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Farming, or a Love for the Profession Necessary another is put forth, until at length, the full to Success.
ear is formed, and all is well stored in his "If you would succeed in business, you must
A model farmer will have his fields, as well be in love with your profession." Perbaps some of the more sensitive and
indas pastures, suitably divided, He not only would-be-refined will object to applying the
has & system of rotation of crops, but of fields above maxim to the profession of agriculture;
and pastures, as well; each being used alter
nately. And if his fancy leads him that way, and no doubt such will say, “It might very appropriately be applied to some of the more
(1 he will form beautiful and picturesque scenery, popnlar or literary professions; but to apply
and at the same time make it a source of profit, it to the lower order of professions verges al
by planting fruit, and other valuable trees and most on the vulgar.
shrubs, around his fields, as well as by 'The I, however, shall object to such a verdict,
roadside and around his dwelling; and espeand hope and trust to convince those who have
cially will he take great pride in making everylooked down upon us, that husbandry is not a
thing around his home wear a cheerful look. low pursuit, but an honorable, high-toned and
He will have the choicest of fruits and flowerg profitable profession; and when carried out to
in his garden, the grounds of which will be The letter, sure to return bappy results. But
both ample and tastefully arranged. to be successful, you must be in love with the Nor do I overstep the bounds of propriety or profession.
probability, if I say, he loves to see his wife You may ask how? In what manner? Well, or daughters engaged with interest in the in the first place, you must love to work; love flower garden; he loves to see them and the the farm, and all connected therewith, both in roses blooming together; he loves to see everyregard to profit and pleasure; and take a deep thing enjoying life, happiness and prosperity. interest in the full development of all its parts. And when at length his fields are " white The shrewd, calculating farmer will not do his unto the harvest,” when his choice fruit trees work “by the halves;" he does it in such a way are bending their branches with a precious that he will secure the whole crop.
burden, and the “ golden harvest” of bright, He loves to see his fields well manured, well long, yellow ears of corn, and the more modest plowed, well harrowed and thoroughly pulver- pumpkin, meet his eyes, what a source of ized. He will now take great pains to get pleasure is here! With what a joyous heart, the best variety of seed, and put it in the and with what renewed energy does he ply his ground in a thorough and judicious manner. skill, until all is secure; and with what gratiHe will then not only love to, but most assured tude and thanksgiving does he raise his thoughts ly will have the pleasure of seeing the young to the Giver of all good! blades look thrifty, and finally of gathering a His crops all secure, the faithful farmer, true bountiful harvest.
to his calling, loses no time, but again speede He will love to watch the tender plants, and his plow, and prepares for another year. There nourish and protect them from noxious weeds are stone to dig, ditches and drains to make, or deadly vermin; and will hail with joy the land to clear, and other improvements to make; ! first opening bud or blossom. His interest, all in their turn, and each in its most appro- . care and protection extends equally to the most priate season. And for all this multifarious delicate garden plant, struggling for life be- business, the farmer finds ample time; for hio Il tween weeds and weather--the tender blade of whole heart is in it, and his plans are well laid. corn, pointing heavenward, for the sun's genial He finds what many are seeking after in vain 11 rays, as well as the sturdy potato, and other because they do not seek aright-employhardy plants, which almost defy wind or weath- ment; which begets health, wealth and coner. The former is the faithful guardian of all; tentment; and these beget happiness. The and be will watch over all with a jealous eye, secret of all is, “love for the profession;" if he loves his profession. He loves to con- love of employment." template his growing crops, as one leaf after! And when at length the grows of winter be!
