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A Missionary in the Right Field. lit of more value than the article which the auMessrs. J. W. Hoyt & Co.-Enclosed I send thor proposes for us, and accordingly publish you four dollars. two to pay for the FARMER it just as received. The man who, for the sake this year and next, and two to pay for the of gratifying a perverted appetite of any kind Atlantic Monthly, for 1862. Please send me a is willing to deny to himself and family the receipt for the same, and oblige
bread of knowledge, is a heathen, and the fitYours truly. test subject in the world for missionary effort.
We hope “A Well Wisher” and others who P. S.-1 recieved a letter from you on Satur
appreciate the mission of the FARMER, will day, asking me to do something for you in the
persevere in well-doing. way of getting up a large club for the FARMER. I should be very happy to do so, if I could, but Progress of Agriculture in France. it seems difficult at present. The farmers here Since 1815 her foreign trade has quintupled, most all plead poverty; still the most of them her manufactures have quadrupled, her agri
culture has doubled its produce, under the pay enough every three months for tobacco to
influence of those three great principles of pay for the Farmer a year, at least. I have peace, justice and freedom, which are the been preaching to them for the last seven years, eternal counterpoise of the hateful effects of
war, violence and despotism. Eighty thousand every opportunity, that it would be for their
miles of roads have been opened in the counbest good to quit the use of that poisonous, try; 10,000 miles of railway have been comfiltby weed, and spend their money for the pleted, or are now in progress; canals have
been made, rivers rendered navigable, ports Farmer, or some such purpose. I speak to
and docks constructed. The progress of rural them from experience, too, having tried it for economy, especially from 1815 to 1847, kept the last fifteen years myself, and it has fur- pace with this great movement, and has not
been sensibly thrown back by the unfavorable nished me with from four to seven weekly pa- and extraordinary courses of the last few years, pers, besides the FARMER, and money saved at in spite of bad seasons, the potato disease, the
vine disease, the mortality of the silk worm, that; and then there is the happy thought that
and the disturbed state of the political world. I am not contributing to poison God's pure air, The tenure of land has of course been modified when I walk the streets these beautiful morn
to a considerable extent by the laws of succes
sion established in France, but this change is ings and evenings. But it is hard converting less rapid and complete than is commonly imthem, and I am almost tired of talking to them. agined in England. Taking the area of France Suppose you write and publish an article on
at 45,000,000 of hectares, M. de Lavergne
computes that one-third of the soil is still held the injurious and pernicious effects of tobacco, by 50,000 large proprietors, possessing an avin the February number, and I will get my erage of 75 acres ; and the last third by 5,
000,000 of small proprietors, possessing an neighbors to read it, and perhaps bring some
average of 7 acres. This calculation is obviof them over to our side. I wish every farmerously merely approximative; but it is certain in the State, that could, would subscribe for that there are in France 16,000 land owners
paying 401. a year and upwards in land tax to the FARMER. Only think of a Tarmer doing the State, and about 37,000 land owners paywithout a paper of any kind himself, and bring- ing 201. to 401. ing up a family of children in the same igno
In the allotment of the soil it seems that
since 1789 about 5,000,000 of acres have been rance of what is going on in the world around added to the productive area of the country; them. But so it is with many, and so it will vineyards and orchards and meadows have
considerably increased; woods have diminish
ed. In tillage cultivation the fallows have demore subscribers, if I can, and send in their creased by one half; the growth of wheat, names with “the needful."
barley and oats has increased a third ; that of
rye and the inferior kinds of grain has diminA WELL WISHER TO THE FARMER.
ished. Water-meadows have tripled in extent, Sauk Co., Dec. 30, 1861.
and the cultivation of roots, which was hardly
known in 1789, now covers 5,000,000 of acres. REMARKS.-The above communication hits But the quality of the crops has risen even the nail so directly on the head, that we deem more than their extent. The quantity of wheat actually grown has nearly doubled ; live stock
STOCK REGISTER. has also doubled in number and value; the silk crop and the rape oil crop have quintupled. The production of home grown sugar has come
Abuses of the Horse---No. 4. into existence, and the growth of wine has also doubled. From these facts M. de Lavergne
SPAVIX. concludes that the total value of the agricultu- " Any bony growth or bony enlargement, ral produce of the empire must now exceed
however small, which is to be seen or felt upon 200,000,0001. sterling, or at the rate of about 61. per head of the population. He also infers the inner side or the hock is a 'spavin.'” Usuthat rents have risen since 1789 in the propor- ally the enlargement is produced by a hardention of 12 to 30; farmers' profits in the proportion of 5 to 10; outlay in that of 1 to 5;
ing of the ligaments or a transformation of them taxes on land and dues have diminished in the into bone. Sometimes the disease only partiproportion of 7 to 5; and laborer's wages have ally impedes that grace of motion which chardoubled."
