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were, unknown here, though it can be made of and they remain in the casks till spring, when an inferior quality, with great pains. Good the casks are emptied, and the bones are found butter can be brought here, however, from the to be generally well pulverized, or so soft that Northern States, if well made and properly they can easily be broken as fine as desired. packed for a hot climate, which in time will The mixed bones and ashes are excellent mabe done to a great extent, to the mutual ad- nure for most crops, and especially for fruit vantage of both countries.
crops. --Boston Cultivator. SIZE OF THE MEN.
Take Care of Your Harness. The size of man is also less here than in temperate climates. His average weight in this More damage is done to harness during the country would fall below 130 pounds, whereas rainy vo
8 rainy weather of early and late winter than in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont it would be 160. pounds, and in New York and during all the rest of the year. Saturated with the Western States, 150 pounds.
water, covered with mud, and often frozen NO MANURE SAVED.
stiff, so as to almost break when bent, in neThe soil is made from the out-pourings of cessary handling, unusual care should be taken volcanoes, and has for ages been enriched with the ashes of burning mountains, which has
to keep it well oiled and hung up in proper made this country so unlike all others, that it shape when not in use. Thus treated, it will has withsiood the worst cultivation ever devised not only last many times longer, but look inby man to exhaust a soil. The inhabitants all live in cities or villages, and bring everything finitely better than when neglected in the from the farm to the place of residence to be usual manner. consumed without the least particle ever being As to the kind of oil, we know of nothing returned to renovate the soil; and not satisfied with this system, that would in time exhaust
better than neat’s-foot or the daubing used by any other soil, they sow their corn for fodder, tanners. To give the black color characterisand pull that and the grass up by the roots, tic of new leather, a little lampblack may be with much of the light soil sticking to them, so that when brought in the rain for the ani- added, without detriment, though it is better mals, which are kept in the towns, the water not to use this until the second going over. that runs from the cart loads looks as black as Rafora nutting
Before putting on the oil, however, there are tar water. And this course has been pursued for the last 300 years, with two and sometimes two important conditions which must be obthree crops of corn per year or an alternate served-cleanness and dampness. The necescrop of corn and tobacco. They are now nozzling up their corn-fields with crooked sticks drawn by oxen, to plant tobacco; and that less important, since the oil cannot penetrate which has been set 15 or 20 days looks better, the leather and make it soft and pliable if put darker colored, and more thrifty than any other I ever saw in my life, not excepting that which
on when it is dry and hard. I have seen grown on the bed of a coal pit. One of the best ways to give to the leather All the manure that accumulates here is hauled the requisite degree of moisture is to wrap off and thrown into the river, holes or ravines. They never think of spreading it on their farms up the several parts of the harness in wet cloth or gardens. No one seems to know whether it a few hours previous to oiling. But this trouble would do good or harm, as I have never seen is unnecessary where washing has been resorted the first man that has tried it on either farm
to for cleaning, as the oil may then be applied or garden.
before the leather is entirely dry. The oil • AN EASY WAY TO DISSOLVE Boxes.-James should be rubbed in briskly with a brush or S. Grennell, Esq., of Greenfield, practices dis
cloth, so as to insure its absorption. solving bones by a method which seems worthy of notice from its simplicity and convenience. Varnish should never be used as it closes Casks having each but one head are provided; the pores and renders the penetration of oil a layer of bones six or seven inches thick more difficult. Vegetable oils are hardening placed on the bottom; then strong, unleached wood ashes are spread over the bones to the
in their effects and should never be used for thickness of two inches or more. The casks that reason. are filled in this way, taking care to have a Finally, let the application of oil be as frepretty good thickness of ashes at the top to prevent the exhalation of ammonia. The pro
quent as needed, not once a year, as is the cess of thus packing the bones goes on through
rule with some, or almost never as is the practhe season, or as ashes accumulate in the house, tice of many,
e first is o
nd the last is not
Valuable Thoughts for the Farmer. gerated form of presenting the truth. One of
our old-fashioned farmers here, or a farmer of [From an Agricultural Address, by LUTHER H. TUCKER
the present day on the prairies of the West, Esq., Editor Country Gentleman.)
