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= == = = What towns, what villages, what pastoral the crowds, the wealth, the prosperity, the wealth will be added to those it already poss- national supremacy that this road will give esses, and out of these what new free States birth to, overpower the most lively imaginawill emerge into life and greatness! What in- tion. * numerable auxiliary lines will branch off from the main trunk to newly discovered and fertile
Mortar for Building. plains, to happy valleys, and to the exhaustless inineral wealth which lies yet "unprospected'' |
In common practice, the cohesion for mortar in the teeming Sierras and the gorges and
is greatly impaired by using too large a progolden sands of the rivers which sweep their
portion of sand; it should never exceed two bases. What is to prevent inillions of oppress
parts, by measure, to one of lime paste. A
cask of liine weighing 280 lbs., made into eight ed Europeans from abandoning their ties to the soil which gives them black bread for their
oubic feet of lime paste, should be mixed with daily food, and demands all else for their rul
16 bushels of damp sand. The notion used to
be generally entertained that the longer lime ers; what is to prevent them from 2 general hegira to the regions of gold, when the transit
was slaked before it was used, the better would will be so safe, easy, and economical, and
be the mortar made of it. This, however, is
not the case with our common fat lime and wages may be earned at every mile of the way? | In the direct advantages to ourselves, we may
sand mortars. The sand should be mixed with estimate the time saved in crossing to the Pa
the slaked lime as soon as the latter becomes cific Ocean and going to the Eastern world, the
cold, and no more water should be employed
than will reduce the lime to a thick pasie. In saving of expense in freights, in insuranc, in labor, the increased supplies of gold, the shift
I preparing mortar, the unslaked lime should be ing of capital from Europe to the United States,
placed on boards and sheltered from the sun the general distribution of means to live and
and rains; it should be open above and surto enjoy life, the advance of the useful and
rounded with some sand. The water necessary rəfined arts, the closer connection of the States, I
to slake lime should be poured upon it with the consolidation of the principles on which
any suitable vessel, and care should be taken our political fabric rests, and our entire inde
to stir the lime so as to bring the water into pendence of the effete European systems under
contact with every portion, when it may be which man has so long been kept down and
left until all the vapor has passed off The "made to mourn."
sand may now be incorporated with the lime
by means of a hoe or shovel; and, if necessary, All these results we may safely anticipate. a little water may be added to produce a homoThe present troubles we are encountering, will geneous, consistent paste, when it is ready for prove blessings in disguise. In all ages and use. Sand from the sea-shore should never be countries, principles important in their day employed for making mortar without being bring forth their fruits at maturity. Waters first washed with fresh water, because the salt long undisturbed become stagnant, and we left in such sand is liable to absorb moisture should lay these trials to heart like philoso- and prevent the mortar becoming hard. In phers, or what is best, like Christians. Many putting up walls of brick or stone, care should of the best elements in the American character, I be taken that the stones or bricks be moistenhitherto dormant and unvalued, are coming ed before they come in contact with the morforth with an unsurpassed splendor. Forti-tar. Every brick and stone should be laid in tude, courage, persistency, self-denial, gener-la good bed of mortar, and should receive a osity, patriotisin, ability, these have at last blow to fix it firmly. The bricks should not come to the front, where, I trust in God, they be laid merely, as is the common custom, but will remain, not again to be driven into the forced down so as to press the mortar into all shade by political managers, who are forever the pores and crevices. The superintendent “purring and mousing after petty schemes of of a building should give his personal attenpolitical advancement."
tion to the vertical joints in the walls, as the Some of these qualities of the American masons frequently neglect to fill them up with character are showing their power in the de- mortar.---Scientific American. velopment of this work we have in hand. We are to lay out and construct the longest con
The Atlantic Telograph. tinuous line of railway in the world. Its milestones, if I may be allowed an Irish license Intelligence may be expected at any moment of speech, will be set along the parallels of from the British steamer which was dispatchlongitude, which will be hourly passed by the ed from St. John some months ago to take a trains, at a speed proportioned to their dist- new line of soundings along the coast of Newance apart. Those travelers going west will foundland, and half way across the ocean, enjoy a prolonged twilight, those coming east | where she was to meet another British steamer will have an earlier day. The journey will(the Porcupine) which had been assigned to a not be more than we shall have taken, who similar duty along the Irish coast and the other come hither from New York and are about to half of the Great Atlantic Cable route. The return. Finally, the revenve, the commerce, Admiralty having ordered each steamer to return to her starting point, the results of the SCIENCE, ART, STATISTICS. exploration of the western half will be first reported from St. John. The object of the new survey is to find the best places for the
IRON EXPERIMENT.-A simple illustration will shore cable, and to ascertain, if possible, a
serve to show two facts connected with iron; still better range of soundings for the main
the first is elasticity, and the second the power line than the one determined on at the first
exerted by pressure of the hand of any person. survey
Make a hoop of one-inch square iron about the The Porcupine, we learn, has already re
size of a man's hat, let the inside of the hoop turned to Plymouth, and the Liverpool Mercury
be made quite smooth and true. Such a hoop gives the following as the result of its labors :
being examined, it would appear that the power "Some of the soundings extended to a depth even
Wheren of a horse could in no way alter its shape of 2,500 fathoms. The visit of the steamer to
or form, provided the strain be put to it fairly Rockall, on the 14th of August, seems to have
and equably. Now make a rod of iron of the been prompted by a desire on the part of the
thickness of a lead pencil, that shall exactly fit Lords of the Admiralty to be able to judge,
the diameter of the inside of the hoop, so that by a knowledge of its depth and character, of
when placed in the hoop, it will not fall out the expediency of dropping a cable across this!
