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In the Publication Department it is our determination to inaugurate a new era; and if the men are in tbo State or country who possess the qualifications of competency and faithfulness for the discharge of the duties which belong to that department, the patrons of the Farmer shall have the benefit of their labors. Arrangements are now making which will insure this.
As to the Editorial Department we promise nothing more than that wc shall continuo to do the best we can to make the Farmer the best Agricultural paper published in the United States. Our facilities here in the West for getting up showy illustrations are not yet equal to those of some eastern publications, but with our acquaintance with the climate, soils, Ac, and our better information as to the consequent needs of the industry of the West, wo are confident of being able to give our readers who care rather for substantial matter, more than an equivalent.
The Horticultural Department has made valuable acquisitions in the secured services of the eminent fruit culturist A. G. Hanporp, Esq., as Corresponding Editor, and in the largo number of ablo contributors to its columns; the " Bee-Keeper" will also havo the benefit of contributions from practical culturists, who have been induced to furnish regular articles for that department; and the Agricultural and Miscellaneous departments will be enriched by the correspondence of eminent gentlemen—Foreign Ministers and other officers of the Government—now resident in Russia, Spain, South America and Now Mexico. As Commissioner to the Great Exhibition of the Industry of all nations, the Editor will likewise be able to furnish his readers with accurate aud interesting accounts of the Exhibition and of the industry of Great Britain.
Such are our plans and arrangements for 1862. If they do not warrant renowed efforts on the part of all our old friends and the active enlistment of new canvassing agents in all parts of the State, then we are at a loss to determine what should be considered sufficient inducements.
To Voluntary Agents and Friends.—
Since 1857 the Farmer has had no paid traveling agent in the field. The stringency of the times seemed not to warrant the expense, and the sole reliance has been upon the voluntary and gratuitous efforts of the many friends of the paper who reside in all parts of the Northwest.— Some of these friends are still zealous; others appear to have grown slightly "weary in well-doing," and a few have been persuaded by the dazzling offer of "great prizes" to give their best efforts to the circulation of foreign papers.
It is not our intention to blame this last class of friends, for the baits held ont are often tempting. Perhaps it "might pay for us to employ similar means for increasing our list, but we don't like the plan of publishing a two dollar journal at one dollar, and then paying a seventy-five cent premium for each subscriber^ name; aud it is, therefore, hardly probable that we shall go as ex
tensively into the practice of buying frienda as is done by some of our cotemporaries.
Tho Farmer is laboring zealously, and by no means selfishly, for the advancement of all branches of industry in the Northwestern States. If this does not entitle it to the hearty support and co-operation of Northwestern industrial men, then certainly a few paltry prizes could hardly create a valid claim to such co-operation.
Our terms, as published in the Prospectus on 4th page of cover, are the best that can bo afforded at present.— We ask all those who have formerly helped in extending the circulation of this paper, and all others who would have pleasure iu contributing to the progress of the good cause in which wc labor, to look the matter over, and see whether they cannot find in the character of the journal itself, in the good work to which it is devoted, and in the terms on which it is offered, sufficient cause for hearty endorsement and active aid in giving it a more extended circulation.
Our Contributors.—Many thanks aredue to the several gentlemen whose pens have been so ably and generously employed for the benefit of our readers during the past year. Especially do we tender our acknowledgements to Messrs. J. C. Plumb, A. G. Hanford, 0. S. Willey and W. H. Morrison, for their interesting and valuable contributions to the Horticultural and Bee Keeper's departments. Need we add that the other departments of the paper have equal claims upon those of our readors whose special pursuits qualify them to furnish valuable information on subjects pertaining to the culture of the soil, the breeding and management of stock, the mechanic arts, science, art, education and domestic economy?
We earnestly solicit contributions on all these subjects, or any others, coming within the scope of the FarMer, and hope most sincerely that tho friends of tho industry of Wisconsin and the Northwest will be more mindful of the claims of their own Homo Journal this year than during the past. Write As Concisely, Pithily and PRACtICALLY OS POSSIsLE, Rut By All Means, Write!
