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Comparative Statement of the business of the Company
for the years 1859, 1860 and 1861 :
Messrs. Robbins & Chandler, of Rock Terrace Nursery, Madison, Wis., Messrs. Bateham, Tanford & Co., of Columbus Nursery, Columbus, O., and A. R. Whiteney, of Franklin Grove Garden and Nursery, Franklin Grove, Illinois, are entitled to thanks for Descriptive Catalogues of stock. Men whose efforts are honorably directed to the cultivation and introduction of fruits, ornamental trees and flowers have a claim upon our cordial sympathy and friendly co-operation, and the evidences of their prosperity are always heartily welcomed.
compensation of officers, printing, i
holders for cash premiums..........
FOR THE YEAR ENDING
JANUARY 1st, 18 6 2.
policy holders for cash pre-
35,408 66 Am't secured by mortgage and judgment,.....
332 47 Office furniture and fixtures,... 1,000 00 $210.865 76 Whole number of policies issued, .........
14,357 Am't of outstanding risks thereon............ $10,320,789 00 Reported losses awaiting further proof,...... 8,709 SO Losses recently reported,.................
3,433 89 Whole number of policies issued in 1861...
5,778 Amount of outstanding risks thereon,...... 315,173 00 Amount of premium notes thereon,. ........ 93,944 06 Amount of cash premiuins thereon.......... 48,377 36 Total amount of losses reported during the year,...........
of officers and directors-stationery, ex-
The foregoing statement of the business of this Com
pany for the past year gives a gratifying evidence of its STATE OF WISCONSIN,
high standing in the public estimation and of the success DANE COUNTY, T .
of its rules and principles of action. We. the undersigned, being the President and a major
Although its business for the preceding year (1860) was ity of the Directors of the "Madison Mutual Insurance
much larger than that of any previous year, and notwithCompany," do solemnly swear, and each for himself saith,
standing the general depression among farmers the past that the foregoing is a true and correct statement of the season, arising from light crops and low prices, the above affairs of said company in the particulars therein named,
figures show an increase of nearly seventy per cent. in as appears by the books of the company, according to the the number of policies issued, and of over seventy per best of our knowledge and belief.
cent. in the amount of cash premiums for the past year. D. J. POWERS, President.
We invite a careful examination of this report. Ite JOHN W. BOYD,
figures make a stronger argument than any form of SAMUEL D. HASTINGS,
words, and prove a rise and standing in popular favor unB. F. HOPKINS,
paralleled in the history of the Northwest,
DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1862:
J. W. BOYD, Walworth County.
B. F. HOPKINS, Dane County.
D. WORTHINGTON, Waukesha County,
S. D. HASTINGS, Trempeleau County.
G. F. HASTINGS, Dane County."
DAVID ATWOOD, Dane County. uary, A. D. 1862. V. W. ROTH, Notary Public,
G. R. MONTAGUE, La Crosse County.
S. R. MCCLELLAN, Kenosha County.
$216,865 216,865 76
THE WISCONSIN FARMER.
J. W. HOYT, :::::::::: EDITOR.
MADISON, DECEMBER 1, 1862.
The Great International Exhibition.
IHB UNITED KINGDOM OF OREAT BRITAIN.
To England belongs the high honor of originating the idea—or at least of giving that idea life in action—of gathering together, at one place, the representative products of the industry of all the nations of the earth. Still more narrowly and correctly stated, it was His Royal Highness, the noble Prince Albert, who, in the greatness of his truly royal mind, conceived the plan of instituting an Exhibition which should afford to the world's civilization a sure and elevated stand-point, wherefrom to survey the great Past, to gain a just and comprehensive view of the Present, and whereupon to commence a more enlightened and systematic effort for the attainment of the better possible Future. It was natural and proper, therefore, that England's vast metropolis—which is also the world's metropolis—should be selected as the location whereat the proposedUniversalExposition should be held. The first International Exhibition was accordingly located there; and the second, inasmuch as the scheme had its organization there, was instituted at the same great centre.
