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barren plants, is to propagato only from those quince, and productive. Ripo early in August. that are known to be fruitful, and always from DEARBORY'S SEEDLING.-Medium or small young, vigorous plants. If a plant shows appearance of barrenness, remove it, and put in size, skin smooth, pale yellow, with small its place a plant with good strong canes and specks, flesh white, fine grained, melting, plenty of thorns. -Rural New Yorker.
sweet, sprightly, delicious flavor, always fair,
one of the best. Several of the Earliest Pears.
| A good grower on both pear and quince, AYIRE JOANNET, OR EARLY SUGAR PEAR.- bears young and abundantly. Middle to last The earliest of pears, quite small, skin yellow of August.
A. G. HANFORD. with red dots, flesh white, very sweet, pleasant | COLUMBUS, Ohio, August, 1862. flavor, juicy at first, becoming dry and mealy when full ripe. Season before wheat harvest,
Pogging down Rosos. or middle to last of July in Wisconsin. Tree, a fine, vigorous, upright grower, anwhil
I saw a method of training roses last year
*which I believe has not been noticed in your early bearer and very productive.
magazine, though I am pleased to say it is not This variety is said to do well as a dwarf, often you are caught lagging in the rear of
useful hints for your readers. This is neither but such is not our experience; we advise to
more or less than simply pegging down roses grow it only on the pear stock.--Next in sea- so as to cover the whole surface of the soil in son is the
a bed, instead of training them up to stakes
in the usual way. Strong forked branches of MADELINE.—This has long been regarded as trees, cut so as to make pegs of them, are the best of the very early pears, medium size, used, and the beds are beautiful in the exyellowish green, flesh white, juicy and melting,
treme, if such beauty can be aptly termed
& extreme. The beds I saw had but one kind in with an agreeable, often, though not always each-one I remember was of Louis Phillippe, sweet, and slightly perfumed flavor. Ripens in this was crimson; and another was Cels, nearly
white. There were also some beds with HyWisconsin the last of July or first of August. brid Perpetuals, which, though not making
Tree, a very thrifty, upright grower and such a brilliant effect as the former kinds, were early bearer, both on pear and quince, grown very pretty indeed, and they seemed to flower
much more freely treated in this way than
the when grown as usually, upright. Č. D. union of this variety and the quince stock does [With regard to the free flowering properties not seem to be very strong, and after a few :
few of Hybrid Perpetuals noticed, as following
this treatment, we are informed that this was years when in bearing it is liable to break attributed to the practice of cutting off the off.—Ripening with this is the little
| blooms as fast as they faded, though our cor
respondent is no doubt right in her surmise, Muscar ROBERT.-A tender, juicy, sweet
that pegging down has some influence on their pear; color, bright yellow, soon after ripe it productiveness.]-Gardener's Monthly. becomes dry and mealy. Tree, hardy, vigorous, productive on both
Bay A correspondent of the Gardener's pear and quince. A few days later we have Chronicle packs apples in shallow boxes, in the
dry bran. He finds it light, clean, elastic, and
excellent for packing. Packing peaches, necDOYENNE D'ETE, OR SUMMER DOYENNE.-A tarines, apricots, and grapes to long distances, beautiful and excellent little pear, yellow with he wraps the fruit singly in tissue paper.bright red cheek, flesh white, melting, juicy,
Grapes are best sent in paper bags, in single
layers, and the bran to keep all firm. sweet perfumed flavor. Tree, vigorous, upright grower, is hardy,
To smoke Aphides in the open air, take bears young and is very productive on both
cotton cloth well sprinkled over with tobacco, pear and quince.. Osband's SUMMER.-Medium or small size, smoke upon the Aphides, pinning a newspaper
round the plant if small, or setting a barrel yellow, often with reddish brown cheek, sweet over it, with one head out and a little hole in fine flavor; tree, fair grower on both pear and the top for a draft, if large.