unless the hoop be altered in shape. If, acting bank, for the purpose of connecting Ireland in a similar way, we took a child's wooden with Iceland and America. On the ridge of
hoop with a stick across it in the center, and the banks. soundings varied from 90 to 160 then pressed it at the sides opposite to that of fathoms : fish were most abundant: the bot. I the cross stick, the hoop would assume an oval
n consisted of mud and and The diagrams shape, and, of course, the cross stick would returns, and reports from the officers engaged
vel fall out. Just so does the iron hoop described on board the Porcupine have been sent to act; when any one presses it, the iron rod falls Whitehall for the consideration in the first out, showing clearly the elasticity of the iron. place of the Lords of the Admiralty, after | The hoop will become oval shaped with a very which communication will be made by their little pressure, not greater than that which can lordships to the directors of the Atlantic Tele be exerted by a young girl. -Septimus Piesse. graph Company."- Merchant's Magazine.
How to TAN SKINS.--1. Take two parts of New Telegraph Lines.
salt petre and one of alum; pulverize finely,
mix them and sprinkle evenly over the flesh Russia.-Accounts from St. Petershurr state side of the skin; then roll the skin tightly tothat at the end of August there were in Russia gether, and let it remain a few days, according versts of
to the weather, then scrape the skin till it is miles.) The number of stations was 150. An soft and pliable. I have tanned skins in this
dditional length of 10.335 versts is in course way so that they would be as soft and white as of being established.
buckskins. NEW YORK AND LONDON. --In July last com.l2. “A reader" wishes to know the mode of munication by electric telegraph could be made tanning coon and fox skins with the fur on. I between London and Tumen. in Siberia. 4,039 will give him my mode of operation. If the miles distance. It is expected that the wires skin is green from the body, scrape all the flesh will be extended to Nikolaivski. on the Pacific from it, then pulverize equal parts of salt petre by the end of this year, and that there will be and alum and cover the flesh part of the skin telegraphic communication with New York, via
with it; put the flesh in such a manner as to Siberia and California, by the end of 1863.
hold the brine when dissolved, then lay it away SwitzERLAND AND BAVARIA.- The cable in- in a cool place-say the cellar-and let it lay tended to establish a direct telegraphic com
four or six days; then cover the flesh part with munication between Bavaria and Switzerland, soft soap and wash off clean with water. Dry was submerged on the 4th inst. The total in the shade, roll and pull occasionally while length is 70,000 feet, and its weight 280 quint- drying; then roll and pull until soft and pliaals. According to the soundings which have ble.---N. E. Farmer. been made, the greatest depth of the Lake of Constance, where the cable will be placed, is
par Mr. Van Buren was the last of the old 300 feet.
succession of Presidents, nearly all of whom
attained to an unusually ripe age. If we exPins were worth a dollar a paper in 1812. andcept Washington, who died at the age of 67, were poor at that. Then it took 14 processes
all those intermediate reached to within a year to make a pin: now only one. by a machine or two of four score; while John Adams atwhich finishes and sticks them into the paper.
per tained to the age of 91; Jefferson to 83, and Saving pins half a century ago was as import- John Quincy Adams to 81. During the last 30 ant as saving cents, and hence the habit thus / years, our Presidents have died considerably formed sticks to many elderly gentlemen whose Iyounger. Mr. Polk was but 54, Gen. Harrison, coatsleeves are ornamented with rows of them. 163; Gen. Taylor, 54; and Mr. Tyler 11 years rescued from loss.
"Told at the close of their respective lives.
