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manufacture of it on an extensive scale, and afford it to persons having the right to its use, for $1.50 each, which ordinary mechanics cannot do. Besides, it is not only better than any other patent hive, but it is cheaper. They propose to furnish the whole Union. These late improvements are important in many particulars. It would be well for your bee cultivators to communicate with Ransom & Cobb in relation to them.
6l/i Query.—What do you think of the merits of his system of bee culture?
Answer.—It is superior to any yet devised,
and is working an important revolution in the
apiarian's pursuits. It has already placed us
(Americans) in the advance of European bee
culturists. If Dzeiron and other Germans
could visit Sturtcvant's, or my apiary, and see
our modes of manipulating and cultivating the
bee, they would say as the Ethiopean Queen
did of old, when she visited Solomon. We
follow out Langstroth's system in detail.
1th Query.—How many hives do you keep, and to what extent are you introducing the Italian bee?
Anewer.—I have 45 stocks at my home apiary, all Italian; and perhaps 50 or 60 stocks in in LaporteCo., Ind., all black bees. The latter I may change this season, if I recover my health. Fifty is my limit for my home apiary, where half our land is water, and the remainder very poor for bee feeding. 200 is my maximum for Indiana, where the fields are prolific in bee feed.
Your 8th Query you will fiud answered in the proceedings of our late liee Convention, which are reported in the Ohio Farmer, a copy of which I have sent to you. My health is bad and I write with pain and difficulty.
J, P. KlBTLanD.
P. S. I have wintered 45 stocks without the loss of one—one queen died. My Indiana stooks 1 have not heard from.
A new system of quieting and handling bees has been introduced by Mr. Twining, which promises to be one of the greatest improvements, in this line, of the age. It quiets and soothes the workers, and does not terrify them as does tobacco smoke. The secret is known
to Mr. Langstroth and myself, who are to test it and give the public our views as to its merits. J. P. K.
The Doctor not residing in a good honeyproducing section, is not aware of how well bees are doing in the hands of many in our more favored localities; nor does it appear to mo that he is possessed of all the facta in regard to the use of honey for culinary purposes, some facts concerning which I will givo in a future article. J. M. Stedbins.
Appliton, Wis., Not. 10, 1862.
Chinese Mode of Taking Honey.
Fortune gives the following account of the mode of taking honey in China:
During my sojourn in this place, 1 had an opportunity of witnessing a novel mode of taking honey from beehives. The Chinese hive is a very rude affair, and looks very different to what we are accustomed to use in England; yet, I suspect, were tho bees consulted in this matter, they would prefer the Chinese ono to ours. It consists of a rough box, sometimes square, and sometimes cylindrical, with a movable top and bottom. When the bees are put into a hive of this description, it is rarely placed on or near the ground, as with us, but is raised eight or ten feet, and generally fixed under the projecting roof of a house or outbuilding. No doubt the Chinese have remarked the partiality which the insects have for places of this kind, when they choose quarters for themselves, and have taken a lesson from circumstances. My landlord, who had a number of hives, having determined one day to take some honey from two of them, a halfwitted priest, who was famous for his prowess in such matters, was sent for to perform the operation. Tho man, in addition to his priestly duties, had charge of the buffaloes which were kept on tho farm attached to the temple. Ho came round in high glee, evidently considering his i[halifications of no ordinary kind for tho operation he was about to perform. Curious to witness his method of proceeding with tho business, I left some work with which I was busy, and followed him and other priests and servants of the establishment to tho place where the hives were fixed. Tho form of the hives, in this instance, was cylindrical; each was about three feet in height, and rather wider at the bottom than the top. When we reached the spot where the hives were placed, our operator jumped upon a table, placed there for the purpose, and gently lifted down one of the hives, placing it on its side on the table. He then took tho movable top off, and tho honey-comb with which tho hive was quite full, was exposed to our view. In the moantime, an old priest having brought a large basin, and everything being ready, our friend commenced to cut out the honey-comb with a knife made apparently for the purpose, having the handle alino.it at right angles with the blade. Having taken out about one-third of the contents of the hive, the top was put on again, and the hive was elevated to its former position. The same operation was repeated with the second hive, and in a manner quite satisfactory.
