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. ed comb, worker-brood comb; again, you hate a comb on or in each frame, ag straight as a rule, which is a very desirable thing.
Then the animal heat of the hive is not absorbed or hindered by partitions of wood or metal between the combs, which new natural swarms dislike very much; and you economise the use of the old or waste combs about your bee yard.
I used this method of comb guides last season in about fifty hives, and I do not think that I had one crooked comb in the lot.
I am certain that if that kind of comb guide | is properly put on and used, that you will attain to a very high perfection in straight combs —in fact, almost all that a person could wish Or desire.—Cor. Bet Journal.
[The Editor pro tem of the Farmer has this season tried the use of these strips of comb, and his success is such that he recommends them as the easiest guide to make, while at the same time it answers the same purpose of securing straight combs.]
Those wishing to improve their bee pasturage are advised to plant maple, locust, chestnut, and linden trees, and to encourage others to do so. In setting out ornamental trees, it is surely worthy one's attention to have regard to their honey-producing power; and to select, with this end in view, those blooming at different times, rather than all of one kind, or those blooming at the same time. I should like to know the comparative value of these trees for producing honey, and also which varieties of these menlioned are the best.
For timber, the yellow locust is the most valuable. It is extensively planted on the western prairies, where it grows very rapidly, and is chiefly used for railroad sleepers. In Southern Ohio, bees, some years, gather a large portion of their surplus honey from the locust. Their industry during the yield from the locust is surprising. Where the tree grows in great numbers, they almost abandon all other sources of supply.
Twenty years ago, an old farmor in New Jersey raised from the seed about 20,000 yellow locust trees, which, when tall enough not to be injured by cattle, he sot out on the roadside, along his fences, and also thinned out his woodland and planted a locust wherever there thcro was a chance for one to thrive. The majority are now worth $1 each for posts.
Some years since, a farmer in the west set out a very extensive peach orchard for firewood—the tree being of rapid growth in rich soil. When they began to bear, he marked those that yielded good fruit, saved them, and cut the others as needed. In this way he originated some fine fruit. He remarked that his
bees gathered a good deal from blemished fruit, of which there was a large quantity, :i« he only picked for the use of his family. The same has been noticed in abundant peach years elsewhere; but near a good market, the crop is too carefully gathered for bees to obtain much from this source. "The nauseous Ailanthus" blooms very late. The white clover, in my vicinity, suffered from drouth this year before the Ailanthus blossomed, and bees worked with unusual activity upon it. I observed this upon an avenue of trees over ono mile in length. I have been informed that the timber is extensively used in China (where it attains a large size) in ship building, and the leaves of the young trees for feeding a worm which produces an inferior silk, worn there by the lower classes. The chief need, in closely cultivated districts, is something to fill the gap between white clover and buexwheat.—Bet Jour.
Apiary in September.
Immediately after the failure of honey in the flowers—which will bo in September in most places, look out and remove all colonies too feeble to defend themselves. They are quite sure to be robbed by stronger ones, which thus get a bad habit, and will be induced to attack others. Late swarms which arc strong enough to winter, but lack honey, should not bo fed this month—as many recommend—un-, less they can be fed sufficiently to construct comb in which to store it, and rear considerable brood. Next month, the brood will mature, and leave the cells, and give room for several pounds of honey When two or three feeble colonies stand near together, and contain bees enough for a good colony, they may be united for a winter stock, if fed properly. To prevent quarreling, sprinkle with sugar water flavored with a few drops of peppermint, or other essence. Condemned colonics will have a little more honey if taken now, than if later; yet when all the brood is matured and out of the way, it will be nicer. Stocks in which much foul brood has appeared, shoul.l be removed at once. It will not do to wait for such to mature all their brood, as they continue to rear that till cold weather, and in the mean time may get robbed, which would infect other hives with the disease. When cells of honey and dead brood are mixed together in the same comb, it is best disposed of by burying—the honey is unfit for use, very little wax can be made from it, and the bees should not be allowed to take a particle. Stooks of any age may be attacked, and hence all should be examined where the disease is prevalent. When a stock is diseased just enough to condomn it, yet not sufficiently to prevent it from being wintered, it may be kept, but some hive containing combs and a small quantity of honey, should bo provided to which to transfer in the Spring. Honey taken from such hive", when it can be cut out free from the mixture of brood, is suitable for the table; it may bo oaten with no bad effects. The inferior pieces may be strained. By scalding thoroughly, and skimming, it may be fed to the bees v. "Is safety.— Quikbt.
Introducing Italian Queens-A Hew Method.