The Wute MOUNTAINS.—The different peaks EDUCATIONAL. of the White Mountains are, by actual measurement, found to reach the following heights: Names.
The Agricultural College.
Height in feet. Mount Washington,.......
6,288 Mount Adams,.......
5,794 Thanks to the late liberal Congress and to Mount Jefferson,
5,714 Mount Madison,
the wisdom of a President capable of appreMount Monroe,..........
5,384 Mount Clay,........
ciating the wants of the industry of the counMount Franklin, ........................
try, we are able thus soon again, after the Monnt Clinton, ........
4,320 Mount Pleasant........
disappointment consequent upon the veto of Gap between Washington and Clay...... 5,417 Gap between Washington and Monroe,....... 5,100 the original Morrill bill by Mr. Buchanan, to Gap between Adams and Clay,....
4,979 Gap between Adams and Jefferson,... 4,939 resume the discussion of Agricultural Colleges Gap between Jefferson and Madison............ 4,912 Limit of trees on Washington, north side,.... 4,150 with a prospect of securing positive results.
We take it for granted that every intelligent Gas WORKS ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT.--- farmer is prepared to admit that the Natural The American Gas Light Journal, edited by Sciences are applicable for the improvement Prof. C. Elton Buck, presents in its first January number interesting tables of gas works on
of the agricultural art. We shall not, therethis continent, from which it appears there are fore discuss that question. 420 American gas works, representing............$51,620,940 A grant of 240,000 acres of land has been 23 British colonial gas works, "
...... 2,112,040 22 Cuban and S. American, .......... 6,350,000 made to the State of Wisconsin for the estab465 gas works. Total capital,........... .$60,0-22,980 lishment of an Agricultural College, and it will Showing a grand total of sixty million twenty- not avail us to show that the act making the two thousand nine hundred and eighty dollars, being an increase in this country since the
grant was not as wisely framed as it ought to date of the last tables, July 16, 1860, of thirty have been that the Western States are not nine gas work, and of capital, three million equal sharers in the bounty of the Governsix hundred and forty-nine thousand seven hundred and twenty-five dollars.
ment with the older and more populous States. The point to be settled is : How shall the grant
be so received and disposed of as to secure the NAVAL INVENTION.-An invention is claimed to have been made by a person near Rochelle, largest benefit to the industry of the State ? France, who, it is said, has been engaged ten
The amount of land received, though well years in perfecting it. He claims that, by an application of electric power, he can concen sold and the proceeds carefully husbanded, will trate at the moment of discharge all the guns not be sufficient for the great work of estabon the side of a vessel upon any given point
lishing a school of the highest grade, unless on the enemy's vessel or fortifications, and that no iron plates, however thick, could resist the the State shall also contribute something to
rrible effects of such a converging fire. The wards the enterprise. It is highly important, Emperor has sent the inventor a flattering letter, and conferred upon him the decoration of
therefore, that the next Legislature take steps the Legion of Honor.
immediately for fulfilling the conditions of the
grant. SLAVES IN THE South.-Should the rebellion | The first step is the formal reception of the continue in its present shape until the 1st of January next, the number of slaves which will
grant. Of the propriety of this, there will, on that day be emancipated, under the procla of course, be no question, as the State will mation of the President, will be
thereby acquire the source of a fund which Alabama,...
cannot fail to contribute largely to the imFlorida,.....
provement of our industry, and the consequent Georgia,....
333,010 increase of the wealth, intelligence, and social Mississippi,......
.........436,696 North Carolina,..
331,031 happiness of the people. South Carolina,....
-275,784 The importance of early acceptance will be Tex29,...... Eastern Virginia,
-375,000 apparent when it is remembered that the ColTotal, according to census of 1860,.... -3,405,015 lege must have been actually established with
in five years from date of the passage of the
Education of the Farmer. act, and that no portion of the endowment may The following extract is from Mr. Greeley's be used for the erection of the buildings. In- late address before the Vermont State Agrideed not more than ten per cent. of the pro-cultural Society : ceeds of thc sale of lands may be used for the No man can afford to bring up his children in purchase of the Experimental Farm. But it ignorance of the principles and facts which under
lie successful farming. I do not know that this
truth is yet accepted by the great body of your spect the older States have the advantage—the farmers; if not, I must try to make it so. I "scrip" will not be issued, allowing the pur- hear complaints that our cleverer farmers' sons
dislike their fathers' vocation, and I am not chaser to locate in any of the Territories, but
er to locate in any of the Territories, but surprised that it is so. The father has unconour own lands must be sold, whether valuable, sciously taught them to despise it as the least and readily marketable or not. They should,
intellectual and most stolid of all pessible pur
suits. He never brought home a book that therefore, be accepted, and put into market at treats attractively, wisely, enthusiastically of the earliest possible moment.