gin to fall, and cold, wintry winds howl around and the mold at the bottom of the wood-pilo is his dwelling, the faithful farmer has the satis-better; wood ashes leached are used extenfaction of knowing all around him are com- sively upon sandy soils, produce good crops, fortable; he loves to retire at night, with the and solidify such soils. Waste charcoal is valhappy consolation that nothing dependent on uable in pot culture, but too expensive for genhim suffers from cold or hungerrin e ral use. Saw-dust is all converted into ma
The farmer not only takes pride' in raising nure around the city of Edinburg, Scotland, good crops, but he also takes pride in raising by bedding cows and horses with it. Tan-bark good stock, which he finds both a source of is also there converted into manures by comenjoyment and profit. He loves to feed them, | posting it with other materials, and nurserylitter and keep them clean and comfortable. men grow the hardier rhododendrons and In a word, he is interested in their welfare : azaleas in beds out doors, made up with twofor what is for their good, is for his benefit. thirds of decayed tan-bark and one-third garHe loves to have them hearty, and to this end den loam. gives them a change of food. He loves to see Salt as manure hastens vegetation, and gives them look sleek, and he knows the “card and earlier maturation to plants than any other curry," with good feed, will do it. But above kind of manure. I have used night soil, fresh all, he loves to have the name of having the from the walls of this city, upon acres; and best stock of cattle and horses in town; and for onions, beets, radishes, turnips, and carrots, occasionally have some well known Boston I have never found anything to equal it for cattle-dealer compliment him with "a bigger early and heavy crops. Poudrette has a simipile of rocks,' than he had paid any body lar effect, but these rich manures make cabbage else,” for his best fat oxen.
“club-footed,” and do not suit potatoes. The Another pastime our hero of a farmer loves low meadows around Edinburg, into which the dearly; that is, to sit the long winter evenings gewers of the city empty, yield the greatest with his “gude wife," lovely daughters and crop of grass to be found; they are divided promising boys around him; and all enjoying into lots of three and four acres by ditches the good of their labor.-Cor. N. E. Farmer. which lead the liquid manure around them, and
are flooded with it at pleasure; they are let Application of Manares.
yearly at auction to dairymen. The grasses
are fit to cut by the time that grasses elsewhere As this subject lies at the root of all good begin to grow in the spring; they give seven culture, you should have it fully discussed; cuttings knee high, and so heavy that the every member should state the result of his scythe can hardly carry the swath through. practice and observation, and bring all the The market gardeners of Leith surpass all virtues of the different fertilizing materials to their contemporaries more inland in the prolight. I will contributo my mite, with some
duction of early and fine vegetables, by the data. We should cultivate enlarged views : use of sea-weed they gather off the beach after look over the garden fence upon the farm, and a high tide or storm. consider the value of the products. My own Upon the flat meadows of Long Island Sound, soul was once so small as to bury my brains in between Harlem and Throg's Neck, the grase, a flower-pot, and to think that a garden with a | after being flooded by the spring tide, grows few glass structures was the universe; but now up at a wonderful rate; and asparagus of the I see what a big place the world is.
finest quality springs up spontaneously all It is generally conceded by cultivators, that over these. Country people empty the brine barn-yard manure is the best for common use;
of their meat and fish barrels in spring upon and as it is the droppings of several species of their asparagus beds, which is the only manure animals, together with straw, I think it better they get, and they yield plentiful crops. I than that of any one species, when applied to have used both salt, lime and urine around the clavey soils and heavy loams in its long, fresh base of peach and plum trees for the cut worm, state. It warms them. renders them more po- which always keeps them off and invigorates rous, and allows the roots of rapid-growing the trees. - Walter Elder, in Proceedings of Proplants to enter them more freely. Indian corn, Igressive Gardener's Society. potatoes, melons, squashes, &c., seem to do best upon heavy soils with fresh barn-yard manure; ! WHERE ENGLAND GETS HER TIMBER.-Great but for sandy and light soils it is best when well rotted, and in that state has a more im- | Britain and Ireland import annually some 27,mediate effect on crops in general. For pot-000,000 cubic feet, or 540,000 loads of Cansting plants it should be almost a mold, and be lais mixed many months with the soil before being
| dian pine timber, the greater part of which is used.
manufactured on the Ottawa river and its tribuLigneous manures I think must be most taries. The operations of this manufacture beneficial to trees and other woody plants, al.. though seldom ever applied to them. Leaf extend over upward of 11,000 square milos, and mold is almost indispensable to pot culture, gives employment to more than 40,000 mon.