may tell me that the nature of his soil is such THE PROBLEM OF MAINTAINING THE FERTILITY that it requires no nursing—no manuring—that OF THE SOIL.
its fertility will never fail. Him I do not be
lieve; eventually,-under his way of farming It is the great problem which has puzzled
-his soil must, practically speaking, become the farmers of every age-how best to maintain
" exhausted;" instead of that kind of managethe fertility of the soil under the constant
ment which shall only draw the interest, so to drafts it is obliged to sustain to meet the daily
speak, upon the wealth that has been acccuwants of man and beast. In a new land the
mulating there for his use, during untold years, virgin luxuriance which at first requires no
he has attacked his capital, anI is every day artificial aid from the manure heap, and per
na per prodigally diminishing it. On the other hand, haps seems almost inexhaustible, after a crop
rop the chemist--the great Liebig, for instanceor two,-or it may be, not until after a con
will argue, to take the island of Great Britain siderable series of years—shows signs of di
as an example—that all its mineral soil-resourminished productiveness ;-and then it is soon
ces for the food and sustenance of future vegdiscovered that Art must come to the assistance
etation, are in fact running into the sea through of Nature--that the soil must be fed as well as
its city sewers--the ultimate end of all its Agbled—that the old, old study which dates back
ricultural production being to feed the vast some thousands of years before the parable
crowds of humanity there congregated ;-and was narrated of the barren tree that required
that the entire loss of these mineral elements to be “digged about and dunged," must be re
can only be a question of time, unless prompt newed and again investigated, under changing
means are taken to utilize the sewerage of conditions, but in accordance with unchanging
every town and hamlet, just as "a well, howprinciples. As the Agriculture of a country
ever deep it may be, which receives no supply grows still older, this question of manures and
of water, must in the end become empty, if its manuring, becomes more and still more the
water is constantly pumped out."* Him again subject of discussion among its Farmers. We,
I do not fully credit; for while the pump is in New York, are as yet but just upon the
pouring forth the contents of the well, there threshold of the question. We look around
may possibly be hidden springs which he overus upon here and there a locality, or perhaps
looks; the capitalist may be spending more or a single farm, which has been “run down" by
less every year and yet so long as his expenover-cropping, where the farmers, like their
ditures are less than the interest which accrues land, are now poor-and, again, upon occa
upon his money, he will be growing richer sional instances of well sustained production
instead of poorer;--and there is one sense, in and prosperous farmers,--and we are begin
which I believe the soil to be, when properly ning to learn that in the one case proper atten
managed, illimitable in its resources--subject tion to manuring has been invariably neglected
to no necessity of our carrying back upon it, -in the other, that it has been, just as inva
pound for pound, exactly the materials, in riably, the object of unceasing care and judi
weight and kind, that our crops have carried cious expenditure. The logical connection
"off. What land, if such were the law of vegebetween abundant compost-piles in well-man
tation, has ever been, century after century, aged barn-yards, and heavy granaries or well
the home of man, whether savage or civilized, Alled hay-mows, it seems almost uniformly to
which would not in the end have become a require a generation or two, thoroughly to
desert? It has been claimed that the Chinese + establish ; and even now, as much as we hear
really do accomplish this return to the soil of it discussed on such occasions as this--as much
all the inorganic elements of the food which it as we read about it in our agricultural papers
produces, but we may be permitted to doubt -one would certainly think, to judge from far
whether their careful exactness in this respect too many farmsteads we pass by on every pub
has not been extolled by travellers somewhat lic road I have ever travelled, that the agricul
beyond its actual desert-whether, in point of tural mind was not yet quite clear as to the
fact, the manure they save and apply, is at all cardinal necessity of economizing and liberally
comparable in quantity with that which the applying manurial substances.
English import from other nations in the form * * * * * * *
of guano, bones, and feeding stuffs for their THE RESOURCES OF ANY SOIL MAY BE EXHAUST animals, or mine out of the depths of their
ED, OR, BY GOOD MANAGEMENT, RENDERED own island in the form of useful minerals or PRACTICALLY ILLIMITABLE.
the fossil remains of extinct animal races. In this question of the permanently productive power of the soil, there are, as in most
* Letter from Baron Liebig to Alderman Mechi, Nov. others, two extreme positions--one, which is 12
1860. in disregard both of reason and experience, and the other, which is perhaps only an exag- 1 + Liebig's Letters on Modern Agriculture, page 248.
