« ElőzőTovább »
SCIENCE, ART. STATISTICS. the parchment reflect light much better than
those where the ink has been deposited. How
ever colorless it may appear, the ink has not Muscular Strength.
lost its anti-photogenic qualities, opposed to the The muscular strength of the human body photogénic ones of the parchment; and thanks is wonderful. A Turkish porter will trot at a to
to this opposition, black characters may be obrapid pace, and carry a weight of six hundred tal
å tained on the sensitive surface, in return for pounds. Milo, a celebrated atblete of Creto-much paler ones on the original." na, in Italy, accustomed himself to carry the greatest burdens, and by degrees became a ,
WHAT IS HEAT LIGHTNING ?--The flashes of monster in strength. It is said that he carried lightning often observed on a Summer evening. on his shoulder an ox, four years old and unaccompanied by thunder, and popularly weighing upward of one thousand pounds, and known as “heat lightning," are merely the afterward killed him with one blow of his fist.
this fist light from discharges of electricity from an He was seven times crowned at the Pythian
ordinary thunder-cloud beneath the horizon of games, and six at the Olympic. He presented
the observer, reflected from clouds, or perhaps himself the seventh time, but no one had the
from the air itself, as in the case of twilight. courage to enter the list against him. He was
Mr. Brooks, one of the directors of the teleone of the desciples of Pythagoras, and to his gra
graph line between Pittsburg and Philadelphia, uncommon strength that preceptor and his
and his informs us that, on one occasion, to satisfy pupils owed their lives. The pillar which
himself on this point he asked for information supported the roof of the house suddenly gave
from a distant operator during the appearance away, but Milo supported the roof of the build. of flashes of this kind in the distant horizon. ing, and gave the philosopher time to escape.
and learned that they proceeded from a thunIn his old age he attempted to pull up a tree
der storm then raging two hundred and fifty by the roots and break it. He partially ef
miles eastward of his place of observation.fected it, but his strength being gradually ex
Prof. Henry. hausted, the tree where cleft reunited, and left his hand pinched in the body of it. He was EDUCATIONAL. then alone, and unable to disengage himself, died in that position. Haller mentions that he saw a man whose finger caught in a chain
Habit of Writing. at the bottom of the mine, by keeping it for cibly bent, supported by that means the whole
The habit of expressing their ideas upon paweight of his body, one hundred and fifty per is so neglected by many who profess a good pounds, until he was drawn up to the surface, common education, that it is quite a task for a distance of six hundred feet. Augustus II, King of Poland, could roll up a silver plate
them to write, even letters to dear friends. like a sheet of paper, and twist the strongest That this will continue to be the case until a horse-shoe asunder. A lion is said to have left
more efficient system for teaching children to the impression of his teeth upon a piece of solid iron. The most prodigious power of mus-compose is introduced into our common schools, cle is exhibited by the fish. The whale moves no one who has given the subject any thought with a velocity through a dense medium, water,
Ti can doubt. Neither will they doubt that the that would carry him around the world in less than a fortnight. A swordfish has been known neglect of this important branch of education to strike his weapon through the thick plank in our district schools is a grave fault which of a ship; a specimen of such a plank" with the sword of a fish sticking in it, may be seen
Tought to be corrected as soon as possible. in the British Museum.
