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THE WISCONSIN FARMER.

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at Waukesha, and succeeds very generally thousand cords of peach-tree fire-wood will be

made from the broken and killed trees; yet, throughout the State. No fruit garden or

with all this destruction, the crops of these orchard should be without at least one tree, orchards will far exceed any former crop. and where it is at home there is no more profit

| And this, too, with another singular fact, that

with all the energy and attention possible, and able market variety.

with about seventy men, the fruit often ripens EUwongor & Borry of Rochester have a faster than it can be gathered, so much so that Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, have a faster,

more than ten thousand bushels will be lost in plantation of Dwarf trees of the White Doy- these two orchards alone. In connection with enne which gave the 4th year from planting at these orchards, there is the Oroville orchard, the rate of $500 per acre, and about the same

where about thirty men are gathering and

shipping, in like enormous quantities. the 6th year.

That some idea may be formed of tho mag

nitude of the business of these fruit orchards, C. L. Hoag, of Lockport, N. Y., set out in

there was sent from these orchards, the second 1853, fifty standard White Doyenne trees and week in August, from sixteen to twenty tons, gave them good culture with hoed crops, and or from 30,000 to 40,000 pounds a day, of

peaches, apricots, and plums; of which about the 4th year they yielded four barrels of fruit.

liwo-thirds were shipped to Sacramento and He has two old trees which have yielded 4 or San Francisco. 5 bbls. annually.

We spent some time in going through these

orchards, and noting the effect of the floods J.J. Thomas, says, in Western New York, 1 upon the trees. In many places in these orchsingle trees of the White Doyenne pear have ards, the drift-sand was piled up from two to

four feet-but where the wash was only sand, often afforded a return of $20 or more after

no injury resulted to the trees, they were vigbeing sent hundreds of miles to market. orous and healthy. But where the deposit was We know parties in Wisconsin who would as killed

a soft clay, or mixed deposit, the trees were

in the entire orchard, among the soon grow a bushel of pears as of apples, the peaches, nectarines, pears, and apples, where pear having proved with them quite as hardy

the deposit was sand alone, the trees were

loaded with splendid fruit-the nectarines and and much more profitable. Few persons, how peaches, enough to load several clipper ships, ever, will give the attention and care necessary the trees breaking down with the fruit, and

the ground covered with the finest nootarines to attain the best results, and all localities are

we ever saw. not equally well suited for pear culture. In suitable soil, with a judicious selection of

Horticulture and the War. varieties and skillful culture, it will be safe to expect as much net profit from an acre planted | It is sad to reflect on the enormous losses to with pears as from an 80 acre farm in ordinary horticulture and agriculture arising from the crops.

A. G. HANFORD.

rebellion. We believe no class, taken collect

ively, endeavored to avert the strife more enCOLUMBUS, Ohio.

ergetically than ours; and, though suffering

in common with others, have less to answer for. The Great Orchards of California. From our position, in correspondence 'with so

many different sources, we can say of our own

knowledge that up to the actual breaking out According to the editor of the California

of the war, with few exceptions, the great Farmer, the orchards of Briggs & Haskell, at body of Southern horticulturalists were opMarysville, are on a broad scale. We extract posed to secession, not but they had their dif

fering views as to the abstract justice of the the following from his account:

doctrine, or as to the advantages which a sepIt would be impossible for a stranger to form arate independence might or might not bring any possible conception of the extent of these with it, but solely because they saw that the orchards, the immense crop daily gathered, or assertion of the doctrine would inevitably lead the wonderful producing power of the trees. to a bloody and disastrous struggle, which Strange as it may appear, with all the disas- would render any ultimate success by far too trous effects of the floods, which swept away dearly bought. It is pleasant to dwell on this and destroyed thousands of trees, burying, power of horticulture to restrain rash passion; also, great numbers, and having many buried and it should be a strong inducement with all by drift-wood, of which more than a thousand haters of war to extend horticultural taste cords swept over and upon them, and another wherever practicable---Gardners' Monthly.

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ties, it was for a time believed to be a foreigner, but is now generally received as an American seedling.

The above cut is from a photograph of a well grown bunch.

We hope the introduction of such fine early and hardy varieties as the Delaware, Hartford Prolific and Concord will enable our readers to enjoy well ripened and delicious grapes instead of the half ripe sour clusters we generally have to put up with in this climate.