The Chinche Bug and Deep Plowing. something more than the school-house, acade
my, college and university. The young mind An old farmer is this town told a young far- should receive judicious training in the field, mer as follows :
in the garden, in the barn, in the workshop,
in the parlor, in the kitchen-in a word around “If you ever raise a good crop by late sow
the hearth-stone at home. ing, be sure and not tell your children of it.” Whatever intellectual attainments your son
I will state a fact in relation to chinche bugs may have acquired, he is unfit to go forth into and deep plowing; and this, perhaps, should the genial and purifying influences of parents,
society if he has not had thrown around him be kept from the children.
sisters, brothers, and the man-saving influence In the spring of 1857, I followed the common
of the family government. The nation must
look for virtue, wisdom and strength, to the breaking plow, on prairie sod, with a common education that controls and shapes the home steel plow made sharp, and turned a good policy of the family circle. There can be no
love of country where there is no love of home. heavy furrow from beneath the first one,
Patriotism, true and genuine, the only kind the centre of the land, being a strip about worthy of the name, derives its mighty strength three rods wide and one hundred rods long
from fountains that gush out around the hearth
stone; and those who forget to cherish the Since then I have taken two crops of corn and household interests will soon learn to look with two of wheat from the field through which the indifference upon the interests of their common three rods strip was double plowed. This year
We must cultivate roots--not tops. We must wheat grew upon it, and the three rods strip make the family government, the school, the turned white from the ravages of the chinche agricultural fairs, the laboratories of our future bugs, while each side was green and growing. farmers, artisans, architects, engineers, geolo
We must educate our sons to be
greatness. The lines on each side were as straight as the gists, botanists, chemists-in a word, practical furrows.
Their eyes must be turned from Wash
ington to their States, counties, townships, disCan any one give the reasons ? The only tricts, and homes. This is true patriotisin ; one I can find is, that in the deep plowing the and the only patriotism that will perpetually bugs found better winter quarters by going preserve the nation.—Gov. Wright. deeper. The wheat followed corn. About three-fourths fall plowed, and both fall and
Sorghum spring was done across the narrow strip.
We have favorable reports of the Sorghum LEWIS CLARK.
crops of the past season. The opening of the BELOIT, Nov. 20, 1861.
war and the certainty of advanced prices had
the effect to stimulate the farmers, and the reMake Farm Labor Fashionable.
sult appears to have been an increased supply At the base of the prosperity of any people of sorghum molasses. lies this great principle—make farm labor fashionable at home. Educate, instruct, encour As appears by the statistical returns, the age; and offer all the incentives you can offer, number of acres planted in 1860 was 318 85to give interest and dignity to labor at home. Enlist the heart and the intellect of the family 100, yielding a product of 51,135, gallons of in the support of a domestic system that will molasses and 3,493 lbs. of sugar. Last year make labor attractive at the homestead. By the crop must have been considerably larger means of the powerful influences of early home education, endeavor to invest practical than this, though we have not sufficient data labor with an interest that will cheer the heart for a safe estimate. of each member of the family, and thereby you will give to your household the grace,
We have never believed that Sorghum would peace, refinement and attraction which God de- come to be a great staple crop in our State, signed a home should possess.
but the success which has attended its cultivaThe truth is, we must talk more,
think more, work more and act more, in reference to question on a small scale should be an encouragetions relating to home.
ment to more of our farmers to cultivate it for The training and improvement of the physical, intellectual, social and moral powers
their own use. Next season we shall expect a sentiments of the youth of our country, require much larger crop than ever before.