This circumstance gave to Great Britain an advantage; but it was an advantage to which she was justly entitled—if, indeed, it be not true that she alone, of all the nations was competent to the successful execution of a scheme involving the necessity for so great a concentration of influence, energy and capital. The question in which she is now most interested, and the answer to which determines the share of honor to which she is entitled as the
leading industrial nation of the world is, whether she acquitted herself worthily.
How nobly she vindicated her right to this high distinction, on the occasion of the Exhibition of 1851, the vast display of her manifold works of Industry and of Art at that time made, and especially that glorious Crystal Palace, which the poet Chaucer would seeav to have foreshadowed in the lines,
"I dreamt I was Within a temple mado of glass,"
sufficiently attest. Nor has she acquitted herself less nobly in this, her second peaceful contest with all the nations. Would we had the power to do her full justice in the account wo have to give. But that is not possible with ou." imperfect knowledge of the many arts represented in so vast a department, with the brief imperfect notes gathered in weeks where months should have been employed, nor finally in any event within the little space to which these cursory papers must necessarily be restricted.
To say that Great Britain, including her colonies, occupied one-fourth of the whole space provided within the vast Exhibition Building would certainly be within bounds, and we feel confident that one-third would be nearer the true estimate. Every department, from the multiform products of the mine up to the highest region of Art, was most nobly represented. In Class 1.,
MININQ, QUABRYING, METAl.IATHV AND MINERAL PRODUCTS,
England and Scotland alone offered a larger number and greater variety of articles than all the rest of the world. Many of the exhibitions were logically and most beautifully arranged—the ore first, then the crude metal from the smelting furnace, then the refined metal, and finally the tarious implements and articles of hardware for the manufacture of which that particular metal was fouad to be best adapted; these tarious articles themselves being arranged to as to illustrate the successive steps necessary in the process of manufacture.
There were superior freestones from the Northumberland and Ketton quarries; granites from North Devon, Aberdeen, Tavestock, and Macclesfield quarries: marble? from Devonshire, Dorset, County of Galway and Derbyshire; sand and "grit" stones of good quality for grind stones, together with fine specimens of their manufacture, from Newcastle-on-Tyne, Yorkshire, Middleton, Wigan, dateshead, and from the Pontvair quarries in South Wales; magnificent specimens of slate from Carnavonshire, Swansea, l'ortmadoc, from the Burlington quarries, Lancashire, and from the Tintagal quarries, Carnelford; building stones in great variety from many parts of the kingdom; beautiful vases, tables, mantles, and various ornaments made of the black Derbyshire marble, serpentine, Derbyshire fluor spar, and the more precious minerals; china and porcelain clays from Cornwall and Plympton; fire clays, together with retorts, bricks and crucibles, from Stourbridge and Newcastle-on-Tyne; tobacco pipes, and potters' clay, with manufactured articles, from Kingsteignton in Devonshire, and from Derbyshire; terra cotta clay from Stamford; purified Fullers' earth for various manufactures, from Finsbury; together with very many materials of like character, of which our limited space well not allow even a mention.
Coals of every description—from the inexhaustible mines of Newcastle-on-Tyne, from Glamorganshire, Warwickshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and numerous other localities —the best in the world.
And then the metallic ores and metals proper —what a great variety, and what vast quantities there were of these! Iron ores, pigs, and manufactures in iron, from the Derby Iron Works, Derby, from Ulverstone, from near
Limerick, from Cornwall, Whitehaven, Cumberland, Swansea, Darlington, Stockton-onLees, Aberdare. Ferryhill in Durham, from Oxfordshire. and other places—a splendid collection.
There were also fine specimens, in barge quantity, of lead and silver—lead ores from the mines of Durham, Cardiganshire, Cornwall, Shropshire, and Essex; of copper ores and copper manufactures, from Glamorganshire. Yorkshire, Shrewsbury, Cornwall; xinc, nickel and silver ores and metals, from Swansea: tin from Cornwall and Essex, with models of furnaces and machinery employed in smelting and working; aluminium and its alloys from Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Where there aro so many things—raw materials, processes and machinery, used in preparing the various minerals above named for the use of man—deserving consideration in detail, it seems difficult to select subjects for special remark. Yet, as it is our object, not so much to gratify a laudable curiosity on the part of our readers to know what was exhibited by ike various nations in competition, and the portion of the respective countries from which certain articles were derived, as to communicate valuable practical information, we must dwell for a little time upjn special products and processes in this class.