Editori Co. Gent.: Last season I first attempted to introduce the Italian variety of bees in my apiary, but the method of doing it was new to me, and like some others, failed in the attempt. This season I tried it again and succeeded after the experience of last year. I I obtained my queen from Mr. Quinby. She was of a beautiful color. I have raised a few queens from her which I introduced without a cage—a new method to me, and compartively easy. The method is as follows: After the swarm had been deprived of the native queen and cells four or five days, take a cup containing a small amount of honey, and put the queen in, being sure you get her completely covered with honey as quick as possible, without injuring her; then with a small spoon carefully put her in the top hole of the hive, and by the time she is licked off she is all right. The few trials I have given this method have not failed in a single instance, but as I have not thoroughly tested it, I would advise none but our large Italian bee raisers to try it. During this month there will be more queens introduced than in any of the past ones; hence it will be necessary for our beekeepers to communicate as quiok as possible, so as to give our amateurs a chance.—L. A. Aspinwaal.
Removing Honey From Hives.—Two years ago we tried the following experiment on a hive of bees, from which it was desired to take the honey. Having bored a few small holes near the top of the hive, it was then inverted, and an empty box of the same size placed over it; both were then lifted into an empty tub, into which water was slowly poured, allowing time for the liquid to penetrate through the holes, but not too fast, in order to avoid drowning the bees. As the water rose amongst the combs the bees found their way up into the empty box, which was then lifted off and plaoed on the bee-stand. The box, full of water and combs, was then lifted gradually out of the tub, the water escaping by the holes through which it entered. The whole operation occupied but a few minutes, and scarcely any bees were lost. The short time necessarily prevented the honey from becoming dissolved, and, as the greater number ot cells are sealed, up, there is really little danger of such loss being sustained. After the water was drawn off it was found to be only slightly sweet; the combe soon became dry, and the honey was in no way injured.
Ornamental Shrubs.—No. 2.
Sweet Scented Shrub — (Calyeanthus).— Several species. Floridus is most common and perhaps the most desirable. The wood is fragrant, foliage rich, flowers single, of a chocolate color with a peculiar agreeable spicy odor.
White Fringe—(Chinanlhus).—A fine shrub with large, broad Magnolia-like foliage and delicate greenish white flowers resembling cut paper.
PtRpt.E Fringe Or Smoke Tree—(Rus Cctinus).—A very neat pretty shrub of large site, covered in summer with a curious purple inflorescence resembling fringe or hair. This and the White Fringe should have the shelter of other shrubbery to endure the winter in Wisconsin.
Doqwooii; Red Branched—(Cornus Sangvinie).—A large spreading shrub with willow-like shoots and white flowers; very conspicuous and ornamental in winter when the bark is blood red. Cornut Variegata is desirable for its variegated foliage.
Flowering Currant—Yellow—(Aurea.)— Large spreading shrub with neat foliage and abundant yellow flowers with strong cinnamon perfume. The Crimson and Double Crimeon are not hardy Gordons, (Sites Gordoni) is a hybrid between the crimson flowering and the yellow; it is quite hardy, but should be slightly protected in Wis. to insure a good bloom.
Lilac.—An old fashioned shrub with handsome foliage and a profusion of fragrant showy flowers, in early spring, indispensible to every garden. May be grown in clumps or trained as a small tree. Makes a fine ornamental hedge or screen. Beside the common purple and white, there are several newer varieties which are desirable. Charles the 10M is a strong growing variety with large leaves and reddish purple flowers. The Persian has slender branches and small leaves, there is a purple and a white flowering variety. Josihea is a very distinct species with dark glossy leaves, flowers in long open spites of a reddish purple, blooms after other varieties. Double purpit has a doable row of petals.
Strawberry Tree Or Burning Bush— (Buonymoue).—A very ornamental large shrub or small tree, covered with scarlet fruit in
Snow Ball—( Yiburnam Opulus).—A large and beautiful "shrub with showy clusters of white flowers like snow balls. An old favorite, thriving everywhere. High Buth Cranberry, (V. Oxytocia) resembles the preceding, white flowers in early spring, followed by showy clusters of scarlet fruit of a pleasant acid taste resembling the Cranberry. Early White Lantana leaved, ( V. Lantanoidee). Has soft hoary leaves and large clusters of white flowers in May, retains its foliage very late.
Chinese Golden Bell—(Fortythia Viridutima).—A fine shrub with long dark green shoots and very deep green foliage, producing an abundance of bright yellow flowers very early in spring. To insure a good bloom in Wisconsin, it must be laid down at approach of winter and covered with soil or dry leaves.
