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the good quality of the sugar. They may be fire, attending to his kettles or evaporating of different sizes for different sized trees, but pans, or anything else that requires to be done. for large troes they should hold at least four
LOCATION OF THE CAMP. teen or fifteen quarts.
A slightly elevated piece of ground near a runTHE GATHERING,
ning stream is the most desirable location.If from a large number of trees, cannot be
Even if such a site cannot be found in the
most central portion of the “sugar orchard" economically done without a horse and sled.
it is better to select such a spot, though at the The old fashioned sap-yoke is of service where the grove is small and the “camp” centrally
sacrifice of a little more travel in the gathering. located. A pine tub, tapering towards the top,
If the surface gently inclines, all the better, with an opening near one side of the head large
as it will afford a better opportunity to draw enough to admit a pail, and provided with a
off the sap, first into the vat and secondly into tightly fitting lid is most convenient, perhaps.
the kettles or pans.
BOILING APPARATUS, ETC.
The old fashioned potash kettles bung by a “works,” may consist of either large cooper's
chain to a pole by the side of a log will anscasks or long troughs made by tightly groov
wer the purpose if nothing better can be had.
We have used them in primitive times ourself, ing together wide two-inch planks. In either
until arches &c., could be provided, and think case they should be kept covered and occasionally scalded out to prevent the souring of
we made some as good sugar in that way as the sap. It is also important that they be
ever delighted the palate of the most fastidious conveniently located so as to receive the sap
lover of sugar. But then it is certainly not
| the most convenient or economical way. Holfrom the cask in which it was gathered,
| low sheet iron evaporating pans, some seven without the labor of dipping. If lower than the sled, the sap may be drawn off through a
feet long and three or four in breadth are the faucet; if not, a siphon or bent tube, like the
most convenient and accomplish the work with one shown in the annexed cut, will be found
a rapidity unknown to the use of the kettle.
It is not unlikely that the Sorghum evaporato answer an admirable purpose. Such a siphon, two inch
ting pans now coming into use could be made
to answer a good purpose on a small scale. es in diameter and of sufficient length can be made by any tin
THE ARCHES ner for less than a dollar, and May be built partly beneath the surface or it will pay for itself over and entirely above, according to circumstances of over many times during one locality. Usually those built about 21 feet season, in the saving it will above ground are more convenient and afford a make of time and labor. The better draft. The foundation should be laid short arm of the siphon should in trenches, deep enough to escape the frost
be long enough to reach with- and built of good substantial stone or brick.in half an inch of the bottom of the gathering A heavy bar of cast iron should be laid across tub, and the other two to six inches longer the open end at the requisite height for holdaccording to the required rapidity of flow.- ing up the wood. The chimney need not be With a simple tube of this sort two inches more than one two or three foet high acoording in diameter, tapered to one and a half inches to the length of arch. at the outlet and with four inches difference A shed over the “works" is indispensable in length of arm, an hundred gallon tub may to the comfort of the manufacturer and to the be emptied in five minutes; during which the cleanliness of the sugar. gatherer may occupy bis time in renewing the! To those who have large “orchards” and
manufacture extensively, the following plan of a larger share of attention to this incidental shed and apparatus devised by Mr. Bassett of branch of farming than ever before, it is hoped Massachusetts for the readers of the New Eng- that all who have the trees will make the most land Farmer, will be of interest.
of their time and means while the season lasts.
The shed is 22 feet wide, entered with a Swamp Lands for Grass and Cranberries. team by large doors at 8,8. The boiler occu
Mr. EDITOR:-In my last communication I pies a space 50 inches wide; 1 is the doors to gave some of my experience in raising grass fire grate and ash pit; 2 and 3 the places for and grass seed. I will now, with your leave,
give my opinion of the value of mucky swamps the boiling pans; 4, the place for the heater ;
for raising grass and cranberries. 5 the chimney; 6, heavy cast-iron bars across | From my observations I am led to consider the arch for the pans to rest on; 7, small those lands of this kind, that have descent sufdoors opening on to a platform five inches
ficient to enable you to drain them, the very
best lands for grass that we have among us. — higher than the top of the arch, and behind | One of my neighbors, Capt. James Eaton, has which is another platform a foot higher still, a swamp of this description that he has been
draining. He has sown a small piece of it to upon which are placed the store tubs with a
grass, and it produces from two to three tons long door opening upwards behind them for per acre, without any manuring or dressing. unloading the sap from the gathering tubs.