The Quality of Milk..
the largest per centage of cream, yet the apa
lytical tests prove that it is the poorest of the When the Duke of Athole offered a premium whole. Mr. Reid's cow gave 9 per cent of in April last for the cow giving the greatest
cream, according to the marking of the laotoquantity of milk, at ten successive meetings, | meter: No. 12 gave no less than 15 per cent. Prof. Anderson expressed his willingness to A stock of cowg like No. 12 would be more analyze the milk of the competing cows, with
useful to a town dairyman than to a farmer. out expense to the noble Duke or the Ayrshire They would give a large quantity of indifferAgricultural Association. This handsome offer an
er ent cream, and a residue of very poor skim Was gladly accepted, and fair examples of the milk. -Agricultural Advertiser, Scotland. . milk of the eight cows were drawn and for. warded to the laboratory. The results of the
Rainy-Day Thoughts. chemical examination were communicated to the Judges of the competition in the following
The mechanic receives his seventy-five cents letter:
a day, and yet remains poor; while the farmer No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 5. earns his seventeen cents a day, and grows rich. Water......
88.23 88.52 88.28 86.93 Merchants, physicians and lawyers receive Butter .....
3.67 3.01 2.71 4.17 their thousands per annum, and die poor; while Casein... 2.88 2.87 3.04
the farmer, scarcely receiving as many tons, 5.17
5.21 Ash ......
0.72 dies rich.
How are these strange results produced !100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
All calculations of dollars and cents fail to No. 6. No. 8. No. 9. No. 12 account for it. Those who are determined to Water.......
87.32 87.60 87.56 88.12 bring everything to the standard of dollars and Butter .... 3.65
cents pronounce agriculture to be wholly withCasein......
3.14 3.07 2.88 2.93 Sugar 5.07 5.04
5.49 | out profit, and fit only as a pursuit for those Ash ........
Let us now endeavor to account for this The numbers attached to the samples are
seeming impossibility. When the mechanic those on the bottles in which they were sent,
lays down his tools, and the professional man It is to be noticed that the diiference in com-lie idle they are
om- is idle, they are sinking, because their exposition of the different milks is, with the ex
penses are going on, and their profits are susception of No. 5, by no means considerable.
pended. Not 80 with the farmer; while he We see particularly that the casein 18 almost sleeps his crops grow. and his stock is on the identically the same in all the eight specimens.
increase. The chief difference is in the proportion of
| Farmers grow rich by saving, and others
a butter, and it is here No. 5 surpasses the oth-.
grow rich by spending. Others have first to ers, as it contains nearly 1.5 per cent. more of
make the money and then spend it for food. that substance than some of the others. As
hers. All The wants of a farmer are few that cannot be the butter is the most valuable constituent of
supplied from his farm. Why, then, should milk, there can be no hesitation in setting
the farmer repine because he has not money down No. 5 as decidedly superior to any of to buy abroad, or measure his wealth by comthe other specimens. It will be interesting to
sung, to paring his money with that of others who know how the results of analysis tally with
must give all for things which he has without the decision the Judges have arrived at on
buying? other grounds, and to facilitate comparison I
Herein lays the secret of a farmer's success: may say that after No. 5 come Nos. 1, 6 and 8, in raising everything, as far as possible, on the which are nearly equal. Then Nos. 2, 12, 9 farm, an
farm, and buying as little as he possibly can. and 3, which are also pretty equal, but stand
Nor is this mistake the only one made by on a lower level.
farmers. They all want too much land and I am, dear sir, yours truly,
too much stock for their land. Remember that (Signed) THOMAS ANDERSON.
fifty acres actually worth one hundred dollars A. B. TELFER, Esq., Ayr.
per acre is worth more than one hundred acres These analyses demonstrate the worthless-at fifty dollars per acre; because one-half the ness of the small glass tubes, commonly called work expended on the first will raise as much lactometers. This instrument not only does as the whole amount expended on one hundred not approximate to the truth, it goes farther in acres. In the same way with stock,-it is betthe way of misleading, by sometimes pointing ter to fatten five head of steers well than ten to conclusions which are the reverse of truth. I only half done, because they will sell for more, The milk which Dr. Anderson's analyses proved and you will also save the interest on one-half to be the best was from the cow belonging to the investment. Mr. Reid, Clune. On the trial at Holmston, Thus we see that as soon as a farmer gets the milk of this cow showed the smallest per his farm paid for, and begins to make money centage of cream in the lactometer. On the he must buy more land and more stock, and go other hand the cow, No. 12, seemed to have on until he either breaks up or sells his land.