MECHANICAL & COMMERCIAL. with five or six coats of the following: two
ounces of the whitest seed lac to tbree ounces
of gum anima reduced to a fine powder and Japanning and Varnishing.
dissolved in a quart of alcohol. This lac must Japanning is the art of covering bodies by
be carefully picked. For a softer varnish tban grounds of opaque colors in varnish, which
this, a little turpentine should be added, and may be afterward decorated by printing or less of the gum. A very good varnish, and gilding, or left in a plain state.
not brittle, may be made by dissolving gum All surfaces to be japanned must be perfect
anima in nut oil, boiling it gently as the gum ly clean. Paper should be stiff for japanning,
td he stiff for ispanning is added, and giving the oil as much gum as it such as papier mache.
will take up. Although this varnish is not The French prime all their japanned arti
ed artis brittle, it is liable to be indented with strokes, les. the English do not this priming is and it will not bear to be polished, but if well generally of common size. Articles that are laid on, it will not need polishing afterward. thus primed, never endure as well as those that It also takes some time to dry. Heat applied receive the japan coating on the first operaton. to all oils, however, darkens their color, and When they are used for some time they crack, oil-varnishes for white grow very yellow if not and the coats of japan fly off in flakes. A exposed to a full clear light. solution of strong isipglass and honey, or sugar candy, makes a good japan varnish to
Heat for Temporing Tools. cover water colors on gold grounds.
In the manufacture of tools the greatest skill A pure white priming for japanning, for the cheap method, is made with parchment size
is required in obtaining the proper temperaand isinglass, laid on very thin and smooth.-
ture or heat for tempering them. This will vary It is the better of three coats, and when the
greatly with the various grades of steel or last is dry, it is prepared to receive the paint
metal to be tempered, and also the degree of ing or ornamental figures. Previous to the
hardness required. last coat, however, the work should be smooth
1 Between the extreme conditions of hard and ly polished.
" soft steel there are many intermediate grades, When wood or leather is to be japanned, and
w the common index for which is the oxydation
of the brightened surface, and it is quite sufno priming used, the best plan is to lay on two or three coats of varnish made of seed lac and
ficient for practice. These tints, and their rosin, two ounces each, dissolved in alcohol
respective approximate temperatures, are thus
tabulated : and strained through a cloth. This varnish should be put on in a warm place and the work 1. Very pale straw yellow...........430 to be varnished should, if possible, be warm 2. A shade of darker yollow...... 450
Tools for metal.
3. Darker straw yellow.............470 Tools for wood, and algo, and all dampness should be avoided, to
4. Still darker straw yellow.......490 screw tape, etc, prevent the varnish from being chilled. When 5. A brown yellow.. .................500 Hatchets, chipping the work is prepared with the above composi- 6. A yellow, tinged Blightly with
chisels, and other tion and is dry, it is fit for the proper japan
.520 percussivo tools, 7. Light purple ....
....530 BMWB, etc. to be laid on. If the ground is not to be white, 8. Dark purple....
..550 the best varnish now to be used is made of
ofl 9. Dark blue.............
570 Springs. 10. Paler blue. .............
..........590 shellac. This is made in the proportions of
11. Still paler blue...... .....600 Too soft for the the best shellac five ounces, steeped in a quart 12. Still paler blue, with a tingos above purposes. of alcohol and kept at a gentle heat for two or of green............................630 three days, and shaken frequently, after which The first tint arrives at about 430° F., but it the solution must be filtered through a flannel is only seen by comparison with a piece of steel bag, and kept in a well corked boitle for use. not heated: the tempering colors differ slightThis varnish for hard japanning on copper or ly with the various qualities of steel. tin will stand forever, unless fire or a hammer The heat for tempering being moderate, it is be used to burn or knock it off. The color to often supplied by the part of the tool not rebe used with shellac varnish may be any pig- quiring to be hardened, and which is not therement to give the desired shade.
fore cooled in the water. The workman first To form a hard perfect white ground is no hastily tries with a file whether the work is easy matter, as the substances which are gen- hard; he then partially brightens it at a few erally used to make the japan hard, have a parts with a piece of grindstone or an emery tendency by a number of coats to become dull. stick, that he may be enabled to watch for the One white ground is made by the following required color: which attained, the work is composition: White flake or lead ground up usually cooled in any convenient manner, lest with a sixth of its weight of starch, then dried the body of the tool should continue to supply and mixed with the finest gum, ground up, in heat. But when, on the contrary, the color parts of one ounce gum to halt an ounce of does not otherwise appear, partial recurrence rectified turpentine, mixed and ground thor-is had to the mode in which the work was oughly together. This is to be laid on the ar- heated, as the flame of the candle, or the surticle to be japanned, dried, and then varnished face of the clear fire applied, if possible, a lit
tle below the part where the color is to be ob- it below 200 pounds. The engine was worked served, that it may not be soiled by the smoke. by Mr. Lee, the patentee, assisted by Mr.