TUE MINERAL RE80UBCK3 Or GBEAT BBITAIK, AS ILLUSTRATED,
can, of course, only be glanced at in this connection. Still, as the immensity of these resources more than any other material advantage, his secured to the English nation the proud position it occupies amjng the great powers of the earth, a. mere glance will be interesting to tli0se of our readers who are not already familiar with the whole subject.
Building Stones, MarbUa, ,jc.—Probably no other nation possesses a more extensive and varied supply of tho marbles, other building stones, and stones susceptible of use for ornamental purposes—a circumstance of great importance, as it renders possible that rich massiveness and durability of public works which so remarkably characterize the national edifices and other structures of (he British Kingdom.
Granite—whioh is one of the most durable of building stones—as we have seen, abounds in many localities and is, likewise, very extensively used in the constiuction of roads, bridges, fences and monuments. Thus the granites of the west of England have supplied the Commercial Docks of London, tho Hull.Great Western & Birkenhoad Docks, the Keyham Docks at Devonport, the London Docks, the Thames Embankment, many of the great stone bridges which span the Thames, and many other simi lar works, and have even been exported to Denmark and other parts of the world for like purposes. The beautiful granites of Scotland, especially those remarkable red and mottled granites, found in the neighborhood of Aberdeen, and known as "Aberdeen Granite," furnish a most desirable material for pillars, stair railings, balustrades, obelisks, &c, and are found thus appropriated in all parts of England and Scotland. While Ireland is supplied with quite as valuable dark colored, reddish gray, and bluish gray granites from the extensive quarries which lie in the counties of Aicklow, Canlow, and Kilkenny, along the southeastern coast, and in the county of Galway, on tho west. The samples on exhibition were very fine.
Limestone abounds in many parts of the kingdom, and the varieties of marbles are numerous and interesting. Many of the specimens of manufactures of the Derbyshire marbles were as remarkable for the variety of their color—white, gray, russet,' dove, blue, and black—and for the beauty of their motile, occasioned by the presence of innumerable and curious fossils, as for fineness of workmanship and beauty of design.
The limestones and marbles of Devonshire arc scarcely less interesting than thoso of Derbyshire, possessing beautiful tints of color and abounding in fossils. Ireland, also, is rich in marbles—Cumunara, Donegal, Churchtown and Kerry abounding in white; Kilkenny, Galway, Churchtown, Kerry, Tipperary and Doneraile, in black; and almost every portion of
the large limestone district of the Island in colored marbles.
The Serpentine of Great Britain is one of the most beautiful stones in the world for ornamental purposes. It is composed of silica, magnesia and water, (hydrated silicate of magnesia, therefore,) and is green and red, with its several shades of these colors arranged in striped, dotted, and clouded delineations.— Hence its name—serpentine, strpent-like. It is so soft that it can be turned in the lathe, and yet is tough and takes a beautiful polish.— Moreover, it withstands tho action of the atmosphere exceedingly well, and is admirably adapted for chimney pieces, columns, vases, &c, &c. It occurs in large quantities in Cornwall—where by means of powerful machinery it is manufactured on an extensivo scale—in Anglesea, and Bauffshire, Scotland; in Unst and Fettar in Shetland; and also in Mayo and Galway, Ireland.