He bedded up about an acre of it last spring,
and sowed it to barley without any dressing. The space beyond the doors 8,8, is used for I assisted him in harvesting it in the fall and storing wood, tubs, buckets, &c., and may be found it the stoutest crop of the kind, that I as large as desired.
ever saw. He also planted some beets and
cabbages on one end of one of the beds, and The coming sugar season bids fair to be one they grew as rank as they would in any rich of the most favorable that we of the Northwest garden.
I have some swampy land on the island have enjoyed for years, and as the present and which cleared some of the fire that I mentioned prospective price of sugar warrants the giving in my last. They were burnt very lightly.
sent to Boston and purchased a bushel of fowl
Maize and Tobacco. meadow grass seed and sowed over some of it.
The Indian Corn looked over the fence, As I was rather short of seed I sowed it as
And what do you think he spied ? thin as possible. Next year there grew from
A field of tobacco, just ready to bloom, two to three tons per acre. The surface was
And stretching in lordly pride. so rough I could not mow it, so I reapt off the
To the broad-leaved neighbor at once he called, tops and thrashed out the seeds and had fifty
In accents loud and clear, bushels. But the land laid so flat that I could
"I thought you belonged to a summer clime; not drain it, and during the next winter it all
Pray, what are you doing here?” died. I then bought a bushel of cranberries So thon, with a haughty air, replied and sowed over a part of the swamp. A very
That plant of power and pell,
" You are pleased to ask of my business, Sirfew of them, however, came up. Where they
What do you do, yourself?” did take they grew first rate and are just be
"I feed the muscles, and blood, and bone, ginning to bear.
That make our farmers strong, I have flowed a number of these swamp And furnish bread for the little ones spots which I mean to clear up and set over to
That round their tables throng." cranberry vines. Some individuals in this "I move in a somewhat loftier sphere," section of the State, are doing well by cran
The foreign guest rejoined, berry culture. I have a small patch near home,
* As the chosen friend and companion dear
Of men of wealth and mind. where I took off the grass turf and set out vines. They are beginning to bear very well.
"I'm the chief delight of the gay young spark;
O'er the wise my sway I hold: Last fall I gathered seven bushels from them,
I lurk in the book-worm student's cellbut not more than a tenth part of them bear,
In the dowager's box of gold. as yet. This proves to me that they are among
“Thousands of hands at my bidding work ; the most profitable vegetable or small fruit that
Millions of corn I raise" we can raise, where we have good muck swamps. Je ceased to speak, and in angry mood It will cost no more to clear up one acre for
Responded the tasseled Maize; cranberries than for corn, and after they get " You're in secret league with dyspeptic illswell to bearing they would produce from four
A merciless traitor band;
With clonds of smoke you pollute the air, to five hundred bushels to the acre.
With floods of slime, the land. Capt. Levi Coggins, of Surry, has a small
“ You tax the needy laborer sore; cranberry patch from which he has gathered
You quicken the drunkard's thirst; eighty bushels in one season. He informed me You exhaust the soil and I wish you'd go that his wife went out one day and sat down
To the place whence you came at first." on a bench and picked ten quarts without moving from her seat. He had the curiosity to
Sorghum or Imphoe? measure the ground which she had picked over
WHITEWATER, January 16th, 1862. and on calculating found that the yield was after the rate of eight hundred bushels per
Ev. of Wis. FARMER:-Can you inform the acre. I sold some of the seven bushels that I readers of the Farmer, through its pages, which raised, for three dollars per bushel. I am told that they bring four dollars in Boston. Cran
of the many varieties of Sorghum or Chinese berries do not require a very deep soil of mud Sugar Cane is best adapted to cultivation in or muck, but they need to be flowed through Southern Wisconsin; also where the seed can the winter and not to be fed off by any animal. -JOHN P. CARTER, in Maine Farmer.
be obtained :
The time has evidently arrived, when if we BREAKING ROADS IN THE Snow. -One of the would enjoy the luxury of sweetening, we best methods is to bind two light plows upon must produce it ourselves or do the other more the same side of the two runners of a sled-if difficult way, pay roundly for it. I for one, right hand plows, on the right; if left hand. I am of the opinion that Wisconsin is capable of on the left-and then drive where the road supplying herself with the common varieties, should be made. The two furrows will make looking abroad only for the refined article of nice foot paths for the horses and the runners sugar. In accordance with the above convicof the sled.