A very convenient and general manner of Charles B. King. The water was taken from tempering small objects, is to heat to redness & a source a few feet above the engine, and led few inches of the end of a flat bar of iron about into the pump under the moderate pressure two feet long; it is laid across the anvil, or thus obtained. A l-inch jet was thrown at fixed by its cold extremity in the vice; and least 5 feet over the chimney, or 145 feet verthe work is placed on that part of its surface tically. The Times' report states the height to which is found by trial to be of the suitable which the jet was thrown as 150 feet the same temperature, by gradually sliding the work sized jet was afterwards thrown 191 feet horitoward the heated extremity. In this manner zontally.--Merchantxo Magazine. many tools may be tempered at once, those at the hot part being pushed off into a vessel of water or oil as they severally show the re
Depth of Mines in England. quired color; but it requires dexterity and An English journal, after valuing the total quickness in thus managing many pieces.
product of the mines of Great Britain at £41,Vessels containing oil or fusible alloys, care- 491,102 per annum, and computing that Engfully heated to the required temperatures, have land's supply of coal will last at least seven also been used, and I shall have to describe a hundred years longer. at present rates of conmethod called "blazing off," resorted to for
sumption, gives the following account of the many articles, such as springs and saws, by depth to which the bowels of the earth have heating them over the naked fire until the oil,
been pierced in England: wax, or composition in which they have been
The depth to which we mine for coal is alhardened ignites; this can only occur when
ready great. The pit at Duckenfield, in Chesthey respectively reach their boiling tempera
shire, is 2,004 feet below the surface to the tures, and are also evaporated in the gaseous point where it intersects the “ Black Mine form.--Journal of Am. Patent Co.
Coal," a seam which is four feet six inches
thick, and of the best quality for domestic and American Steam Fire-Engines in England. manufacturing purposes ; from this point a fur
ther depth of 500 feet has been attained by From the London Engineer of the 28th March, means of an engine plane in the bed of coal, we learn that a trial of an American steam so that a great portion of the coal is now raisfire-engine, taken to that country by Mr. Lee, ed from the enormous depth of 2,504 feet. At of the Novelty Iron Works, New York, recently Pendleton, near Manchester, coal is daily took place at the distillery of Mr. Frederic worked from a depth of 2,135 feet; and the Hodges, Lambert. Besides several distinguish-Cannel coal of Wigan is brought from 1,773 ed visitors, including the Duke of Sutherland, feet below the surface. Many of the Durham the Earl of Caithness, Mr. T. Hankey, M. P., collieries are equally deep, and far more ex&c., a large number of engineers, among whom tended in their subterranean labyrinths.were Mr. Scott Russell, Mr. J. E. McConnell, Some of those, and others in Cumberland, are Mr. C. E. Amos, Mr. Appold, Mr. Shand, &c., worked out far under the bed of the sea; and were present. Mr. Hodges first exhibited the on both sides of the island we are rapidly exworking of his two hand-engines, the largest tending our sub-oceanic burrowing. in London, a detachment of the Grenadier Dolcoath tin mine, in Cornwall, is now workGuards, 30 in number, being mustered for ing at 1,800 feet from the surface, and is rap-. manning the handles. The hand-engines drew idly sinking deeper. The depth of Tresavean, their water from a well 6 feet below the suc- a copper mine is 2.180 feet. Many other tin tion valve, and one of them threw a 1-inch jet and copper mines are approaching these depths; about 125 feet high, the chimney of the distil- and under the Atlantic waves, in Botallack, lery, 140 feet high, forming a good standard Levant, and other mines, man is pursuing his of measurement.