Full Reparation.—All persons who paid their subscriptions for 1861 to M. Cullaton, former Publisher, and for any cause have not received their full complement of numbers, may consider tbemselvcs entitled to such missing numbers (unless the editions should he exhausted) without charge. And if there should be any who paid their subscriptions for 1861, and yet have failed entirely to receive the Fabmer, they shall be furnished with the paper for an equal length of time the present year.
Personal.—Among the military men now in camp at this place, wo have been pleased to find two of our old agricultural friends, to-wit: Dr. 0. T. Maxozt, of Hudson, long a valuable member of the Ex. Com. of the W.S.A.S., now 1st Lieut, of the Lyon Guards, and Col. K. K. Josfrs, formerly of Manitowoc, lato Agricultural Editor of tho Quincey (111.) Whiff, and now Lieut. Colonel of the 15th (Scandinavian) Regiment. They are both sterling men and will make splendid commanders.
The 'Wortd'» Fair.—The smoko raised by the Mason and Slimu. affair hairing cleared away, there is now no farther question as to the tact of a representation of American products at the Great International Exhibition to bo opened May 1, 1862. The only question for the friends of American Industry to decide Is, whether that representation shall be creditable.
According to the arrangements made by the Ex. Committee of the American Board of Commissioners, before this number shall reach a majority of its readers, it will bo too late to get articles to New York in time for the Government vessel.
Articles will be received at the Exhibition, however, until Dec. 31st, and soveral ocean expresses are offering to carry articles at low rates.
The Editor of this paper received, some months since, the appointment of Commissioner for Wisconsin, and only regrets that the Board of Commissioners appointed by Mr. Seward to adopt regulations for the government of all matters pertaining to contributions from this country, were so late in adopting and publishing those regulations that it has been practically impossible for him to republish them in time to enable Western Exhibitars to get anything ready for tho Government vessel; and that when copies of tho published regulations did finally arrive, his plans was still further embarrassed, indeed almost thwarted by a serious and protracted illness which utterly precluded tho transaction of all business, however important.
Something has nevertheless been done, and when the 1st day of May comes, we hope not to be ashamed of the little that Wisconsin and the other Northwestern States will have done.
Several entries of machinery have been made, and tho work of making ready representative specimens of tho natural products of the State—such as minerals, soils timbers, *c.-and of some of our agricultural products, is vigorously going forward.
a complete copy of the regulations adopted by tho American Commissioners. These last, owing to our illness, as already explained and to the crowded state of the FarMer's columns, were omitted. It is sufficient to state, however, that no articles will be shipped from yew York which hare not been approved by authority of the American Board of Commissioners. In this State, the undersigned is the only representative of mid Board; though any article may bo sent, if preferred, to New York, and there be approved or rejected by Joseph E. Holmes, Esq., 61 Canal street, who is duly authorised to act for the Commissioners.
After much enquiry, we are satisfied that of the several Ocean Expresses, none are more reliable than "The Morris Express," whose circular as furnished by L. W. Morris, Esq., we publish, In part, below
« As no articles will bo received by Her Majesty s Commissioners at London, later than the 31st of March 1862^ the latest dispatch for the Exhibition will be made by this Express, per steamer of Saturday, March 8th.
Such articles, however, the placing of which from their ercat size or weight, require considerable abor, and which according to decision 14 of Her Majesty's CommisiSner-^wm not be received at the Exhibition Building after the first of March, 1862, have to bo .hippjdrM New York, at latest, by the steamer of Saturday, reb^Sth.
It being required to secure space for shipment on board any steamer in advance of placing the goods on boaiA Exhibitors of packages over 5 cubic feet in size wi please advise this Express at least fourteen days previous, that they will send such or such size package (about), when shinment will at once be engaged. ... .,
Packages must roach New York three days before sailine of tho respective steamers.
Packages, prepaid to New Tori- office, will be delivered at the doo.'of Exhibition Building, under the following Tablo of Rates:
Not over % cubic foot $1.75, not over 5 lbs. weight
2 and 3
Now that the Government vessel is beyond the reach | of those who would have considered free transportation a sufficient inducement, it will afford all Northwcstorn exhibitors pleasure to know that arrangements have been made with the Det. & Mil. R. W. for free transportation of all articles designed for the Exhibition, and that other roads between Wisconsin and New York are expected to make similar arrangements. In evidence, we quote the following characteristic words from a cordial and most generous letter just received from W. K. Mure, Gen. Supt. of tho D. * M. H. W.:
•• My Dear Sir.—We shall be happy to convey the Wisconsin and Minnesota contributions to the Great Exhibition free. I,believe the Great Western R. W. will do so, as well, and I will try the N. Y.C. R. A Hudson R. R. to-day."