The 200,000,0001., at which the annual value acterizes the action of the perfect limb, and of French agricultural products is nowe stima-again it becomes not only a deformity, but ted, is 75,000,0001., or 60 per cent. over the
produces a positive and very serious lameness. estimated annual value of the same interest 50 years ago; and even our own agriculture, we
As to cause, it is, in most cases, traceable to presume, can hardly exceed so rapid a move- strains occasioned by the horse being put to an ment as that. We quote the following local ! pictures and particulars :
; unreasonable test of his speed, by his being "Large fortunes have at all times been made too severely taxed in the way of jumping over by agriculture in the neighborhood of Paris, ditches or carelessly-thrown-down bars, or but more especially in the last half century. Some of the farmers have their million of compelled to draw too heavy a load. francs, many more their 20,0001, or 30,0001. Detection in the advanced stages is not diffiFarming is here an art, employing large capi
Po cult, as the enlargement and the lameness will tals and returning large profits, especially in that district called France par excellence, be show for themselves. But in the earlier period cause it formed part of the original domain of of development it often requires the closest Hugh Capet. Large estates are here also less divided. More than 3,000 of the rural assess
scrutiny for its detection. In the language of ments exceed 1,000f., and there are many land Mayhew, “there are four points of view to be owners having from 2,0001. to 4,0001. a year.
taken: behind the animal, though always at a -London Ag. Gazette.
safe distance from the heels; in front, but not The Manure Yard the Farmer's Meal Chest. close to the horse, yet so near that the exami
Two from two leaves noTHING! All the ner must bend to view the hocks between the streaks of good fortune in the world can't up-fore legs; and from both the sides. In all set this simple proposition. But then is it equally true, that one from ten leaves but nine. And so it will prove with our rich soils. The onetenth loss may not be perceptible to the farmer these positions it is prudent now to elongate who shuts his eyes to the gradual deterioration the distance, and now to approach nearer, of his soil, but the time will surely come when then to move the head about, and occasionally he will lament that he has sold off or thrown to step to the right or left. In short, it is adaway the cream and has nothing but bonny visable to get as many different points of sight clabber left! FARMERS, SAVE YOUR MA- as possible; for in one, and only in one, may NURES!
a spavin be detected on the hock, which seen
from any other point shall look perfectly clear. Har The Dioscorea, or Chinese Potato is said to be growing in favor in France, and At the same time, from every point, care should graduaHy becoming common in their markets. be taken to compare one hock with the other;
if the slightest difference in point of size can ware the hoof and shoe, this is evidence be detected, it is fair to suppose one is enlarg- against his soundness. ed by the commencement of disease. Any
| “The cure for Spavin is good food and rest, indication of this sort is always to be sought-perfect rest,--such rest or stagnation as a for. The disease may have just begun; but healthy horse submits to in the stable. This it is impossible to say where it may stop enjoined for months, with the occasional appli
In examination for spavin, however, allow- cation of a mild blister with the best of food, ance should be made for the age of the horse. to enable nature to rectify man's abuse, will Spavins in young horses may be regarded with do more good, cost no more money, and occualarm; in old animals, they generally are py no more time, than the devilries usually perfected, and, howerer large they may be, adopted. * * * While inflamation exists, probably they will grow no bigger; on the apply poultices, and well rub the part with a contrary, as the years increase, they are usu- mixture of belladona and opium-one ounce ally diminished, being absorbed; but the bones, of each rubbed down with an ounce of wateronce locked together are never subsequently or place opium and camphor on the poultices; unloosed, although all the swelling should en- or rub the enlargement with equal parts of tirely disappear.”
chloroform and camphorated oil. The pain Having examined the part carefully with the having subsided, and the heat being removed, eye, you may next proceed to a more close and apply with friction some of the following direct inspection, taking the part in hand and ointment; it may reduce the disease by prodeliberately feeling first one and then the other voking absorption; at all events, it will check in the manner represented in the annexed cut ; all further growth by rendering further deposit
always taking almost impossible :-
But after all, in this disease, as well as in most as not to be dam
others, “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound aged, should he
attempt to kick
and to have the
HUMANITY AND HORSES.—The following reperson who holds marks by Mr. Rarey are worthy the considerthe bridle holdation of every man who has anything to do up, at the same
with horses: “Almost every wrong act the horse
commits is from fear or mismanagement; one time, the fore leg on the same side.
harsh word will so excite a nervous horse as to
increase his pulse ten beats a minute. When Next comes the trotting test, which to the ex
we remember that we are dealing with dumb perienced eye, will surely discover the disease brutes, and reflect how difficult it must be for should it have advanced to the stage of impeding
them to understand our motions, signs and lan
guage, we should never get out of patience with the free movement of the bones and muscles
scles them because they do not understand us, or of the limb. And here one caution should be wonder at their doing things wrong. With all observed—to make this examination while the
our intellect, if we were placed in the horse's
situation, it would be difficult for us to underHORSE is cool, and not after he has been stand the driving of some foreigner, of foreig warmed up by action. If the owner objects to ways and foreign language. We should always this you have a right to suspect that all is not
recollect that our ways and language are just
as foreign and unknown to the horse as any right.
language in the world is to us, and should try In trotting, if the horse does not lift his foot to practice what we could understand were we up easily and place it down squarely and work on his understanding rather than on the firmly, but inclines to drag the toe so as to different parts of his body."