This neglect arises mainly from the over anx
iety of parents to have their children get along OLD MANUSCRIPTS REPRODUCED.-M. Silvy of Paris, has recently reproduced photograph
reproduced photograph- fast with their other studies. They usually ically one of the curious old manuscripts of give them their arithmetic, geography and early literature. He states that not only is
grammar before they can read well enough to the copy more legible than the original, but certain passages which could not be deciphered understand much of their contents, even though on the old parchment have been actually re- the teacher make herculean efforts to enlighten vived; and this is particularly visible on the last page, where a note, written in German un
their minds, for teachers are expected to get der the signature, has become both visible and their pupils along through their books too legible, while there is not a trace of it left on
often, no matter how superficially, or they are the original. This curious circumstance is explained as follows: "During the photograph
voted down, and may look out for other quaric process, the brilliant and polished parts of ters as soon as their term expires, and take a
bad recommend with them at that. Teachers, awkwardly arranged on their seats, and pertherefore, pass over this branch but lightly, if haps with dirty hands and faces--the house
itself dirty, and all its out-door surroundings they give it any attention, as parents appear in a neglected condition-we know that the to think that composing is no branch of edu- teacher himself has not a neat and accurate cation, but just so much time taken from other
character. If he has not observation and
judgment enough to know when the schoolstudies, and that if their children can read or house is in order, in all its minute details, his write a pagsable hand, cipher, spell and parge, mind lacks some essential that unfits him to be
a teacher. But if he does know what a school that they can write well enough; and so they requires, in all little things, and has not effort can write, but never in the easy graceful style and energy enough to bring it about, he is of the ready writer, as they might just as well
che inst 2 vell still more unfitted to be an example and teach
er of youth. Children must be taught neatdo by devoting a few moments of each day's ness, effort, accuracy, and energy ;--and they session to that object, and that too without any must be taught these both by precept and ex
ample--and especially by example. A teacher, detriment to other studies, if the correct course
then, who does not combine these in his charere pergued. But I must confess that the acter and make them visible in his labors, custom of the teachers ordering a composition should not presume, in his present condition,
to stand before children as their guide and once a week or in two weeks, and then paying pattern. no more attention to the subject until the day! We are aware that some teachers will say arrives for the reciting, with the exception, that “in such a house as they are teaching and
with such children, it is useless to try to be perhaps, of correcting a few mispelled words,
8, neat and orderly." We think differenily. No is more honored in the breach than the observ kind of house or children is an excuse for lack ance, as it is commencing at the wrong end of
of neatness and order, so far as the work of
the teacher may affect it. We know that such the skein and all will soon be in a snarl. It is
conditions serve as a discouragement, but they in fact requiring the child to do that which he never unnerve the true teacher or divert him has never been taught to do, instead of teach
from his task. They only serve to show as the
genuine metal. ing him how to do it in a proper manner. Por We have seen some very poor schoolhouses pupils just commencing, the teacher should filled with poor and homely clad children, and
yet all in the school-room had the air of neatread & sentence to be written by the children ness and order. The spirit of the teacher was upon their slates or the black-board, leaving a visible there. While on the other hand we few words blank to be supplied by them. As have seen schools that had all things necessary
for the most perfect neatness and order and the exercise becomes familiar more blanks may 1 yet these were lacking. The teacher was in be left. Then they should be required to com fault. And it does seem, too, that any ordi
nary teacher should have ambition enough, if pose short sentences. In this manner children
no nobler motive impelled him, to correct such who can but just write will quickly become a fault. interested, and if they are encouraged to pro
On one occasion in our school visitations we
found a mammoth black, coal box, with other ceed, will soon write readily. n write readily.
If such a sys- un
I such a sys- unseemly matter, in a school-room that was tem were pursued regularly, not for one term, otherwise neat;-and this too in mid-summer. but by every teacher each term, no boy or girl
How strangely in contrast was this with anoth
er house not many miles distant from the would attend their district school until eighteen former where we entered the door under an or twenty years of age and not know how to archway of green vines and flowers, and where
all within and around was indicative of the write letters, that they need be ashamed of.
teacher's spirit of taste and order. Such s May that time soon come. Mrs. G. H. A.
place is a fit nursery for the intellects and DANTILLE, Wis.
characters of the young. It is natural for
children to grow up in harmony with their surNeatness in the School-Room.
roundings, and teachers should possess suffi
cient philosophy to know that these little silent Every school-room should be neat and pleas-every-day influences that shine in on their ant. The surroundings of a teacher serve as characters, mark them forever. a very good index to his character. When we Let every teacher see to it, then, that he see a schoolhouse in a slovenly condition- teaches neatness, spirit and order both by preeverything out of place and untidy-the pupils cept and example.—Home and School Journal.
BY LULIR LARZELERE.
fession in that country, described in a tragic
manner & thunderstorm which once overtook Just Aeross the River.
him in riding the old circuit.
“It was a night in the forest; the scene was awful, and," said the Judge, “I expected
every moment the lightning would strike the Infaat by the river side,
| tree under which I had taken shelter."