I could now point to several farmers who never beg fruit while he can go readily plant own farms of from two hundred to three hun trees, or borrow tools when he can make or dred acres, whose actual income is less than buy them; " for the borrower is servant to the when they commenced with seventy-five or one lender." hundred acres. The reason is obvious: they A farmer should never be so taken up with increase their land without increasing their political affairs as to neglect his farm; yet ho active capital; they spread the same amount should not be entirely ignorant of those matof labor, manure and capital over one-fourth ters of national or State policy which always or one-half more land, and receive no actual agitate a free people. inorease of crops in return; whereas, the far- A farmer should shun the doors of a bank as mer who expends his surplus capital in ma- he would a plague; they are for speculators, nures, draining, &c., &c., receives an increased with whom a farmer should have nothing to do. return in exact proportion to the amount of No farmer should allow the reproach of a capital which he invests in such improvements. neglected education to lie against his family.
There are hundreds of farmers now among “Knowledge is power," and its foundation as who would be much better off if they were should be early and deeply laid in the district to sell one-half of their farms, and invest the school-house. proceeds in the remaining half.
A farmer should never refuse a fair price for Another class will, as soon as they have sur- anything he has to sell, for any rise of price plus capital, convert it into railroad, corpora
which may or may not take place will generaltion or bank stock; or, worse still, in western 'y be swallowed up by
en ly be swallowed up by the interest upon the land, instead of laying it out for manure or cap
capital invested in the article, tile for the improvement of their farms.
1 As has been proved by your friend, AGRICOOld English farmers, who have had long ex- | LA, in Ger. Telegraph. perience in draining, say that when judiciously done it will return the original investment once Grass Lands--Soeding and Manaring. in every three or four years, or in other words, pay from 25 to 30 per cent. per annum. The The reseeding of grass land by ploughing it same might be said of investments in lime and just after a crop of hay has been taken off, and manure.
sowing the seed on the inverted sward, has By proper management I am fully convinced been practised more or less in this vicinity for that an acre of ground can and will yet be several years, and appears to be gaining favor. made to give one hundred bushels of corn. There is much land that is more profitable for Any one can see the advantage a farmer work- grass than for anything else, and the mode ing one acre of such land would have over his alluded to admits of a continuation of that neighbor who was compelled to plow, harrow, crop without intermission. The first crop after plant and work two acres for the same return. seeding is somewhat later, but seldom fails to
If you have more capital than you can use, amount to a fair yield if properly treated. then make use of more labor, plow deeper, The present is a favorable season for this harrow and cultitate more on the same ground; mode of reseeding grass-land. The moisture one acre with a soil twelve inches deep, is of the ground, from frequent rains, renders it worth more than two on which the soil is six easy to be ploughed, and at the same time faor seven inches deep.
vors the rapid decomposition of the sward, In recapitulation, allow me to direct your which affords nourishment to the new crop. attention to several other mistakes, as well as The seed will germinate readily, and the young those already mentioned :
grass will be pushed forward, obtaining strength A farmer should not keep more cattle, sheep of root to secure it against injury by frost. or hogs than he has food for. If he has too 1 In the preparation of the ground it is quite many sheep or cattle on the pasture, it becomes important to roll it heavily, after it is ploughed very short towards fall, and he must either and before the seed is sown. The advantages commence on his stock of winter food sooner, of this are two-fold: 1. The edges of the furor let his cattle or sheep suffer. If on the rows, and all other points which appear above other hand he has more stock than he has the general surface, should be so compressed winter food for, he must turn out to pasture that the old grass will not be likely to start, sooner in the spring, much to the detriment of and that the ground may be made level. 2. his meadows, or buy hay for his stock. I have Grass, like wheat, requires a pretty firm soil. seen many farmers who would have been actu- A little light earth for the seed to vegetate in, ally better off if they had given two or three is necessary. After the ground has been suf
whole of their keep to the balance, than to enough of it to make a seed-bed. feed as they did. It is an old and true saying Unless the ground is very rich, it will be that an animal in good order the first of De- advisable to apply manure of some kind at the cember is already half wintered.