The Feeding and Fattening of Stock. cold and not permitted the same amount of
exercise. * (From an Essay prepared for the Royal Dublin Society, by EDMUND W. Dave, M. B., M. R. 1. A., Prof. of Agri
| Hence we see the folly of those farmers who culture and Agricultural Chemistry.]
do not pay sufficient attention to the warmth of their stock, but suffer them to roam about
in the open air, exposed to the most inclement I shall now refer to some practical points,
weather. showing the influence which warmth, exercise,
The amount of exercise is another most imporand light have on the quantity of food required by animals dependent on the foregoing prin
tant point to attend to. The more an animal ciples, and then offer a few remarks on the
moves about, the quicker it will breathe, and
the more starch, gum, sugar, fat, and other food of fattening animals, and the proper ven
respiratory elements it must have in its food ; tilation of the places where they are kept. 1 1st. Warmth. --We have seen that the heat of
and if an additional quantity of these subthe animal is inseparably connected with the
stances is not given to supply the increased process of respiration, which is merely a modi
demand, the fat and other parts of the body fied form of combustion, dependent originally
will be drawn upon, and the animal will be
come thinner; also, as before observed, every on the food which is taken to sustain it.Hence it follows clearly that there is a direct
motion of the body produces a corresponding relation between the temperature at which the
destruction of the muscles which produce that animal is kept and the amount of food requir
motion. It is, therefore, quite evident that ed by the animal.
the more the animal moves about, the more of This is a point of great practical importance
the heat-producing and flesh-forming principle to the feeder of stock; for by exposing his
it must receive in its food. Hence we see the cattle to cold they require additional food to
to propriety of keeping our cattle in sheds and
yards, and not suffering them (those particukeep up the necessary heat of their bodies; but, on the other hand, by keeping them shel
larly which we intend to fatten) to rove
about, consuming more food, and wasting away tered and warm, he not only diminishes the
more rapidly the various tissues of the body quantity of food required to sustain the animal
already formed, and making it more expensive heat, and other functions of the body, but likewise causes a larger proportion of the food
and difficult to fatten them. We must not, which is consumed to go to the formation of
however, run into the opposite extreme, and
"confine the action of the limbs too much; for flesh and fat.
| whatever diminishes the ease and comfort of This is not only shown on scientific grounds,
grounds: the animal will interfere with its thriving, and but is also proved by the practical experiments of various agricultural gentlemen. I shall
il tend to retard its fattening. only refer to the experiment of Mr. Childers. For this reason we see why yards and close by way of illustration.
boxes are superior to stalls. When the animal That gentleman made a comparative experi- is tied up, its movements are confined, and it ment on two lots of twenty sheep each; the gets in some degree cramped by its more or lots being as nearly equal in weight as possible. less fixed position; the muscles, too, for want One lot was folded in an open field, and the of exercise, become relaxed, and in many other was placed under a shed in a yard. Both cases unable to support the weight of the ani. were fed for three months. viz., during Janu-mal. The happy medium, therefore, seems to ary, February and March, upon as much tur
be, to give the animal sufficient space to turn nips as they chose to eat, with half a pound about freely, and no more. linseed cake and half a pound of barley, to- These latter observations, however, are more gether with a little hay and salt for each sheep applicable to fattening than to rearing and daily.
growing stock; for in the latter you want them The sheep in the field consumed the same to have a good constitution, and to increase in quantity of food from first to last, viz., 19 lbs. their general size and muscles. These objects of turnips daily for each sheep, along with the can only be attained by considerable exercise allowance of linseed cake, barley, hay, and in the open air, and the use of a highly nusalt, and increased in weight 36 stones 8 lbs. tritious diet.