“Why, then," interrupted Nelson, in his Longing to be over;
peculiar squeal, "why in thunder, then,
didn't you get under another tree?".
The Modern Discovery of Woman.
The nineteenth century, among other inven-
tions and discoveries, has discovered Woman! Yor beyond, within the wood Nestled down, the school-house stood
It was not enough that she was placed in the Just across the river.
garden of Eden for us. We were blind for Beauteous bride with tresses bright,
many thousand years. When the world was Gazing at the starry hight,
young, we made her fetch our wood and cook Gazing at the milk-way white che
our food and play the menial. In our days All out-mapped above her; Thinking of a cottage fair,
of chivalry we taught her to be a pretty AmWaiting for a mistress' care
azon, to dress our wounds, to bind her scarf Just across the river.
about our helmet, to receive a fantastic and Weary, broken-heartod wife,
insincere adoration. Then as if there were Dono at last with toil and strifo, Done at last with fruitless life,
never to be an end to our nonsense, we fanGoing out forever;
cied that she was an Arcadian shepherdess, Going to an earthly tomb;
or a lovely wood-nymph with confused ideas Going to a heavenly home; Where un fading flowers bloom,
of virtue. Then was the sickly, sentimental, Just across the river.
pastoral age in full blast. Then did she tap
us on the cheek with her fan, and smirk and Tho Healthy Man.
smile, and paint and powder, and wear her
hair four stories high. That was the courtly Of all the know-nothing persons in this age. But by-and-by she wearied of these fol. world commend us to the man who has “never / lies. We began to treat her with more sense: known a day's idleness.” He is a moral dunce, then little by little she began to assert herself; one who has lost the greatest lesson in life, the better we treated her the more sho assertwho has skipped the finest lecture in that led, until at last we cried out like Frankenstein. great school of humanity, the sick-chamber. " What monster is this we have created ?" But Let him be versed in mathematics, profound it was not a monster-it was only a woman! in metaphysios, a ripe scholar in the classics, Great in her weakness, noble in her charity, bachelor of arts, or even a doctor of divinity ; | beautiful in her patience. We have found her yet he is one of those gentlemen whose edu- out! She was never so recognized as now; cation has been neglected. For all college ac- we have discovered that she has brain as well quirements, how inferior is he in useful knowl-as heart; that she can write verse like Mrs. edge to a mortal who has had but a quarter's Browning, paint pictures like Rosa Bonheur, gout, or half a year's ague-how infinitely be and still be all that is gentle and lovable like low the fellow-creature who has been soundly Florence Nightingale. -T. B. Aldrich. taught his tic-douloureux, thoroughly grounded in the rheumatics, and deeply red'in scarlet " Vatican.”—Many who see this word may fever! And yet what is more common than to not understand its import. It is a pile of hear a great hulking, florid fellow, bragging buildings covering a space of 1,200 feet in of an ignorance, & brutal ignorance, that he length and 1,000 in breadth on one of the sershares in common with the pig and bullock, en hills in Rome. The site was once the garthe generality of whom die, probably without den of barbarous Nero. Early in the sixteenth ever having experienced a day's indisposition? century the Bishop of Rome erected there an -Hood.
humble dwelling. This has been added to by one
Pope after another, until it is now one of the A JUDICIAL WAY.-Judge Norton was sol- most spacious and magnificent palaces, stocked emn, stern and dignified to excess. He was with paintings, statues, books and antiquities also all at once egotistical and sensitive to rid-1 of the rarest kind. icule. Judge Nelson was a wit, careless of decorum, and had a sharp voice. He did not Be A western paper says:-“Wan Sed, at like Judge Norton. At a bar supper, Judge this office, an editor who can please every body. Norton, in an elaborate speech, referring to Also, a foreman who can so arrange the paper the early daye of Wisconsin, the rude practice as to allow every man's advertisement to head of that period, and the discomforts of a pro- the column."
HEALTH AND DISEASE.
The Abuse of Coffee and Toa.