We had also written to the officers of the roads named, but have not yet received replies. Of coursO our roads will not bo behind those located in other States.
In the Doc. No. wo published tho classification, together with tho Important regulations agreed upon by the Royal Commissioners, and also furnishod tho printer with
3 and 4
4 and 5
5 and 6
6 and 7
7 and 8
10 and 11
11 and 12
12 and 13
13 and 14
14 and 16
Over 20 cubic feet measurement and not over 20 lbs. weight to each cubic foot, $1.00 per foot.
Packages weighing more than 20 lbs. a cubic foot, are
charied 20 per ct in addition to above rates. hd£g« larger than 40 cubic feet, are charged $3.00 m
addition to abovo rates, "Art .
Packages larger than 60 cubic feet, are charged $5.00 in
addition to above rates. , *- ivi:«
Packages larger than 100 cubic feet, are charged $7.00 in
addition to above rates. ,.lnn.,H
Packages larger than 160 cubic feet, arc charged $10.00 in
addition to above rates.
Charges for Custom. House Formalities in England and
der2 cubic feet, eE*' •JK
On all other packages „ „,,
Postages for each package,
Xew York Commissions.
On all packages under 2 cubic feet each, 0.50
""between 2 and 40 cubic feet,..." 1.00
""over 40 cubic feet, M 2.00
i r> oi,ier that Exhibitors may know the exact charge for their goods from Now York to tho Exhibition Building at London, thin Express will immediately on receipt of their packages, send a specified bill, the amount of which has to be remitted to this Express by return Mail, in funds par at Now York. No articles will be actually exhibited until such charges are paid.
Exhibitors will please send letter by Mail same day on which they forward packages, addressed to this Express, enclosing Certificate for Exhibition by the Committtoners appointed by Government, and without which Ho package will be forwarded; stating at the same time by what conveyance the articles have left home, and giving full particulars of coutents of each package.
Insurance from New York to Liverpool will only be effected by special request—and this Express is in nowise responsible for dangers of Navigation or by Fire, unless the articles are insured against said hazards. Bate of Insurance to Liverpool, probably \% per cent.
Besides the address on each jtaekage required by Her Majesty's Commissi oners, and which is to be as follows:—
COMMISSIONERS FOR THE EXHIBITION OF 1862
Building, South Kensington, London.
From—[state Exhibitor's Name, Place and State.]
Value $ No of Class in which Exhibited.
Each packt-e must be marked.
Care MORRIS EXPRESS, Xew York.
Exhibitors are requested to have all articles well packed in boxes, the lids secured with screws instead of nails, eo as to serve for returning the articles again to this Country after the Exhibition, if not otherwise disposed of.
Goods in the Exhibition Building, The packages having arrived at the Building of the Exhibition, have of course to be arranged and displayed. Decision 35 of Her Majesty's Commissioners, says :— "No counters or fittings will be provided by Her Majesty's Commissioners. Exhibitors will bo permitted, "subject only to the necessary regulations, to erect ac"cording to their own taste, all the counters, stands, "glass-frames, brackets, awnings, hangings or similar '' contrivances, which they may con»ider best calculated '' for the display of their goods."
It is absolutely impossible to fix, even approximately, any scale of rates for that purpose. Exhibitors can form a much more correct idea of what probable expense the unpacking, putting up, arranging and displaying of their goods will bo than this Express. They aro therefore requested to state their views how they would like their goods exhibited, and to send with amount of freight, also the amount of expense they wish to go to for the purjwse of an advantageous show. The representatives of this Express in Lond»n, aro men of intelligence, and will do their utmost in meeting the views of Exhibitors.
LONDON COMMISSIONS. For articles not requiring extraordinary time for arranging, $1,00 a lot. For complicated arrangements, machinery, and bulky articles, $'J,50 a lot. Labor, actual cost.