tion, I commend this to you, hoping that oth
ers may be of the same mind, and that the 9 The best time to cut timber is about Fall of 1862 may verify the same. I remain the first of February. At this season the tim- | ber is free from sap. I have taken up posts
A SUBSCRIBER. cut at this season, which had been set twenty years, and they were perfectly sound.-JOHN
ANSWER.-Cultivators of the two varieties of JOHNSTON.
sugar cane agree, it is believed, that the Chi
nese variety makes the best syrup, while the has served in the cavalry under some bold African or Imphee ripens about twenty to
| dragoon, and “knows bayonets,” he may have
no inclination to try the strength of spines of thirty days earlier. We know of no one in
hawthorns or osage-oranges. this State who is already provided with seed of. Before planting, sort your plants into three the Chinese variety, though it is presumed that
lots; that is, into strong, stronger, and strong
est, taking them first up by the handful, and most dealers in seeds and implements in all cutting off their heads to within nine or ten parts of the State are making arrangements inches of the collar, or the point where the
root portion commences. This is done with a to import it for their customers.
sharp hatchet on a block of wood. The tap Of the Imphee, Mr. J. C. PLUMB, of this root is shortened at the same time. If you place, has a considerable quantity, grown by
plant them any way, just as they come himself, which he intends to offer for sale.-ED.
from the nursery, they will grow only in one way, which, Darwin says, is nature's way. In
How to Get a Bushy Hedge.
the start will crowd eut the weaker ones, and
your hedge may have enough unevenness to Though our failures have been many, we are satisfy any lover of pastoral poetry, but will still of the opinion that the hedge question is fall short of your matter-of-fact expectations.
After sorting, you can give the weaker choice not yet exhausted. The scarcity of timber in the
the best chance of good soil, the next selection some localities renders its affirmative decision a little better, and the next the worst soil, if of very great importance, and it may yet be
he any such you have."
In planting, set them at an angle, as in the hoped that some hedge plant will ere long be following sketch, setting the plants 12 inches found that shall furnish our prairies with satisfactory living fences. The Osage Orange is certainly not the plant for our cold climate; but it is not so certain that the common thorn, the buckthorn, or something else will not prove sufficient, if properly cultivated. We say “properly cultivated,” because we have long been convinced that no plant could entirely succeed if cultivated in the ordinary way. | apart, in two rows, quincux fashion, which
Touching this subject, the following from will place each plant about eight inches from the Gardener's Monthly so ably discusses cer
the other. By thus sloping the plants, the
shoots, as they rise perpendicularly, will give tain causes of failure which we had thought you a miniature forest, with every little rising to suggest, that we copy it into the Farmer
trunk, but a few inches apart,-so thick, that
should you get so poor as to have to give up entire:
taking your favorite agricultural journal, and, Most attempts at hedging look as if the own- consequently, forget the proper after treatment ers would like to invert them. The top is thick of the hedge, though you may still have the enough where thickness is not needed; but usual crow's nest topped hedge for your neighbetween there and the base there is nothing to bor to laugh at, there will be, at least, enough strengthen the moral principles of the passing stems at the bottom, the result of your subschool-boy, as he eyes the Pippins and Spitz-scription to the volume that contains this artienburgs enclosed therein.
cle, to prevent his pigs from getting in after As usually managed, hedges are costly and your crop of little pumpkins. unsatisfactory affairs. Properly treated, they If your hedge grows as well as it ought to are the least expensive of any kind of fence, grow, by the middle of June it will have made and cheaper, by far, than the great majority of shoots two feet in length. Then get a sharp even those who have “ faith in hedges" be- scythe, and go along the whole line, cutting off lieve.
six inches of the young growth the whole way. All hedges designed for protective fences, They may be cut fat, as in mowing a piece of are, in the first place, too high and to narrow meadow ground. It will occupy but a few at the base. No hedge need have more than a minutes for every hundred feet, and will be all four feet rise, as it will do no harm for your the care required for the first year. The sides neighbor's horse to see what crops you are must not be touched for this or any following growing ; but it should be between three and year, until the required width has been reachfour feet thick ot the base, so that, unless he led-three or four feet. If the soil be good, however, and the plants strong, it will nearly covered nothing special at digging, except a do this the first year.