Western Plantation Sugar Cane Sirup. I any of the railroad depots in this city, in
quantities of five barrels or over, and to refine The Committee appointed by the Illinois it
it at ten cents per gallon, returning to the deState Horticultural Society, at its late session
pot, for each man, an equal amount of sirup, in this city, to report on the subject of refining
hning less its actual loss in refining; or to return the crude Sorghum, or Chinese sugar cane sir
seventy-five gallons for every one hundred galup, visited the works of the Chicago Refinery
lons received. These figures include drayage, on Saturday morning after the adjournment of
cooperage, and repainting the heads. the meeting, and deem the information obtained of sufficient importance to make it public at
The company will sell the refined Sorghum an early day. The following is their report:
under the new name of (now used for the first On visiting the works of the Chicago Sugar time) "
time) WESTERN PLANTATION SIRUP. Small Refining Company, we were cordially received pa
ad packages of ten gallons each may be obtained by Mr. Belcher, and were afforded every op- of them at niyon ve cents per gallon. portunity for obtaining information. We spent 6th. The company will now purchase for furseveral hours in examining into the process by ther experiment 200 or 300 barrels of the crude which the company have so successfully refined article at thirty-five cents per gallon, delivered, the Sorghum sirup and produced the excellent before establishing any regular price at which article exhibited to the Horticultural Society. they will buy it. We were assured by Mr. Belcher, and the Chem- A sirup refinery may be started at a cost of ist and Superintendent Mr. Bender, that there about $12,000. The cost of the machinery was no secret in the process; although expen- | alone in the works above was $60,000. It has sive machinery and thorough practical skill are a capacity for refining 100 bbls. per day in adnecessary to attain the best results.
dition to its regular business. We directed our attention to the following We learn further, from a number of wholepoints:
sale grocers of this city, that the sirup trade lst. What foreign substances are used in re- has greatly fallen off since the introduction of fining? Would their use be likely to render the Chinese cane. In numerous localities the refined product unhealthful? i
country merchants do not keep any but Sor2d. What is the loss in quantity by refining? ghum sirup on sale. 3d. What is the expense of refining?
The cultivation of the Sugar cane in the 4th. How does the refined article rank in
North-West is no longer a matter of doubt. grade with other refined sirups ?
As high as 350 gallons of sirup have been pro5th. How can the farmers get their sirup re
duced per acre. 150 gallons is a small yield. fined ?
Whether sugar can be profitably produced from 6th. Is there any sale for the crude sirup? it is not yet determined.
| We shall soon have a home supply and a surANSWERS.
plus to export to the Eastern States. 1st. A small quantity of lime water is intro
C. T. CHASE,
H. D. EMERY. duced at the commencement of the boiling. Next the sirup is strained through canvas sacks.
| Samples of the Western Plantation Sirup Afterwards it passes into immense bone filters,
may be seen at the office of the Prairie Farmer, containing “bone charcoal.” By these three
No. 204 Lake street, and at the office of the processes a great amount of extraneous vege
Cor. Sec’y of the Illinois State Horticultural table matter is extracted. It is then subjected
Society, No. 40 Clark street, Chicago.---Prairie to a rapid boiling at 160° heat, in what is
Farmer. called a “vacuum pan,” which finishes the
CROPS IN KENTUCKY.-- We have just received So far as we could judge, there was nothing the following memoranda of crops in Kentucky, used to impair, but rather improve the health- from Hon. L. J. Bradford, President of the fulness of the refined product. This cannot Kentucky Agricultural Society: be said of some of the refined sirups offered
1859. in market.
Total number of Hoge... ........ 1,009,153 1,514,274 2d. One hundred gallons of fair crude sirup
Pounds of Tobacco,....... ....... 97,906,903 95,505,548
115,795 143,157 yield about ninety gallons of the refined pro
Pounds of Hemp,.....
... 7,691,816 10,101,157 duct.
Bushels of Corn,.
61,005,316 51,995,956 3d. The cost of refining is not over six cents
Bushels of Wheat,
6,759,329 5,808,178 Bushels of Barley,
213,997 372 138 per gallon in large quantities.
Tons of Pig Metal,...
26,859 22,725 4th. It ranks with the best refined “Golden Tons of Bloom,...
2,515 Sirup.” The Eastern refined sirups are not Tons of Bar Iron,.