Forgiving information or taking orders, fair business ratoa will be charged, and collected on return or disposal of the arjic?es.
Goods coming back from tho Exhibition after its close, will not cost the third or fourth part of the expense going out, as they can be shipped by sailing vessels from London, thus saviug heavy land carriage between Liverpool and London, commissions in Liverpool, cartages, dues, handling and Steamboat freight."
Persons desiring further information, or authority to exhibit, may address their applications to
J. W. HOYT,
Several interesting works lie npon our table which must wait for notice until our next issue.
Our exchanges, too, owing to the crowded state of our columns in this, the last form of the Farmer, will be kind enough this time to take tho will for the deed.
In addition to all our regular agricultural and horticultural exchanges, which are always so welcome, and several of which are deserving of highly commendatory notice, there are several of a kindred character, or purely literary, which wo cordially admire, and had intended to notice in this number.
Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, the Scientific American, the Phrenological Journal and Life Illustrated, the Home Journal and The Independent—all published at New York—and the AiUintic Monthly, published at Boston, are eminently worthy of commendation, and of tho most liberal patronage of the American pooplc.
NOTICKS OF NEW ADVERTISEMENTS.
Our advertising columns are filled with a great variety of matter especially interesting to our readers. Attention is Killed particularly to new advertisements of the
IlLOOMINGtON NURSERY, the MAdISON MCtCAL INSURANCE
Co., and of the Wisconsin Farmer.
[advertisement.] Columbus Nursery.
Bateuam, Hanford A Co., offer for sale an extensive assortment of Fruit Tress—Applo, Tear, Peach, Tlum, Cherry, Ac, both standard and dwarf trees, of the most approved varieties, much better and cheaper than eastern grown trees, for western planting.
Grape Pines.—Including the finest new, hardy sorts: Delaware, Diana, Rebecca, Coucord, Hartford prolific, Ac, good, strong well rooted plants at reduced prices.
Blac!cberrics, Raspberries, Gooseberries, Currants, Strawberries, rfc, of tho most approved sorts, all true to name.
Their ornamental department contains
Hoses.—A splendid collection, including over one hundred of the finest Hybrid, Perpetual, Moss and other hardy kinds, also monthly, Noisette, Tea, Ac, Ac
Ornamental Sltrubs.—Over one hundred of the most beautiful and desirable varieties.
Evergreens.—Of all the most hardy sorts, which having been several times removed in tho nursory, are sure to grow.
Our trees ore all healthy and thrifty, the growth the present season Is particularly fine; bark louse unknown.
Selections will be made when desired, by A. G. HanFord, with especial reference to tho climate of Wisconsin.
Orders should be directed to Bateuam, Hanford A Co., Columbus, Ohio.
Suggestions for the Month.
Farmers, dont forget that winter is especially the season for increasing your stock of knowledge. Provide yourselves with valuable works on the different branches of Agriculture and study them during the long evenings. Heview the back volumes of the Farmer, and thoroughly post yourselves up on all matters in which your practice may have been at fault in the past. Be regularly at the meetings of the Club, if you have one; if not, organize immediately.
Take more pains than heretofore to ascertain whether your children are making good progress at school. If not, learn why and endeavor to remove the cause. An occasional visit will stimulate them, encourage the teacher and have a tendency to right any wrongs there may be on either side.
Mature your plans for next season in relation to the rotation of crops. The folly of growing the same crops on the same land year after year has been practiced long enough.
Clover is a great fertilizer and cleanser of soils long abused, give it a chance at your old wheat fields.
Look to your stock. Provide all with good food and water in sufficient quantity, and don't feed on the ground in the old slovenly way, but in racks. Separate the weak and the breeding animals from the rest and give them extra attention. Warmth savee food; remember that. Read article on feeding and fattening of stock in this number.
Manufacture as much manure as possible out of the straw that would otherwise go to waste.
Save a good stock of ice. See article in mechanical department.
Prepare your summer's pile of good wood.
Get your fencing ready to lay up early.
Look to the implements and farm machinery.
If not of^he best patterns, sell and buy the best. Put all in good repair.