Privet.—A very ornamental plant with neat foliage and pretty spikes of white flowers, succeeded by bunches of black berries; it is almost an evergreen, thrives in all soils, makes a fine ornamental hedge, will bear shearing to any extent.
8t. Peter's Wort Or Sngw Berry.—A neat shrub with small delicate pink flowers and large white wax-like berries that hang on through winter.
Althka—Rose Of Sharon.—Handsome, free-growing and free-blooming shrubs, desirable for blooming in the autumn months; flowers arc white and various shades of pink, purple and lilac,—both single and double. The Althea will not endure the cold of a Wisconsin winter without very thorough protection, they may be grown in boxes or tubs and removed to the cellar at approach of winter, or taken up and holed in in the cellar to be replanted in the spring. The many good qualities of this shrub will repay this care and trouble. A. G. Hanford.
Columbus, Ohio, August, 1862.
The Lawton Blackberry.
Mr. Editor: In the May So. of the Farmer is an article on the '' Value of the Law ton Blackberry," from 0. S. Willey, which I believe very much misrepresents its value. I have found, by experience, that there is little difficulty in making it productive. The Lawton is a good fruit, but the trouble with some is, it don't pay. Now the Lawton is a rampant grower, requires good cultivation, and in, if rightly managed, just as certain a crop as the currant. The ground should be worked from twelve to twenty inches deep, and made good by manure. The canes should be pinched during their growth so as to confine them within proper limits and make a tree or bush well branched, and finally, the whole ground should be well mulched.— Not a little bit of mulching around each bush, but all over the ground. The Lawton is rather troublesome in a small lot, but should have plenty of room; better adapted to Farmers' grounds than small gardens. The way to cultivate is as follows: A piece of ground, say twenty feet wide and as long as you wish, commence on the sides and plough until it is all turned over, then drag it thoroughly. Then plough again as at first and drag again, and so keep working until your centre or dead furrow is as deep as you can conveniently make it. Then plough all back again to a level; plant your canes in the centre and then cover it all with good coarse manure or half rotted straw, from twelve to eighteen inches deep. If you wish to do the work with a spade, the deeper you work the ground, the more and better fruit. The Blackberry makes better wine than any grape raised in this latitude. The fruit is a specific in summer or bowel complaints, both for children and adults. I find the Lawton perfectly hardy as the wild black raspberry or thimbleberry, and with proper cultivation they arc always productive. You can pile straw around them if you please in the fall for protection and let it remain for a mulch the next summer. The only reason people do not succeed is, they neglect thorough cultivation. The ground must not get dry, if it does, your fruit will be dry also. I have learned this by experience, my own bushes look well and are loaded
with fruit. E. A. Robby.
Buruxotm, Wis., Aug. 4th, 1862.
Care and Taste in Planting.
A great deal of care aad some taste is necessary in planting grounds, or our choicest treasures become evils, and those things which give much of grace and beauty to our grounds, prove a great injury. Persons are apt to have a special passion for particular classes of trees —some are fond of evergreens, and their grounds have a sombre, formal appearance, from the large number of this class of trees planted, while others are delighted with the weeping trees and obtain every variety possible, and give to their place a melancholy aspect far from agreeable. These trees should be used with caution. Mr. Barry gives the following excellent advice on this subject, which we commend to all who are planting ornamental grounds:
"There is somethingso attractive and so graceful in the character of drooping trees, thai they arrest the attention of persons who would scarcely bestow a glance upon the noblest and rarest trees of the ordinary upright habits of growth which prevail among the mass of forest trees. A Weeping Willow, common though it be, never fails to elicit admiration. In the hands of a skillful, judicious planter, no other trees are more effective in giving variety, character, and expression, to a landscape; but they must always be used sparingly, and with the exercise of good taste and a great deal of foresight. We have known persons so captivated with the elegance of the Weeping Willow, as to plant half a dozen immediately around their dwellings, stamping them at once with the character of mausoleums, more than that of the habitations of living beings.
It is equally in bad taste to plant largely of trees in which any particular character prevails to a striking degree. At certain points on the Hudson, the tapering Arbor Vitse is so thickly planted in some grounds that one can see nothing else. These, the stiffest, most artificial-looking, of all other trees, should be planted with the greatest caution. While two or three might produce a fine effect, entire groves or masses of them become monotonous or disgusting.