Specimens of Fine Work in Stone.—Among the numerous specimens of work in the lapidary's art, wc should not omit to speak of some remarkably beautiful examples of the inlaying of marbles, executed in Devonshire and Derbyshire. The work is done in imitation of the Florentine art, the surface of the tables presenting the most beautiful floral and other designs—the different requisite colors and shades of color being produced by different colored marbles or more precious stones, such as jasper, agates, chalcedony, lapis lazuli, &c. A piece of black marble is selected of the size and thickness required for tho table top intended to be inlaid. The design is then drawn upon the table and the marble is skilfully cut away to the proper depth withfn the outline, and stoues of the requisite color are fitted into their places so as to bring out the design.— This is the process employed in the Derbyshire works, and there is probably no handsomer or more durable execution of inlaying in the world. In Devonshire, the veneering process is used—the designs being produced by cementing to the surface of the marble the various pieces of accurately fitted stones. Properly speaking, therefore, it is onlaying. Malachite when applied to large surfaces is always put on in this way.
The China Stone of England is found exclusively in Cornwall, where about one hundred thousand dollars worth are annually raised. It is a peculiar kind of granite, partially decomposed; the peculiarity consisting in the absence of mica and the presence of glossy scales of a greenish yellow talc, instead. This Cornwall China-stone is worked up in Staffordshire; being used as a glazing for the liner kinds of ware
The Slate on exhibition, in the various forms of roofing slates, brick slates, for paving, chimney-pieces, tables, drinkingfountains, &c, shows that this material abounds, that it is of a very superior quality, and tiiat it is coming into very extensive and varied use. Some of the samples shown were the most remarkable specimens of which we have any knowledge. One slab measured some twelve feet by seven or eight, and had a uniform thickness of about three inches. There were likewise samples of roofing slate of a quarter of an inch in thickness, ten inches wide, and ten feet in length—perfectly uniform and almost smooth enough, as they came from the quarry, for use as school slates. These particular specimens were from Langoilen in North Wales, and belong to what is known by Geologists as the Upper Silurian system.—. There are other valuable quarries in various other pans of Wales, and belonging to the Lower Silurian and Cambrian formations.— Slate is also found in Cornwall, Devonshire, Lancashire, and various other parts of the kingdom. Mr. Robert Hunt, F. 11. S., Keeper of the Mining Records, &c, gives the aggregate product of the several quarries of England as 388,250 tons per annum. London alone consumes about 60,000 tons—one-third of this quantity being in slabs and the remainder in roofing slates, which last are sold in nine sizes, designated as "ladies," "countesses," (three sizes) "duchesses," (two sizes) "queens," "rftffs." and "imnerials." The "lftdips" nieim
ure 1G inches by 8, and weigh 25 cwt. per thousand of 1200 slates. The "duchesses" measure 24x12; and this is the largest size which are sold by the thousand—all above going by the ton.
A process has been invented for giving to slate a beautiful enamel, which very much increases their value, and must serve to introduce it still more extensively as a substitute for marble.
The Chalks and Whiting on exhibition were from Gray's Chalk Pits, in Essex, and from Beverly in Yorkshire- These products are derivable, however, from many other sources— chalk, particularly, being the principal rock formation in many of the bluffs, hills and ridges of England. The Grays Quarries are remarkable for the fossil remains of the mgmalia and for the variety of useful substances found with the chalk—whiting, whiting sand, (for asphalte and plate glass), black flint for pottery, building and gun flints, foundry loam for moulds for iron castings, and luting for furnaces being among the number.
Various valuable Clays likewise oocur in many localities, as noticed in the foregoing enumeration of "Mineral Products, &c."
The Porcelain or China Clays (Kaolin) which have furnished so many beautiful manufactures for the Exhibition arc chiefly found in Cornwall and Devonshire. They occur in formations resembling decomposed granite, and when first raised from their beds look like common mortar with a rich dissemination of quartz and mica. Sometimes it contains iron pyites in the form of veins and small masses of shorl, which gives to it a rusty color, and lience.reqnires to be separated.
The process of preparation for use is interesting, and as we have beds of the clay in this State, we herewith give the process as described in the Handbook of Mr. Hunt:
"After the impurities (those mentioned above) have aH been carefully separated, tha clay is next conreyed to the washing place and is tbeu ready for the first operation of the process. A heap of the clay being placed on an lncliued platform, on which a little stream of water talta from the height of about six feet, the workman constant