In some localities, the Isabella and Catawba-both excellent varieties — succeed well; but, as a general rule, they are too tender to be entirely reliable, and we. have need of something more hardy. The grapes above aamed are all of this character; in addition to which the Delaware particularly is the most delicate and delicious grape of which we have any knowledge in this or any other country.Messrs. Bateham, Hanford & Co., Columbus, Ohio, are skillful cultivators of them and are prepared to fill or

ders to the entire satisfaction Delaware Grape.

of purchases. Let every farmer secure at No fruit introduced in many years past has

least a few cuttings, and so provide himself awakened so much interest as the Delaware and family with one of the greatest luxuries Grape.

in the fruit world. It has been cultivated in the neighborhood

Winter Management of Newly Planted and of Delaware, Ohio, for thirty years or more,

Dwarf Troes. but it is only ten or twelve years since it was'' All trees planted last spring and this autumn much disseminater.

should have a mound of earth thrown up It is claimed that the original vine was around the stem, twelve or fifteen inches high, brought from New Jersey.

and a mulch of coarse straw manure, three So unlike, so superior to our native varie- or four inches thick, spread for the space of

four or five feet in diameter, on the surface, and proud triumph for the cause of American over the roots. The mound of earth will serve mecha

:Jl mechanical skill and for American agriculture,

and proved conclusively to our mind the steady to support the tree as well as to keep off the and even rapid progress of the farmers in this mice.

country towards the dignity of labor, and the The mulch will afford protection to the new

triumph of mind over muscle.

Events are fast proving the practicability of ly formed tender roots, while the soluble por- applying science, in the form of skilfully contion is carried by the winter and spring rains structed machinery, to the practical work of

the farm. Henceforth, in farming as in other into the soil to nourish the tree. Dwarf trees

pursuits, mind shall be worth more than musespecially need this treatment whether newly cle, and the intelligent, educated farmer enaplanted or not; the neglect of it is often the bled to employ his powers to better profit and cause of loss and disappointment.

greater advantage, in the direction of his bus

iness, than in the mere manual drudgery of A. G. HANFORD.

routine work, which the machines of the presCOLUMBUS, O., Nov., 1862.

ent day will perform vastly quicker, cheaper,

and more successfully than it can be done by MECHANICAL & COMMERCIAL. hand labor.

The West is peculiarly the field for the introImprovements in Farm Machinery. duction and use of agricultural machinery.

Farming there is done on a broader scale than It is a feature of the first importance in the in the Atlantic States, and the nature of the agriculture of this as well as other countries, soil, as well as the face of the country, specialthat the improvements in agricultural machin- ly invites this system of agriculture.--Ec. ery are receiving so much attention, and accomplishing so much of real practical benefit

Nails, Nuts, Screws and Bolts. to the farmers. This fact alone has done much to revolutionize the operations upon all large. It is well for every farmer to have at hand farms, and to some extent to change the system the facilities for repairing. In addition to the and practices among small cultivators. more common tools, he should keep a supply of

Every year brings with it new inventions, nails of different sizes, bolts and nuts. Comnumerous and pretentious; and we believe, al- mon cut nails are too brittle for repairing imso, that nearly every year gives to the public plements, or for other similar purposes. Buy some decisive advance towards the perfection only the very best, and anneal them, and they of agricultural machinery. It would be too will answer all the ordinary purposes of the much to expect, under the high pressure de- best wrought nails. To anneal them, all that mand for improved machines, that all in ven is necessary is to heat them red hot in a comtions will prove valuable; and, on the contra- mon fire, and cool gradually. Let them cool, ry, it is doubtless true that nine-tenths of those for instance, by remaining in the fire while it offered to the public are failures; but out of burns down and goes out. One such nail, well this great wealth of mind and skill, something clinched, will be worth a dozen unannealed. must be evolved which will simplify agricultu- Nothing is more common than for a farmer ral operations, and benefit the farmer.

to visit the blacksmith shop to get a broken or Taking our observations at short intervals, lost bolt or rivet inserted, and often a single or by single years, the changes may not ap- nut on a bolt. This must be paid for, and pear to possess very great significance; but much time is lost. By providing a supply of when we extend them to a decade or to a score bolts, nuts and rivets, much time and trouble of years, the results achieved are astonishing, may be saved. They may be purchased wholeand fill us with admiration. When we revert sale at a low rate. to the exhibitions which it was our practice to These should be kept in shallow boxes, with attend twenty years ago, of the State and compartments made for the purpose, furnished County Agricultural Societies, and compare the with a bow handle for convenience in carrying implements and machines then in use with them. One box, with half a dozen divisions, those now offered for inspection on similar oc- may be appropriated to nails of different sizes; . casions, we are filled with admiration for the and another, with as many compartments, to genius and skill of American mechanics, and screws, bolts, rivets, &c. prompted to congratulate the farmers of the Every farmer should keep on hand a supply United States upon the advantages thus placed of copper wire, and small pieces of sheet copwithin their reach.

per, or copper straps. Copper wire is better This subject has been brought forcibly to our than annealed iron wire; it is almost as flexinotice on reading, in the Prairie Farmer, a ble as twine, and may be bent and twisted as sketch of the exhibition of agricultural ma- desired, and it will not rust. Copper straps, chines and implements at Dixon, Illinois, un- nailed across or around a fracture or split in der the auspices of the Illinois State Agricul- any wooden article, will strengthen it in a tural Society. That exhibition was a great thorough manner.