Those under the shed consumed at first as The absence of light also exercises a very much food as the others, but after the third great influence over the power possessed by week they ate 2 tbs. of turnips less each sheep food in increasing the size of animals. in the day; and on the ninth week again 2 lbs. Whatever arouses and excites the attention less, or only 15 lbs. instead of 19 lbs. each of the animal, and makes it restless, increases sheep daily; of the linseed cake they also ate the natural waste of the different parts of the about one-third less than the other lot, and yet system, and diminishes the tendency of food they increased in weight 56 stones 6 lbs., or to enlarge the body. To the rearers of poultry about 20 stones weight over the others. the rapidity with which fowls fatten when
Thus, the cold and exercise in the field kept in the dark is well known; and direct caused the one lot to consume more food and experiment on other animals, whether by keepform less flesh than those protected from the ing them in the dark or by the cruel practice --- -- --------of sowing up their eyelids, as is adopted in mers look to it as the chief source of profit, India, have led to similar results.
even from an expensive system of feeding. Absence of light, from whatever cause pro- But whatever system of feeding we adopt, duced, seems to exercise a soothing and quiet- physiology and chemistry have shown that it ing influence on all animals, increasing their must contain the five following principles of disposition to take rest, making less food ne- nutrition, viz., the saccharine, or those subcessary, and causing them to store up a greater stances resembling sugar; the oleaginous or portion of what they eat, in the form of fat oily; the albuminous, or those substances reand muscle.
sembling the albumen or white of the egg; the There exists a great diversity of opinion as saline or alkaline and earthy salts; and lastly, to what is the most profitable food for the fat- the aqueous or watery, all of which we find in tening of stock; this, of course, will depend suitable food, and those substances which are on a great variety of circumstances, as the regarded as most nutritious are those which season of the year, the kind of stock, the ag- contain a proper admixture of each, as, for ricultural capabilities of the district, and a example, milk, bread, or meat: they each connumber of other circumstances.
tain the five necessary principles of nutrition. As to the winter feeding of bullocks, some Hence we see that the food required by an maintain that Swedish turnips and chopped animal, to keep it in health, must of necessity straw or hay are the best materials for manu- be a mixed kind, and the skillful feeder of stock facturing beef; others, that a moderate quan- will not employ any one description of food tity of oil-cake, about from 3 lbs. to 5 lbs. alone, but will use a variety of alimentary subdaily, according to the size of the animals, stances. He will also occasionally change the economizes the turnips and improves the quali- kind of food, or alter the proportions in which ty of the meat and manure, so that they more he gives the different substances. He will than pay for the additional expense of the also adapt the quality of food to the age of the oil-cake.
animal, and the purposes for which it is fed. Any of our ordinary kinds of straw, but for although every crop which the farmer still better that of beans or peas, when cut raises contains all the substances required by into chaff and moistened with a kind of soup animals, yet some contain more of one kind of made of linseed meal, has been given with matter, and some of another; so that it regreat advantage.
quires some attention on the part of the feeder It is thought that the expense of making the of stock to give that mixture of food which soup may be dispensed with by merely moist- will contain the five principles of nutrition in ening the chopped straw with water, and then that proportion best suited to the age and consprinkling over it about two pounds or so of dition of his stock. oil-cake meal (wheat bran, or corn meal will /
Ventilation.--But all systems of keeping and
Ventilation _But o likewise answer an excellent purpose.-Ed.) for
D.) feeding stock will fail, and be attended with for two of the feeds, the other two being tur
great loss to the agriculturist, if proper attennips and straw.
tion is not paid to ventilation. It appears that the error with many hitherto
Cattle have been kept in sheds and houses so has been, that of using too large a proportion badly constructed as regards the supply of air, of roots in the feeding of their stock, which,
that they have been compelled to breathe an by their containing so large a proportion of
atmosphere loaded with deadly poison, instead water (viz., about 88 per cent, and upwards), **
of being supplied with pure air. makes it difficult to combine with so great a " proportion of fluid a sufficient quantity of.
I need hardly say that during the respiration
of animals a very large amount of carbonic more solid and nutritious food, consistent with the capacity of the stomach of the animal; for
acid (a most deadly gas) is produced; thus, a
man in twenty-four hours produces about 21 it must be ever borne in mind that it is not the
Ibs.; a cow upwards of 21 lbs.; and a horse quantity of food which we put into the stom
| upwards of 24 Ibs. ach of an animal which accomplishes the ob
It has been ascertained by direct experiment ject of enlarging its size, but that which is
that air containing 5 per cent. of this gas acts thoroughly digested and assimilated.
as a poison on animals. In order to effect this object, and make the
By this gas occurring in much smaller quanfood more nutritious and condensed, bruised +
tity in air-as, for example, 1 per cent.-will corn, beans, or oil-cake have been added to the
gradually injure the health of animals. turnips and hay or straw, the great constitu
In nature such attention is paid to this cirents of the food of stock.
cumstance, that, though enormous quantities * * * We may lay it down as a principle of carbonic acid are continually being sent in the feeding of our cattle that the richer and into the atmosphere from a great variety of more nourishing the food we give them, the sources, still a number of circumstances are better will be the meat they form, and the made by Infinite Wisdom to combine together more valuable the manure they produce. to prevent the accumulation of this noxious
This latter, the making of manure, is a point substance, so that its average quantity in the of much practical importance, and many far- atmosphere does not exceed about 2 parts in