labors daily at half a mile from the shore. To The hand-engines were worked by 40 men aid the miner in these severe tasks steam eneach. The steam fire-engine was then brought gines with cylinders one hundred inches in out, the fire laid, and the match applied at diameter, are employed in pumping water 3.58 P. M. In five minutes the pointer of the from these vast depths. Winding-engines, steam gauge began to move, in seven minutes which are masterpieces of mechanical skill, the pressure of steam was 5 pounds, in ten are even at work raising the minerals from minutes 12 pounds, in eleven minutes 15 pounds, each dark abyss, and “man-engines," of conand the engine commenced working at this siderable ingenuity--so-called because they pressure. A minute afterwards the steam was bring the wearied miners to the light of day, at 30 pounds, in two minutes 65 pounds, and saving him from the toil of climbing up perin three minutes 120 pounds, whence it gradu- pendicular ladders--are introduced in many of ally rose to 140 pounds. The boiler made our most perfectly conducted mines. Our steam in the greatest abundance, and it was coals cost us annually one thousand lives, and some times requisite to check the fire to keep more than double that number of our metalif
erous miners perish from accidents in the mines, erage 36 times in an hour. For the protection or at an unusually early age-thirty-two-from of orchards and woods, titmico aro of valuable diseases contracted from the conditions of their service. They consume, in particular, the egge toils. By the industry of our mining popula- of the dangerous pine spiders. One single fetion there is annually added to our national male of such spiders frequently lays from 600 wealth considerably more than thirty million to 800 eggs, twice in the summer season, while sterling. This, when elaborated by the pro- a titmouse with her young ones consume daily cess of manufacture, is increased in value ten- several thousands of them. Wrens, nuthatches fold. While we are thus drawing upon that and woodpeckers often dexterously fetch from “hoarded treasure, guarded by dragons white the crevices of tree bark numbers of insects and red,” which the enchanter Merlin is fabled for their nestlings.” to have concealed in the caves of the earth, Tschudi considers sparrows to be very useful we should not cease to remember how much of birds, as one single pair usually carry to their mental labor and muscular power is expended, nest every day about 300 caterpillars, an adand how large a percentage of human life is vantage that amply compensates for the cherannually sacrificed in the contest with those ries the bird steals in the garden. Owls also hydra-headed evils which are truly personified consume, morning and evening, vast numbers by the dragons of the legend.
of wood insects. Some species of birds, such as starlings, jackdaws, rooks, jays, and spock
led magpies, are famed for destroying magbugs NATURAL HISTORY. or cockchafers. Most of the smaller birds feed,
either entirely or partially, especially during Spare the Birds.
the hatching season, on insects, worms, snails,
spiders, &c. ; 80 do also the hedge-sparrow, Some years ago, the Legislature of New woodpeckers, thrushes, fly-catchers (MuscicaJersey were induced to pass a law for the pro- | pas), wagtails, larks, &c." tection of small birds, and since that date many of the other States have made similar farmers to prevent the apprehension of those laws.
who destroy the insect-killing birds. They Unfortunately, old abuses, even after they should be pursued and punished, until this are generally admitted as such, are permitted custom of wilfully murdering innocent and to continue from sheer good nature, and thus
useful birds is rendered a thing of the past.farmers, notwithstanding the passage of these
Insects will cost the country, during the preslaws for the protection of small birds, are slow
ent year, half as much as the war, and still a to have the laws enforced. It is estimated that morbid kindness toward those who destroy our a pair of Thrushes will destroy 600 caterpillars only safe-guard, the birds, prevents many a in a day, and many birds have been found to crop from perfecting. -- Working Farmer. have 1000 insects in their craw at one time. Oh, for a bird which would kill the Curculio;
Stray Loaves from the Book of Naturo. if such a bird could be found, it would be a greater blessing to the country than the gold Some plants go regularly to rest, and sleep regions of California.
so profoundly that in a clover-field not a leaf A correspondent of the Horticulturist gives opens until after sunrise, and others in South an interesting account of the address delivered America are universally known as the “sleepby Baron von Tschudi, the celebrated Swissers.” Most mimosas fold up their delicate, naturalist, at a late agricultural meeting at St. feathery leaves as night approaches, and when Gailen, in Switzerland.
the sun rises once more, the little sleepy ones “Without birds," said he, “no agriculture unfold again, slowly, and, as it were, reluctant, and vegetation are possible. They accomplish like some of us, to begin their work anew. It in a few months the profitable work of destruc- has even been observed, that these so-called tion which millions of human hands could not sensitive plants, when wounded or otherwise do half so well in as many years. Among the suffering, cannot sleep, but keep their leaves most deserving birds he counts swallows, finch- open and erect all night long, until they peres, titmice, redtails, &c. In a flower garden ish. Other plants close their leaves during of one of his neighbors, three tall rose trees the day, and awake from their slumbers at had suddenly been covered with about 2000 night, while a few even droop and clasp the tree lice. At his recommendation, a marsh stem, as if seeking support in its strength, titmouse was located in the garden, which in whenever the sky is overcast and a storm is a few hours consumed the whole brood and left threatening. the flowers clean. A redtail in a room was This peculiar faculty of sleep stands in imobserved to catch about 900 flies in an hour. mediate connection with the general power of A couple of night swallows have been known certain leaves to move, either upon coming in to destroy & whole swarm of gnats in fifteen contact with other bodies, or, apparently, in minutes. A pair of gold-crested wrens carry spontaneous motion. All the above-mentioned insects as food to their nestlings upon an av- mimogas fold up their leaves when morely
touched : first one little leaflet will be closed, ber. We can speak no longer of sweet, innothen another, until the whole loaf proper, with cent flowers--for so fond are these blood-thirsty its delicate footstalk, droops down and clasp8 plants of their favorite delicacies, that they the stem of the parent. If the plant is very will not thrive in green-houses from which inirritable and nervousness is here found to be sects are excluded, and gardeners have been in proportion to good health-the other leaves compelled to supply them, strange as it may will follow the example, until the whole little sound, literally with animal food, to see them plant plays, to use a Virginia phrase, “ 'pos- thrivo and blossom as in their native home.sum," and looks, for all the world, as if it were M. Schele de Vfre. asleep. The oxalis of this continent requires several successive strokes to produce the same effect, and the robinis, or locust, which sleeps
Insoct and Grain Eating Birds. at night, must be violently shaken. The com- The French Senate has been engaged in a mon wild lettuce, also, shows a great irritabil.