Agriculture. He has, as a general rule, never
considered an Agricultural journal worth takBut, if we do the best we can, it is question- ing. He has not deemed it important that they able whether a sufficient amount could be real-should be instructed in the natural sciences
which underlie and elucidate his own vocation. ized in time to purchase the Farm, erect the He never made the latest improvements and buildings thereon, and get the College into act- | discoveries in aid of agriculture the subject of ual operation within the next four years.
inquiry, of study, and of fire-side discussion.
In his daily life and thought, farming is as We accordingly suggest that the site for dreary and mindless a drudgery as it can be to the College and the Experimental Farm a horse in a bark-mill, How, then, can he
expect his sons, if they have any aspirations should be contributed by the locality where the
beyond hog and hominy, to like farming? He institution may be established. Or, in other has given them every possible negative reason words, that the College be offered to that coun- / to detest it.
I Now I do not hold that every man, or even ty or town which will make the most advan
Lavan- every farmer's son, should be a farmer. There tageous offer of a site and land for the Farm. are other pursuits equally important, laudable, And secondly, that the buildings be provided
honorable. But I do contend that every farm
er should so instruct and train his children, for by the State at large.
that they shall at least respect his vocation, This would leave the entire grant to be con
though they should not follow it, and under
stand its laws and processes so thoroughly that verted into an endowment fund, and thus the they will never forget them. I would have better insure the upbuilding of such an in- / every farmer's son feel that, if defeated in his
chosen pursuit-law, medicine, trade, mechanstitution as would be an honor and great ad-|
ics, or whatever it may be-he can, at any vantage to the State.
moment, return to the vocation of his youth,
and earn therein an honorable and adequate We have our eye on sundry desirable localities which, in doing themselves the honor of more upright and independent in whatever donating the requisite lands, would at the same
pursuit, if he enters it with this well grounded
confidence in his ability to live without it.time so far enhance the value of surrounding But I still more urgently insist that each farmproperty as to become pecuniary gainers byer shall so honor and esteem his own vocation, their liberality. The site for the College, and
shall so render it and respect it as an intellect
Jual and liberal pursuit, that his better educated the land for the farm once secured, we are pre- and mentally developed sons shall not despise pared to guarantee that the funds for the build- / and reject it as fit only for oxen.” ings shall be forthcoming.
Farmers, and friends of Industrial Educa-l for In our reference to the Madison Normal tion, turn this matter over in your minds, and and High School, in the Oct. No., we greatly so be prepared to act with promptness and en- understated the success of Prof. Allen. Instead ergy when the time comes for worthy and gen- of “75 or 80,” he has 150 pupils in the several erous deeds.
Pleasant School Houses.
ing should hinder us; and, but for a pleasant It is not always in the power of a people grove a quarter of a mile distant, to which just establishing themselves in a new country,
“We loved to steal awhile away," with every thing to be newly done, and but and where, by permission of a kind teacher, we little capital to do it with, to make the School- spent the most of our time on pleasant summer House what it ought to be-a model of taste days, the memory of the old school house, and neatness. But there is nothing like hav- which ought to have been made dear forever, ing a true ideal to work up to as fast as we would be perfectly hateful. can; and it is on this account that we have so Had it been our good fortune to have had a often called the attention of our readers to this neat little school house, like the above, to learn subject.
our primary lessons in, how much more rapid Pleasant as were the days of our childhood, I would have been our progress-how different we remember the old log school house where the memories which would have illumined the work of study was commenced, with a kind those early days of familiar childhood. of grudge against the clever but ignorant and Parents, remember that the hearts of your prejudiced old fellows who resisted every at- children are affected and their character mouldtempt of the better informed men of the dis-ed by all the circumstances that surround them trict to supersede the old hut with a respectable at this most important period of their lives.and inviting little structure. The old house Learn to treat them less like young colts and stood on the brink of a hill without inclosure calves, destined merely for drudgery or the or shelter. Its floor was of loose, clattering shambles, and more like wonderfully endowed, boards; the windows high and prison-like; immortal beings, whose great future is to be the seats, slabs of logs, warped, rickety, and determined by the shaping of the present. I so high that our feet dangled most painfully in you are about to locate a school house for your mid air; the desks, rough boards supported district, give it the pleasantest locality that upon long pins driven into the wall. True, we can be found. If your house is already built, lived through that period of penance, and made and its surroundings are not what they should progress in our studies, but it was only because | be, set about the work of making them go by we were ambitious and determined that noth-every improvement within your power. The