Too much is said against tea by wise people, Air as Food.
and too much of tea is given to the sick by
foolish people. When you see the natural and A recent writer, in a series of articles on “ Food and Drink," advances the idea that air
almost universal craving in the sick for their is necessary to life, not only as a means of res
"tea," you can not but feel that pature knows
what she is about. But a little tea or coffee piration, but as food itself. This is contrary
restores them quite as much as a great deal, to the generally received opinion, and especi
and a great deal of tea, and especially of cofally to that of Liebig, the great prophet of
fee, impairs the little power of digestion they animal chemistry; yet it does not appear to be
have. Yet the nurse, because she sees how without foundation. The best physicians are
one or two cups of tea or coffee restores her now agreed that for the prevention of consump
patient, thinks that three or four will do twice tion, the cure of epidemics, and generally for
as much. This is not the case at all; it is, sanitary purposes, fresh air is more needful | than everything besides. This could not be if
however, certain that there is nothing yet dis
covered which is a substitute to the patient for the sole utility of air was to work the respira
his cup of tea; he can take it when he can tory organs. Indifferent air, even positively
take nothing else, and he often can not take impure air, would, in that event, only act as a
anything else if he has it not. Sleeplessness secondary cause to the detriment of the health.
in the early part of the night is from exciteBut if the air we breathe yields up its constit
ment, generally, and is increased by tea or uents, or even portions of them, to make blood and furnish tissue, then it is important that
coffee; sleeplessness which continues to the such air should be untainted by miasm, by
early morning, is from exhaustion, often, and
is relieved by tea. epidemic influences, or by poisons of any descripcion.
| In general, the dry and dirty tongue always It is not asserted, indeed, that air alone can
prefers tea to coffee, and will quite decline milk
unless with tea. Coffee is a better restorative sustain human life. There are plants, which, there is good reason to believe, live on air
than tea, but a greater impairer of the diges
tion. Let the patient's taste decide. You will alone; but the human organization is more
say that, in cases of great thirst, the patient's complex, and requires a diversity of food.
craving decides that it will drink a great deal The teeth and intestines prove conclusively
of tea, and that you can not help it. But in that nature designed man to eat vegetable and
these cases be gure that the patient requires animal food both. Stories have been circulated, and have even been vouched for by physi
dilutents for quite other purposes than quench
ing the thirst; he wants a great deal of some cians, of persons subsisting for days, weeks,
drink, not only of tea, and the doctor will orand even months, on air alone; that is, without
| der that he is to have barley-water, or lemonsolid food, or even water. But deception is so
ade, or soda-water and milk, as the case may easy in such cases, and the improbability of the human organism repairing its waste of
be. Lehmann, quoted by Dr. Christison, says
that among the well and active, “the infusion tissue under such circumstances is so great,
of an ounce of roasted coffee daily will diminthat it would require a large amount of relia
ish the waste" going on in the body "by oneble and cumulative evidence, collected at dif
fourth ;" and Dr. Christison adds that tea has ferent times and from various sources, to warrant a belief in the ability of man to live on
the same property. Now, this is actual experair alone. The mere process of respiration
iment. Lehmann weighs the man and finds
the fact from his weight. It is not deducted would consume the body, in such a condition
from any "analysis” of food. All experience of things, faster than it could be repaired. But it is impossible to deny, in the face of
among the sick shows the same thing. Cocoa
is often recommended to the sick in lieu of tea the increased science of the age, that air plays.
and coffee. a more important part, in sustaining life, than was formerly supposed. The necessity of skill
Thoughts Essential to Health. ful ventilation, therefore; of living, as much as possible, out of doors ; of preserving the If we would have our bodies healthy, our air of cities pure by drainage and sanitary braing must be used, and used in orderly and provisions; by avoiding miasmatic exhalations; vigorous ways that the life-giving streams of and generally of securing a constant supply of force may flow down from them into the exfresh air, is, or ought to be, admitted by all. pected organs, which can minister but as they The press can do much to inculcate the great are ministered unto. We admire the vigorous truth, that pure atmospheric air is better than animal life of the Greeks, and with justice we doctors or their drugs. Thousands of child- recognize, and partially seek to imitate, the ren, annually sacrificed in our crowded cities, various gymnastic and other means which they might be saved, if mothers understood how employed to secure it. But probably we sho'd vitally important fresh air is, as a part of the make a fatal error if we omitted from our food of their little ones.