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Aiken's Famous Family Knitting Machine. idea, and executed the plan, of manufacturing

When Queen Elizabeth came to the throne of them with the use of needles, in such manner England, three hundred years ago, such a thing that they should be both seamless and very as a knit stocking had never been heard of in

elastic. The first pair knit were presented to

Her Majesty, in the third year of her reign, all her realm. Nor, indeed, have we any reli

| who was so delighted with them that she would able authority to suppose that anything of the

I never again consent to wear the stocking of sort had ever been produced anywhere in the the old style. world. But the tense, unyielding hose manu. As the result of the royal example and of factured upon the loom were an uncomfortable, the remarkable superiority of this wonderful unsatisfactory thing, and so some ingenious manufacture, knitting became at onco immind-it is not known whose--conceived the mensely popular, so that high-born dames and

royal ladies emulated each other in princely finding their climax in the wonderfully simple, halls and gilded palaces.

cheap and capable machine of J. B. Aiken, of But the process of knitting with the fingers Franklin, N. H. As a factory machine this is was slow and tedious; and so the brain of one unquestionably the most popular one now in William Lee, of Woodborough, England, about existence, and every day seems to be adding to thirty years after the original invention of the high esteem in which it is held. Over $2,knitting, stimulated, it is said, by a strong de-000,000 worth of knit fabrics are now annually sire to supercede the needles of a beautiful manufactured upon it in this country; while young girl, whose passion for knitting appear in the various countries of Europe it is rapidly ed more all-absorbing than her coveted love growing into favor with the most enterprising for him, contrived a machine, which was so manufacturers. remarkable for its achievements as to attract But all this remarkable success did not satisthe attention, first of Queen Elizabeth, then offy the ambition of Mr. Aiken. He saw that her successor, King George, and finally--when his machine was enabling manufacturers with both of these English sovereigns failed to give capital to amass great fortunes, while the peoit the encouragement it deserved, through fear ple—the million--were comparatively little of interfering with the employment of the poor benefitted. A machine which should come —the patronage of Henry the Fourth, King of within the slender means of even a very poor France.

family, and thus diffuse its blessings as the Lee had hardly established himself, however. Sewing Machine has done, was needed. The at Rouen ere his royal friend and patron met simple and effective “circular” machine of his untimely death, and the disappointed, but which the above cut is an illustration, was the never discouraged, inventor returned to Eng.

result of this worthy and persistent endeavor. land and established a factory at Nottingham

So'simple and durable in all its parts that shire, which, to this day, has been and is the there is scarcely a possibility of its getting out great seat of hosiery manufacture in Europe.

of order; so rapid in its working that when

operated by the hand of a child it will knit For more than one hundred and fifty years,

over four thousand stitches in a minute-if by Lee’s machine 'reigned without a rival,' until

the foot five thousand-or if by steam, to which in 1756 an important improvement was made

it may be adapted, sixty thousand !--so small by Jedcdiah Strutt, of Derby, with a view to

in compass that it may be packed in a box less render the machine less cumbrous and difficult

than a foot cubie ; and, withal, so cheap that to operate, and, if possible to adapt it to other

it can easily be made to pay for itself in one than muscular power. His efforts were only

winter, it can hardly fail of a very great departially successful, however, and the world

mand even in war times. Indeed the harder was left without a power machine until the

the times the greater the need, on the part of year 1892, when Timothy Bailey, of Albany,

the poorer families at least-and nearly all are New York, after many months of fruitless

feeling pretty poor about now--of everything effort, at last succeeded in perfecting his plans

which may come as a help in securing the and giving to America and the world a power

means of support. machine of large capacity. Still, it was a

Every year the American people send five clumsy thing, very expensive and was only de- milline of dollars to other countries for the signed to knit the flat web, which must subse-single item of knit goods, which ought to be quently be gewed together by hand.

manufactured at home There is, therefore, About a quarter of a century ago circular no danger but that the demand will insure looms were introduced into this country from good paying prices--especially as the war must Belgium and France; since which time there very materially add to the amount of knit hohave been several American improvements, all / siery required for American consumption.

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