rather small crop, as was expected. In the The second year, the plants in the middle of June, will have reached the four feet we pro- spring of 1861, I planted them by the side of pose, when it should again be gone over with several varieties that are called good, and the the scythe, first cutting off the young tops sqaure to the desired height, and then cutting
yield was from one-fourth to one-sixth greater the sides, so that the apex is wedge-shaped,
than the other kinds, and they are so much betlike an inverted V W. By cutting in the ter than the others that my family do not want hedge so sharply and severely towards the apex, the strength of the plant will be thrown
any other kind for table use. I think I into the branches at the base, and enable them have made as much by the Peach Blow Potato to push widely end freely.
as the FARMER cost me. Everything, it will be seen, depends upon the time and manner of pruning. It must be
I now have six volumes of the Farmer, cut while the growth is active, in order to which I intended to have bound, but as it was throw strength into the growing side-shoots;
neglected, I sewed each voluine together with and it must be cut in a conical or wedge shape, in order that the light may be easily admitted a large waxed end, and these old volumes afto every part of the hedge's surface.
ford a very favorable opportunity for reference The third year after the hedge is " well set” -a technical term for filled up well from bot
to almost any subject in de line of agriculture. tom to top-the wedge shape form may be I would pot now take the subscription price modified to the truncate cone or half-oval, for the old volumes, if I could not get others of which is more pleasing to the eye.
the same kind. IT PAYS TO TAKE THE FARMER. Sometimes a few strong shoots will again push after the midsummer cutting. These
MONTICELLO, Green Co., Wis., Jan'y 21, 1862. should be cut away at the fall of the leaf, or they will interfere at the annual scythe cutting, on which the principal cheapness of our style
Balance the Accounts Now. of management depends.
An editor, who unfortunately does business We have not said anything of preparations
100 said anything of preparations on the credit system, and is therefore compellfor planting, the best mode of performing the dok
of performing the ed to keep a standing dunning notice, unpleasoperation, hoeing or after-cleaning; as, how-lant to boin himself and his readers, thus logi. ever well these may be performed, the perma
ese may be performed, the perma-cally nudges his readers: “We don't want nent success ond cheapness of management of
money desperately bad, of course not, but our the hedge do not depend on them, and are,
creditors do; and no doubt they owe you. Now, therefore, not within the object proposed to
you pay us, we'll pay them, and they'll pay ourselves in the present chapter.
you. We shall all then feel better to begin the
year, and no one will be the poorer. Let us How it Pays to Take the Farmer.
begin square all round." This is not bad ad
vice for others than delinquent subscribers. Me. Epitor :--Enclosed is one dollar for the Now is the time to do it. Close up the year FARMER the ensuing year. It seems somewhat by settling with everybody. Pay the butcher,
shoemaker, blacksmith, doctor, minister, every strange to me that our agricultural friends will body. Has there been an exchange of labor, deprive themselves of the pleasure and profit of teams, seeds, implements, etc., among neigh
bors, and the accounts left unbalanced ? Beof reading the FARMER.
fore the New Year comes in, let them be adSince I have lived in the State I have been a justed. If impossible to get the ring of credireader of the FARMER, and of late have been tors broken into, at least let there be a looking
over of accounts, and the actual balance be looking over matters, to see if it pays. Quite ascertained
see if it pays. Quite ascertained. One can meet his neighbors with a number of ideas, productions and machines a better countenance, if the actual indebtedhave been introduced to my notice by the Far-ness has been agreed upon, and acknowledged,
than when there is an imaginary large debt MER, to my pleasure and profit. I will name somewhere concealed in the long-running an instance or two of the many that might be account.” “Short settlements make long
friends," is a good old proverb. A man should mentioned. The Peach Blow Potato was in
know, at least once a year, precisely how he troduced to my notice by the FARMER. I sent stands with the world. If he is doing well, off thirty miles, late in the spring of 1860, and the knowledge will comfort him ; if not, it will
rouse him to renewed exertion, make him more got half a bushel of them by paying one dol
i by paying one 401- | prudent and cautious, and enable him to prolar. Planted them late, on new breaking; dis-vide against emergencies.