6,984 5,389 uniform in quality, except in the higher grades. Crops for 1861 show a very large increase It has none of the “boneset” taste of the unre-over 1860. The wheat, barley, rye and grasses fined sirup, nor the smoky flavor which often look promising. Stock looks very fine; our occurs in other refined sirups.
pastures were never better at this season of 5th. The company offer to receive sirup at the year.-L. J. B., in Ohio Farmer.
STOCK REGISTER. turned. Of course we did not think of comparing
it with the manuscript copy, at the time, and Those Wool Clips Again.
now the copy cannot be found. We would not,
for the whole State of Wisconsin, intentionally LEED'S CENTER, December 10th, 1861. MR. J. W. Hort, Ed. Wis. FARMER— Dear do one of our subscribers, or any one else, the Sir:-In the last Farmer you published a slightest injustice, and therefore most cheerstatement from Mr. A. Pratt, and you cannot fully make room for the explanation contained fail to perceive what an injurious effect the in the foregoing letter. printing of only half of my communication
Salt for Farm Stock. has had upon me, not only in the opinion of Mr. Pratt, but many others who read the
Every person is sensible of the good effects
of salt upon the human system; we know how FARMER.
unwholesome and unpalatable fresh meats and Mr. Pratt says I left it to them to infer, that vegetables are without it. We also know the
avidity with which animals in their wild state my yearling ewes might or might not have seek the salt licks, and the difficulties and danbeen washed, whereas I said 6 lbs. and 2 oz. gers which they will encounter to reach them. of clean washed wool; but the words “clean Will this not also apply to animals in a domest
ic state ? washed wool” were omitted in printing. I All good farmers salt their animals, but not still claim to be ahead as I stated in my first always with sufficient regularity; and there letter, and as it would appear if the whole had are many lazy or careless persons who pass
under the denomination of farmers, though been printed.
they are not worthy of the name, who neglect I did not think these lambs alone were hard this important duty to their stock.
Horses, cattle, and sheep should be regularly to beat at all, for they were the lightest fleeced supplied with salt at all seasons of the year, of my whole flock; but I have 31 breeding without stint. It promotes their health, imewes that sheared 7 lbs. 9 oz. per head, and 17 proves their condition, and when they become
used to it, there is no danger of their taking that averaged per head 8 lbs. 3 oz. Nearly all it in injurious quantities. It promotes their the above, except the yearlings, raised lambs, digestion and destroys worms in the stomach and you see they shear considerable more than larly salted are free from bots and cholic, and
and alimentary canal. Horses that are reguMr. Pratt claims for his. This, the heaviest experience, as well as experiment has shown, shearing, was all omitted to my great injury.
that it is highly beneficial to both cattle and
sheep. My sheep are full blood Spanish, and bred
Boussingault made some observations or exfrom some of the most celebrated flocks in periments with cattle to ascertain the influence Vermont, such as Rich, Webster, Rumsey,
of salt upon fattening them. His experiment prove
that the increase in weight does Hammond, &c., some of which could not be not pay for the salt used. His experiments, got for a round one hundred dollars. Now I which extended over a period of thirteen
months, were tried with cattle as near alike as wish you to correct the error of the Nov. No. possible; the result was that at the end of the which will amend the matter in part; if not, thirteen months those cattle which were liberI shall think others are more highly favored by ally supplied with salt, had a sinooth, glossy
coat, and were lively; while those who were the Farmer than myself. Yours, A. JONES.
without salt were languid and their coats rough
and partially bare. REMARKS OF THE EDITOR.--The communica The fine appearance of the salted cattle will tion to which our friend Joxes refers as pub- command an addition to the price, which will
more than meet the expenses of salt. lished on page 408 of the November number,
It has always been my practice to salt my certainly does him great injustice according to cattle once a week when out of the yard. I his statement in the above. It was received use common coarse salt mixed with bran, in
the proportion of two of bran to one of salt. at the office during our absence East, sent to Imagine your friend S. Harrow, surrounded by the printer by our book-keeper and mailing some fifteen or twenty oxen, steers, cows,
calves, and four or five horses. What better agent, and all printed, ready for distribution, can a good farmer want than thus to collect with the comment at the close, when we re- his cattle around him on Sunday morning, let