But it may be asked, "Where are the bees all this timet" and this is the most curious part of my story. They had not been killed by the fumes of brimstone, for it is contrary to the doctrines of the Budhist creed to take away animal life; nor had they been stupefied with fungus, as is sometimes done at home—but they were flying about above our heads in great numbers, and yet, although we were not protected in the slightest degree, not one of us was slung; and this was the more remarkable, as the bodies of the operators and servants were completely naked from the middle upwards. The charm was a simple one; it lay in a few dry stems and leaves of a species of Artemisia (wormwood), which grows wild on these hills, and which is largely used to drive that pest, the mosquito, out of the dwellings of the people. This plant is cut early in summer, sundried, then twisted into bonds, and it is ready for use. At the commencement of the operation which I am describing, one end of the substance was ignited, and kept burning slowly as the work went on. The poor bees did not seem to know what to make of it. They were perfectly good tempered, and kept hovering about our heads, but being apparently quite incapable of doing us the slighlest injury. When the hives wero again properly fixed in their places, the charm was put out, and my host and his servants carried off the honey in triumph.
The Langstroth Hive.
[We have several answers to the question asked, sometime since relative to Langstroth Hive, but the publication of one will, of course suffice. The following is from Mr. R. C. Otis, joiut proprietor with Mr. L.—Ed.]
Prof. J. W. Hoyt—Dear Sir: In the August No. of the Farmer, I notice an inquiry concerning the Langstroth Movable Comb BeeHive. Having been absent from the State, this matter has not received the attention lurr thatjit deserves.
Mr. J. M. Stebbins, of Appleton, has the exclusive agency for this State. He will fill all orders for hives, and sell individual, Town,
and County Rights. KisobHA, Nov. 13th, 1862.
R. C. Otis.
Two Fine Autumn Pears.
Flemish Bsautt.—A most admirable pear for Wisconsin. The tree is a fine grower, extrmely hardy, bears young and is very productive.
Fruit large, pale yellowish green with a reddish brown check and slightly russeted.
Flesh, yellowish white, a little coarse, melting, juicy, sugary, rich, aromatic and delicious.
It should be gathered early and ripened in the house, as. if suffered to remain on the tree too long it is apt to soften at the core and become flavorless.
The Flemish Beauty should only be grown on the pear stock; occasionally but not usually, it succeeds on the quince.
Robert Douglas, of Waukegan, has a Flemish Beauty tree planted in the spring of 1852, then two years from the bud. In 1800 it produced twelvo baskets which sold for $30. In 1861 fifteen baskets for which he realized again $30. This year the tree was injured by a tornado, nearly half its top being broken off; three baskets of fruit were, however, gathered from the lower limbs, large and fino, 50pears filling a.basket. The tree is now full of promise for next year.
Dr. Grant, ni;ar Newburgh, gathered 400 specimens from a tree of the Flemish Beauty, 8 years planted, which he sold for $30.
White Doyenne— Virgalieu of N. I'., Butler Pear of Venn., St. Michael of Boston.—The many synonymes it bears are good evidence of the very universal esteem in which this fine old variety is held. The tree is a fair grower, hardy and productive. Fruit, medium or above. Pale yellow with small dots, often with a bright red cheek. Flesh, white, fine grained, buttery, melting, very rich and delicious, ripe in Oct. Does equally well on both pear and quince, the fruit needs thinning and the tree close pruning and good culture.
In some localities the White Doyenne is liable to scab and crack, this has been the case of late about Milwaukee, it did well with Ub at Waukesha, and succeeds very generally throughout the State. No fruit garden or orchard should be without nt least one tree, and whoro it is at home there is no more profitable market variety.
Ellwangcr & Barry, of Rochester, have a plantation of Dwarf trees of the White Doyenne which gave the 4th year from planting at the rate of $500 per acre, and about the same the 6th year.
C. L. lloag, of Lockport, N. Y., set out in 1853, fifty standard White Doyenne trees and gave them good culture with hoed crops, and the 4th year they yielded four barrels of fruit. He has two old trees which have yielded 4 or 5 Mil.-, annually.
J. J. Thomas, says, in Western Now York, single trees of tho Whito Doyenne pear have often afforded a return of $20 or more after being sent hundreds of miles to market.
We know parties in Wisconsin who would as soon grow a bushel of pears as of apples, the pear having proved with them quite as hardy and much more profitable. Few persons, however, will give the attention and care necessary to attain the best results, and all localities are not equally well suited for pear culture.
