey. jagged-winged, hard workers—perhaps a halt One gallon of honey weighs 12 lbs. tumbler full in each hive.

The least possible space for a loaded worker, Though the size of the hive is here given, it is 5-32 of an inch. is not necessary that it should be adopted for 5-32 of an inch will allow a loaded worker the better preservation of the bees. The prin- to pass, but will be too small for a Queen. ciple can be followed out by using the square One pound of honey contains about 20 cubic box hive, common among farmers. Another inches. , advantage in connection with this arrangement is, that if the bees fall short of honey, they can be readily fed.

One square inch of worker comb conOne of my hives (about February) had not tains about 25 cells on one side, on both, 50. a drop of honey in it. I filled a tumbler full Hence, a piece of comb 4 inches by 5, will of plain barley candy, and inverted it over contain 1000 workers. one of the holes, and the bees leisurely con- ! One square inch of drone comb contains sumed it all. One pound (cost 25 cts.) carried about 16 cells, and on both sides 32. them through till the time of fruit blossoms. The cells of workers are 7-16 of an inch in when the weather being favorable.) they laid depth, and drones are 9-16. up sufficient to last till the white clover came. -Apis, in Bee Journal.

Hey The average weight of workers (from

four counts) is 4850 to a pound, avoirdupois. * 3660 workers will fill a quart measure. I 1600 drones weigh about the same.

[graphic]

THE HORTICULTURIST. “ Mr. Bareham asked if the Heart Cherry,

headed low, could be recommended as a mar

ket crop ? A. G. HANFORD, :: CORRESPONDING EDITOR.

"Mr. Wm. Heaver replied that his trees had

been put to a very severe test, which they sucLow Heads the best Winter Protection for Trees. cessfully sustained. He felt satisfied that headFruit trees of all kinds, we believe, are sure remedy against what he called sun scald.

ing the Heart Cherry low, was a perfect and greatly to be preferred with low heads; but Treated in this way, the trees improved in conthe popular taste demands them quite high.

dition, and became much more vigorous.

* Dr. Jos. Taylor corroborated the views of Nursery men, of course, find it to their ad-Mr. Heaver ; his grounds were in precisely the vantage to supply the wants of their custom same condition, as to situation, &c., as Mr. ers; hence trees as generally sent out have their

Heaver's, and all low-headed trees were as

sound as when first planted. He cut off the heads pretty well trimmed up.

tops even when as thick as his arm. His Trees two or three years old (the proper age neighbor has a fine orchard of beautiful apple

trees, grown as usual. for planting) may easily be remodeled to suit "Last fall one third of them were destroyed ; the planter; if trained too low, trim up; if too they had been exposed to the south-west sun. high, cut back. Do this at time of planting.

“All low-top trees in his observation were

perfectly sound; their productiveness is also As a rule, the more you shorten, the less the much greater, and growth healthier.” risk in transplanting, and the better the sub

A. G. HANYORD. sequent growth.

COLUMBUS, Ohio, Jan. 20, '62. The Cherry, the Apple and the Pear, with

Blackberries versus Corn. long naked stems, are apt to be injured during winter and early spring, by the action of the Sixty bushels of Lawton Blackberries to less sun upon the exposed bodies. Protection from than an acre of land, only the second year this is desirable; the best is the shade of a low from planting were raised the past summer by spreading top. There are many other reasons Chas. Merritt, of Battle Creek, Mich. If we why low-headed trees are best.

mistake not this is more than double the averWhere a tree has already attained consider-age yield of shelled corn per acre in Wisconsin, able size, and the form cannot easily be chang- and with but little or no more expense in culed, some other protection should be devised. ture, being once planted. Under good man

Some time since, while visiting the grounds agement the yield will increase for several of a successful orchardist, on the Hudson, we years. Mr. Merritt sold his entire crop in observed his Pear trees were protected on the Chicago at five dollars per bushel. Three hunsouth side by strips of bass matting the whole dred dollars per acre! Col. Crocker succeeds length of the trunk, tied lossely. Long rye admirably in growing the Lawton Blackberry straw would do equally well.

in his fine garden on Spring St., Milwaukee. He remarked that, beside preserving the We should judge his bushes would show, if bodies from injury, since he had pursued this measured, a much larger yield per acre. You, practice, his trees were more exempt from Mr. Editor, can bear testimony with me to blight.

their excellence. The culture of the finer sorts of the Cherry One thing should be borne in mind by all is often unsatisfactory in the West, by reason who would grow this most excellent fruit North of cracking of the bark. With this treatment of Egypt: the canes must be laid down before better success might be had; the experiment is hard freezing and covered with soil or litter, at least worth making.

thus to remain until settled weather in spring. Since the above was written, a report of the In Southern Illinois it succeeds admirably Cincinnati Horticultural Society's meeting of without this care. We met with bushes there 28th December, has reached us, from which we last summer which were immensely full, the make an extract bearing upon this subject : berries out-rivalling the most exaggerated

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