If you intend planting fruit-trees make an early order for hardisti varieties. See list of apples in Horticultural Department.
Sugar and Sugar-Making.
The Rebellion has twakenod new interest in the Sugar as well as the Cotton question; and the enquiry, "What shall I eat?" is only secondary to that other—" Wherewithal shall I be clothed?"
As to bread, there need be no anxiety on the part of the people of the North. Our granaries are full, and the soil is ever ready to yield its rich products in response to the demands of the energetic husbandman. The luxuries, however, are not quite so sure. The tariff on lea and coffee renders their enjoyment difficult if not impracticable on the part of many, and the present commercial non-intercourse between the North and South must deprive us, at least for a time, of the large importations of sugar which we have been accustomed to receive from that part of the world. As a people we have been accustomed to use large quantities of saccharine matter in various forms, and to be deprived of it now, would be something of a hardship certainly.
But is there really any need of our being so dependent on the South and the West Indies for our sugar? May it not be possible for us to so develope our own resources as to acquire a sort of independence in respect to this most delicious and wholesome article? We think it is.
Not that the North can by any plan hitherto suggested, btcome a great sugar-producing country like the South, any more than it can become a cotton-producing country as is claimed by' many enthusiasts; but that by the cultivation of Sorghum and the taxing of our forests we may produce a very large proportion of the sugar consumed by us.
The sorghum question has already and repeatedly been discussed; it remains therefore to consider in this place, and at this season,
THE MANUFACTURE OF MATLE SUGAR.
The sugar maple is as much confined to the North as is the common sugar cane to the South. Indeed it flourishes nowhere except in a rather cold climate; doing best and yielding the largest return of sugar near the northern limit of the North Temperate zone. Perhaps the forty-second and forty-eighth parallels of latitude may be considered its practical limitations.
In New England, New York, Northern Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, the Canadas, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick it flourishes well, and in some of those sections, unlike other species, it is found oftener than otherwise forming masses of woods, almost to tho exclusion of other trees; and in portions of the country vast forests, comprising hundreds of thousands of individual trees are formed of this maple. Dr. Rush at one time estimated that in Northern New York and Pennsylvania alone, there were not less than ten millions of acres which produced these trees in the proportion of thirty to an acre. In most cases, however, the sugar maple occurs in what may be called groves—a fortunate circumstance, as thereby much of the labor of gathering the sap is saved.
In Wisconsin, these groves are not very widely and generally distributed, and yet the aggregate number of trees must be very large. They are found in all the heavily timbered hard-wood districts, and not unfrequently in
portions of the State characterized as "openings."
THE QUANTITY OF SUGAB PRODUCIBLE
Varies with the locality and season. Groves somewhat scattering, and on the low rich lands produce most sap, though it is hardly so sweet as that produced by trees growing sparsely on the high lands. The most favorable season is that which succeeds a uniformly cold and dry winter. Four pounds per tree in one season is a large average yield, though much larger amounts are sometimes made.
THE SEASON FOR TAPPING
May be said to commence in February, though the 1st of March is usually about as soon as the work can be economically commenced.
THE BEST MODE OF TATTING
Is with the auger, as the end desired is just as effectually attained as with the gouge, and with much less damage to the life and vigor of the tree. Indeed the chopping into the tree is a sort of barbarity that ought not to be practiced unless it be the desire of the owner to remove the trees entirely; in which case it would undoubtedly be economy to make the best of them and so girdle them with the axe and gouge. A "three-quarter" auger is as large as should be used, and it should not perforate the wood of the tree to a greater depth than half an inch, as experience has shown that this depth will secure the greatest flow of sap. A half inoh auger will serve the purpose of tapping just as well and will of course do less injury. Cheap and convenient spouts may be made of the common alder; or if these cannot be obtained they may be made from any soft wood by boring and splitting.
TUBS OF TINE OR CEDAR
Are enough better than troughs to pay the expense. They should have strong hoops and be well taken care of during the season when not used. The best shape is that of the firkin— smaller at the top than at the bottom—as they will be less liable to fall to pieces from shrinking, and expose less surface to dust, falling leaves and other sources of dirt and consequent discoloration. Washing and thorough scalding of the old tubs before use is very essential to