In suitable soil, with a judicious selection of varieties and skillful culture, it will be safe to expect as much net profit from an acre planted with pears as from an 80 acre farm in ordinary crops. A. G. Hanford.
The Great Orchards of California.
According to the editor of the California
Farmer, the orchards of Briggs & Haskell, at
Marysville, ore on a broad scale. We extract
the following from his account:
It would be impossible for a stranger to form any possible conception of the extent of these orchards, the immense crop daily gathered, or the wonderful producing power of the trees. Strange as it may appear, with all the disastrous effects of the floods, which swept away and destroyed thousands of trees, burying, also, great numbers, and having many buried by drift-wood, of which more than a thousand cords swept over and upon them, and another
thousand cords of peach-tree firo-wood will be made from the broken and killed trees; yet, with all this destruction, the crops of these orchards will far exceed any former crop. And this, too, with another singular fact, that with all the energy and attention possible, and with about seventy men, the fruit often ripens faster than it can be gathered, so much so that more than ten thousand bushels will be lost in these two orchards alone. In connection with these orchards, thoro is the Oroville orchard, where about thirty men are gathering and shipping, in like enormous quantities.
That some idea may be formed of tho magnitude of the business of these fruit orchards, there was sent from these orchards, the second week in August, from sixteen to twenty tons, or from 30,000 to 40,000 pounds a day, of peaches, apricots, and plums; of which about two-thirds were shipped to Sacramento and San Francisco.
We spent some time in going through theso orchards, and noting the effect of the floods upon the trees. In many places in these orchards, the drift-sand was piled up from two to four feet—but where the wash was only sand, no injury resulted to the trees, they were vigorous and healthy. But where the deposit was a soft clay, or mixed deposit, tho tree* were killed. In the entiro orchard, among the poaches, nectarines, pears, and apples, where tho deposit was sand alone, the trees were loaded with splendid fruit—the nectarines and peaches, enough to load several clipper ships, the trees breaking down with the fruit, and the ground covered with the finest neotarines we ever saw.
Horticulture and the War.
It is sad to reflect on the enormous losses to horticulture and agriculture arising from the rebellion. We believe no class, taken collectively, endeavored to overt the strife more energetically than ours; and, though suffering in common with others, have less to answer for. From our position, in correspondence with so many different sources, we cau say of our own knowledge that up to the actual breaking out of the war, with few exceptions, the great body of Southern horticulturalists were opposed to secession, not but they had their differing views as to the abstract justice of the doctrine, or as to the advantages which a separate independence might or might not bring with it, but solely because they saw that the assertion of the doctrine would inevitably lead to o bloody and disastrous struggle, whioh would render any ultimate success by far too dearly bought. It is pleasant to dwell on this power of horticulture to restrain rash passion; and it should be a strong inducement with all haters of war to extend horticultural taste wherever practicable—Gardners' Monthly.
No fruit introduced in many years past lias awakened so much interest as the Delaware Grope.
It has bean cultivated in ihe neighborhood of Delaware, Ohio, for thirty years or more, hut ii in only ten or twelve years sineo it was' much disseminated.
It is claimed that the original vine was brought from New Jersey.
So unlike, so superior to our native varie
ties, it was for * time believed to be a foreigner, but is now generally received as an American seedling.
The above cut is from a photograph of a well grown bunch.
We hope the introduction of such fine early and hardy varieties as the Delaware, Hartford Prolific and Concord will enable our readers to enjoy well ripened and delicious grapes instead of the half ripe sour clusters we generally have to put up with in this climate.
in some localities, the Isabella aud Catawba—both excellent varieties — succeed well; but, as a general rule, they are too tender to be entirely reliable, and we have need of something more hardy. The grapes above aamed are all of this character; in addition to which the Delaware particularly is the most delicate and delicious grape of which we bhve any knowledge in this or any other country.— Mcsrs. Iiatcham, Hanford & Co., Columbus, Ohio, are skillful cultivators of them and are prepared to fill orders to the entire satisfaction Let every farmer secure at least a few cuttings, and so provide himself and family vith one of the^ greatest luxuries in the fruit world.