curious matter of practical natural history. ity, and curiously enough, only when the plant Four
Four petitions had been received, pressing on is in flower. Upon being touched, the leaves the Minister of Agriculture and commerce the contract beneath, and force out, above, a milky importance of protecting those birds which juice, with which they soon become covered. destroy insects injurious to vines and corn.
The so-called spontaneous movements of the committee had enjoyed the benefit of the leaves and other parts of plants arise mostly, knowledge and experience of M. Geoffry St. though not always, from their general tendency Hilaire and M. Florent Prevost, and conseto turn towards the light. Little is as yet quently the report was filled with matter most known with accuracy of this interesting feature interesting to the farmer, the statesman, and in the life of plants. A great number of leaves, the naturalist. In the first place, the report however, alter their position by night and by enumerates the various kinds of insects which day. Some make a half, some a quarter revo- in this country commit terrible ravages upon lution, and then turn their points downward. the most valuable products of the earth, includOthers, again, fold up, in regular order, the ing in the first rank corn, vines, and oil; the youngest leaf first, as if it required most rest, value of the wheat destroyed in a single seswhilst the oldest are apt to do entirely without son, in one department of the east of France, it. In other plants it is the state of the at- by the cecidomigie, had been established at four mosphere which determines such movements-millions of francs. Instances were given to the beards of the geranium and the wild oat show the enormous fecundity of some of these curl up in dry weather, and straighten again pests. In a single specimen of the phlæoribus in damp days-other plants do the contrary. (the great enemy of the olive), & naturalist The hygrometrica of $. America closes the found 2,000 eggs. In Prussia the ravages of leaflets of its finely pinnated foliage long be-/ the norme were so great that an attempt was fore the clouds rise, and thus foretells the im- made to collect the eggs; and in one day, in a pending change of the weather, and the plant, tract of forest land, four bushels, or about known among us as the fly-trap, is called in 180,000,000, were got together and destroyed. its home on the warm plains on the banks of The crow is condemned in the report. This is the Senegal, the good-morning flower, because counter to the opinion of scientific men in at that season of the day it gracefully bends England, who praise the birds for eating inover and bows to the passer-by. On the banks sects, while the French condemn them as deof the Ganges, however, exists a vegetable stroying other insect-eating birds. The gramform, so quick of life as to resemble some of nivorous birds, such as the sparrow, are conthe minor animals in its motion. The leaflets sidered to do more good by their destruction of of this singular plant are in perpetual motion; insects and eggs than by the consumption of one leaflet will rise by a succession of little seeds, Owls, the woodpecker, swallow and starts, and then fall in like manner; while one singing birds, are recommended to protection. rises, another droops, and thus the motion con- - Scientific American. tinues and extends orer the whole foliage. Nor does it cease at night; in fact, it is said to be more vigorous even in the shade, and in the HUMMING BIRD'S NEST.-A California paper still, hot hours of an Indian summer night the thus describes the humming bird's nest, in the plant is full of life and incessant motion. Not legs singular is the action--for it is more than garden of William Hawley in Marysville: motion of plants, like Venus' fly-trap, and The nest contained two of their young. It others. The flowers are covered with sweet is about the size of a black walnut, of a very honey, and thus allure many an unfortunate fine texture, almost white, much resembling inseet, which has no sooner touched the sweet woolen cloth, and firmly bound to the twig of store, than the plant moves either the long stiff a peach tree, within three feet of the ground. hairs, which grow along the middle nerve, or The young birds are not much larger than closes its crown of gorgeously colored leaves grains of coffee, and present a very singular above, and thus seizes upon the unlucky rob-l appearance.