I calculation the hearty and generous earnest
ness with which the highest subjects of art,
WIT AND WISDOM, speculation, politics were pursued by them. Surely, in their case, the beautiful and ener
- Why does a person who is slightly poorly getio mental life was expressed in the athletic and graceful frame. And were it a mere ex
lose his sense of touch! Because he don't feel
well. travagance to ask whether some part of the "e lassitude and weariness of life, of which we -- Why is & sleepless lover like a briefless hear so much in our day, might be due to lack barrister? Because he's devoid of ease (of of mental occupation on worthy subjects, er fees.) citing and repaying a generous enthusiasm, - The young man who recently went on a as well as to an overexercise on low ones, bridal tour with an angel in muslin, has rewhether an engrossment on matters which turned with a termagant in hoops. have not substance enough to justify or satisfy the mental gasp, be not at the root of some
- All the teeth of a certain scolding lady part of maladies which affect our convales- being loose, she asked a physician the cause cence? Any one who trys it, soon finds out of it, he answered that it proceeded from the how disproportionately exhausted is an over- violent shocks she gave them with her tongue. dose of light literature," compared with an - It is not always a mark of frankness to equal amount of time spent on real work. Of possess an open countenance. An alligator this we may be sure, that the due exercise of is a deceitful creature, and yet he posesses an brain-of thought-is one of the esential ele- open countenance, when in the very act of ments of human life. The perfect health of a taking you in. man is not the same as that of an ox or horse.
- Rev. Augustus Woodbury in his fourth
Por The predominating capacity of his nervous
of July oration at Providence, remarked that, parts demands a corresponding life.
* If the South is willing to sacrifice the Union
for the sake of slavery, who can complain if Cleanliness.
the loyal people are willing to sacrifice slavery Compare the dirtiness of the water in which for the sake of the Union." you have washed, when it is cold, without --- Æsthetics are strongly blended with morsoap, cold with soap, hot with soap. You will als in woman's mind. With the fair sex good find the first has hardly removed any dirt at looks are a part of good behavior. It is a woall, the second a little more, and the third a man's duty to be beautiful-as it is her privigreat deal more. But hold your hand over a lege. Thus we were amused not long since cup of hot water for a minute or two, and then, at the farewell words of an anxious mother by merely rubbing with the finger, you bring about sending her daughter out into the world. off flakes of dirt or dirty skin. After a vapor- Be a good girl," said she, “do the best you bath you may peel your whole self clean in can, never do anything wrong, and—be sure this way. What I mean is, that by simply and keep your cyebrows brushed up. wasbing or sponging with water you do not
- A Physician was declaiming upon the proreally clean your skin. Take a rough towel, dip one corner in very
pensity which a majority of people display for hot water-if a little spirits be added it will
eating unripe fruit and vegetables. He said :
There is not a vegetable growing in our garbe more effectual and then rub as if you were la rubbing the towel into your skin with your
dens that is not best when arrived at maturity,
and most of them are positively very injurifingers. The black flakes which will come off
ous unless fully ripe.” “I know one thing will convince you that you were not clean before, however much soap and water you may green.” interrupted a little boy in a very con
that ain't so good when it's ripe as when 'tis have used. These flakes are what require re
fident but modest manger. - What's that?” moving. And you can really keep yourself cleaner with a tumblerful of hot water and a
sharply said the physician, vesed at having rough towel and rubbing, than a whole appa
his principle disputed by a mere boy. “Ă tus of bath, and soap, and sponge, without
I cucumber!'' responded the lad. rubbing. It is quite nonsense to say that anybody need be dirty. Patients have been kept DOMESTIC ECONOMY. as clean, by these means, on a long voyage, when a basinful of water could not be afforded,
Cooking and when they could not be removed out of their berths, as if all the appurtenances of Roasting, by causing the contraction of the home had been at hand.
cellular substance which contains the fat, exWashing, however, with a large quantity of pels more fat than boiling. The free escape water has quite other effects than those of mere of watery particles in the form of vapor, 80 oleanliness. The skin absorbs the water, and necessary to produce flavor must be regulated becomes softer and more prespirable. To wash by frequent basting with the fat which has with soap and soft water is, therefore, desirable exuded from the meat, combined with a little from other points of view than that of cleanliness. I salt and water; otherwise the meat would burn,