Winter Management of Newly Planted and
Swarf Troes. All trues plauted last spring and this autumn should have a mound of earth thrown up around the stem, twelve orfiftccn inches high, and a mulch of coarse straw manure, three or four inches thick, spread for the space of four or five feet in diameter, on the suiface, over the roots. The mound of earth will serve to support the tree as well as to keep off the mice.
The mulch will afford protection to the newly formed tender roots, while the soluble portion is carried by the winter and spring rains into the soil to nourish the tree. Dwarf trees especially need this treatment whether newly planted or not; the neglect of it is often the cause of loss and disappointment.
A. G. Hanfokd.
Columbus, O., Not., 1462.
MECHANICAL & COMMERCIAL.
Improvements in Farm Machinery.
It is ii feature of the first importance in the agriculture of this as well as other countries, that the improvements in agricultural machinery arc receiving so much attention, and accomplishing so much of real practical benefit to the farmers. This fact alone has done much to revolutionize the operations upon all large farms, and to some extent to change the system and practices among small cultivators.
Every year brings with it new inventions, numerous and pretentious: and we believe, also, that nearly every year gives to the public some decisive advanco towards the perfection of agricultural machinery. It would be too much to expect, under the high pressure demand for improved machines, that all inventions will prove valuable; and, on the contrary, it is doubtless true that nino-tenths of those offered to the public are failures; but out of this great wealth of mind and skill, something must be evolved which will simplify agricultural operations, and benefit the farmer.
Taking our observations at short intervals, or by single years, the changes may not appear to possess very great significance; but when we extend them to a decade or to a score of years, the results achieved are astonishing, and fill us with admiration. When we revert to the exhibitions which it was our practice to attend twenty years ago, of the State and County Agricultural Societies, and compare the implements and machines then in use with those now offered for inspection on similar occasions, we are filled with admiration for the genius and skill of American mechanics, and prompted to congratulate the farmers of the United States upon the advantages thus placed within their reach.
This subject has been brought forcibly to our notice on reading, in the Prairie Farmer, a sketch of the exhibition of agricultural machines and implements at Dixon, Illinois, under the auspices of the Illinois State Agricultural Society. That exhibition was a great
and proud triumph for the cause of American mechanical skill and for American agriculture, and proved conclusively to our mind the steady and even rapid progress of the farmers in this country towards the dignity of labor, and the triumph of mind over muscle.
Events are fast proving the practicability of applying science, In the form of skilfully constructed machinery, to the practical work of the farm. Henceforth, in farming as in other pursuits, mind shall be worth more than muscle, and the intelligent, educated farmer enabled to employ his powers to better profit and greater advantage, in the direction of his business, than in the mere manual drudgery of routine work, which the machines of the present day will perform vastly quicker, cheaper, and more successfully than it can be done by hand labor.
The West is peculiarly the field for the introduction and use of agricultural machinery.— Farming there is done on a broader scale than in the Atlantic States, and the nature of the soil, as well as the face of the country, specially invites tiiis system of agriculture.—Ex.
Nails, Nuts, Screws and Bolts.
It is well for every farmer to have at hand the facilities for repairing. In addition to the more common tools, he should keep a supply of nails of different sizes, bolts and nuts. Common cut nails are too brittle for repairing implements, or for other similar purposes. Buy only the very best, and anneal them, and they will answer all the ordinary purposes of the best wrought nails. To anneal them, all that is necessary is to heat them red hot in a common fire, and cool gradually. Let them cool, for instance, by remaining in the fire while it burns down and goes out. One such nail, well clinched, will be worth a dozen unannealed.
Nothing is more common than for a farmer to visit the blacksmith shop to get a broken or lost bolt or rivet inserted, and often a single nut on a bolt. This must be paid for, and much time is lost. By providing a supply of bolts, nuts and rivets,. much time and trouble may be saved. They may be purchased wholesale at a low rate.
These should be kept in shallow boxes, with compartments made for the purpose, furnished with a bow handle for convenience in carrying them. One box, with half a dozen divisions, may be appropriated to nails of different sizes; and another, with as many compartments, to screws, bolts, rivets. &c.
Every farmer should keep on hand a supply of copper wire, and small pieces of sheet copper, or copper straps. Copper wire is better than annealed iron wire; it is almost as flexible as twine, and may be bent and twisted ns desired, and it will not rust. Copper straps, nailed across or around a fracture or split in any wooden article, will strengthen it in a thorough manner.