It is quite obvious that weeping trees, to produce any effect, must be pretty well isolated; for their streaming side branches are the source of their peculiar grace and elegance — This points out the jutting edges of groups of trees, arM the open lawn, as their appropriate situation. The Willows have a particularly fine effect on the margins of streams, ponds or other bodies of water. Those with stronger branches, such as the ash, elm, &c, are well adapted to farming arbors, and are much employed for this purpose. All the drooping trees are considered appropriate ornaments to cemeteries; the mournful expression which their drooping habit conveys, certainly renders them fitting objects for this purpose."—Sural New Yorker.
Ee-CIothing Bare Spots upon Lawns.
Mg. Editor:—There are many complaints in the spring about lawns becoming overrun with moss, and the ground about the stema of trees getting bare. When such is the case with me, I have the moss raked up with sharptoothed rakes, and scratch the ground well, mix grass seed with a good quantity of mould, and sow it thickly over the bare spots. In a short time it springs up and keeps down moss for several years; a little lime or soot sown over it in fall prevents the growth of moss; and kills worms in the soil.
A good top dressing of rotted manure in fall is of great advantage; or super-phosphate in spring is equally good. The grass should not be allowed to get very long in spring for want of cutting, but during the heat of summer it should not be too often cut nor too closely cut. as by that the roots are too much exposed; but in cool, wet seasons, it should be oftenor cut. When the ground under trees gets bare, I stir the surface with a rake with sharp teeth; then scatter some finely broken mould over the place and sow it thickly with grass seeds, (a good deal of white clover among it.) It soon becomes green, and keeps so all summer. About the first of April is the best time to sow the grass seeds, but even on to June will do. I had this ready to send you for this month's, number, but neglected to send it, but better late than never, if it should be the means of reminding any of your numerous readers to do what in the hurry in spring they may have
forgotten.—Cor. Farmer and Gardener.
Preserving Dahlia Turers.—A correspondent of the "Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener," writes as follows: "May I be permitted to offer a simple suggestion relative to the preservation of Dahlia roots during winter? Though carefully dried before storing away in the autumn, I used continually to lose them by the rotting of the crown, till at length the idea one day occurred to me that the mischief was occasioned through the decay of the long stalk left attached to the tubers: this becoming partially charged with fluid kept the crown constantly wet. My remedy has been not to leave more than four inches of stalk; from this to scrape the whole of the outer covering or bark, and at the base to make a small opening which permits any watery deposit to escape. The result has been that I have preserved the whole of my tubers, while experienced gardeners around me have complained of loss, notwithstanding that every precaution from damp or frost had been taken."
Erata.—Mr. Editor: In the remarks on the Fall Stripe Apple, on page 300, August No., I report Mr. B., of Lodi, to say "Not Extra;" whereas it should be "No. 1 Extra," which is his own language. Yours, J. C. P.
more than one in a thousand has done so, and Ihe propagation of most, or all of them, have been abandoned by American growers; and well they may be, when we have such sorts as the above— Houghton's Seedling and Downing's—originated by Chas. Downing, of N. Y.—not fully tested here, but spoken highly of where known.
Another of Emery & Co.'b engravings, which graced their wide awake paper not long since. O. S. Willey.
Grape Growers' Maxims.
American Seedling Gooseberry.
An American sort, similar to Houghton, of the east, but more upright. Has been termed by fruit growers of Illinois, an Europ Ui sort, and labelled "Vale Red." The "Ohio Seedling" of Cincinnati, probably is the same variety. A very rapid, vigorous grower—an abundant bearer—hardy; never mildewing; small to full Kedium in siie, pahjred. pleasant flavor: valuable for cooking, and easily kept by bottling.
Plants are easily grown from cutting?, layers or division of roots. There may be a few English sorts not subject here to mildew, and so succeed in this climate; but thus far not
We find a few good items mder the above heading in the Ar. /. Herald. They are from the pen of our frequent and valued contributor, A. S. Fuller, and are well worth remembering. The only point on which we do not agree is the kind of manure recommended. It is certainly true that well decomposed manure is better than long, undeeomposed manure, but our experience has convinced us that whatever general manuring the soil may have received, both wood and fruit are materially improved by the free use of phosphates and potash as supplied by wood ashes.— Working Farmer.
1. Prepare ground in the Fall, plant in the Spring.
2. Give the vine plenty of manure, old and well decomposed; for fresh manure excites growth, but does not mature it.
3. Luxuriant growth docs not always insure fruit.
4. Dig deep, but plant shallow.
5. Young vines produce beautifuWruit, but old vines produce the richest.
6. Prune in the Autumn to promote growth, but in the Spring to insure fruitfulness.
7. Plant your vines before you put up trellises.
8. Vines, like soldiers, should have good arms.
9. Prune spurs to one well developed bud, for the nearer the old wood the higher flavored the fruit.