time of sowing. Precisely what manure can ** A farmer should never depend upon his be applied to the best advantage, will depend neighbor for what he can produce himself; on the particular circumstances which surround the farmer. If he has common barn or yard Voelcker prove that it is possible to leaoh pot. manure at hand, so well rotted that it will ash and other manurial matters from soil crumble down fine, a few loads to the acre, containing a fair proportion of clay, but these spread evenly and harrowed in, will start the results were only obtained when a very large young grass, ensure a good sward, and a good quantity of liquid was applied. The examicrop the following season. If such manure nation of drainage water by Prof. Way, showed cannot be had, superphosphate of lime, ground that under the ordinary rain-fall, soils of sufbones, or ashes, may be used. But if expe- ficient tenacity to require draining, retain their rience has not already proved the economy of fertilizing elements, or that the water at least using the latter manuses on the kind of land extracts but a trifling amount. With very and for the purpose indicated, it will be advi- loose soils the case would probably be different. sable to apply them on a somewhat limited In regard to the waste of manures by evapscale, and in such a way that the exact effect oration, de point which has been much disof them may be known.
cussed, and on which difference of opinion The top-dressing of sward is a matter of im- still exists,-it is sufficient to say, that it is portance. Experience has amply proved that not intended to advise the application of masome land may be kept permanently in grass nures by top-dressing under circumstances by this means. Much has been said in regard where such a result would be likely to ensue. to the best time for top-dressing grass-lands. It is not intended that the manure shall be Farmers who have had considerable acquaint-dried up, or exposed to extremes of wetness ance with the subject, say they prefer making and dryness. It is well known that moist the application on mowing-lands soon after a earth possesses a very strong affinity for macrop has been taken off, provided the weather nures, and in ordinary cases, grass-land which is moist. It is not often that such weather oc- it is advisable to top-dress will be sufficiently curs here at the season alluded to; it is gen- moist to prevent the exhalation of any fertilizerally dry, and the manure if spread is liable ing elements.-Boston Cultivator. to lie sometime without producing much effect. But this year the case is different. The abundant moisture in the ground causes the grass to
Economy and Economising. start rapidly where a crop of hay has been taken; so that manure spread on the surface
These are two words which are now all the would not only be kept moist, but it would
rage among our farmers, and it is amusing to soon become embedded in a growth of green
see how well some of them understand them. grass, and, if tolerably fine, the sward would
Their economy and economising is like that become netted above it.
of the man who, seeing that his cider barrel Objections to top-dressing probably still lurk
was leaking at the spile, turned it over to in the minds of some farmers--especially to tighten it, but did not notioe that the bunghole the surface application of manure for a con
was open and under. siderable length of time previous to the growth | "
Let me draw you a picture of some of our of the crop it is particularly intended to ben
farmers who are economising (and there are by efit. Hence it may be urged by some, that to
far too many such.) He cannot apply any spread manure in summer or autumn for the lime this year, because he must economise and benefit of the grass crop of the following sea
can't afford it; or, in other words, cannot afson, would render it liable to be wasted. It is
ford to spend one dollar now that it may procontended that the manure is liable to be wash
duce ten in a year or two. ed away, to have its strength leached through He cannot afford to hire a man, and so his the soil, and dissipated in the air.
corn goes unworked and the crop is materially In regard to the first of these objections, it shortened; his ground is only half plowed, may be remarked, that slopes of such declivity because he has not time to do it well himself, as to render common farm manure, spread on and thereby loses several dollars to save one. them, liable to be washed off, are unsuitable He does not place his manure under shelter for top-dressing, except it be with saline ma- in the spring, because he cannot afford to hire nures, the properties of which might be at a man to do it, and has not time to do it himonce soaked into the soil. As to the alleged self; and yet will tell you if asked that one loss by leaching, it is only on quite porous load of sheltered manure is worth two of that soils that this would be likely to occur, and not so taken care of. such are not those for which top-dressing is He discontinues taking (if he over did such recommended. This mode of manuring is only a thing) an agricultural paper, and thus places adapted to moist lands which are capable of his finger in the spile and leaves the bunghole supporting a constantly-green and vigorous wide open, with a vengeance. turf. Of course they are not porous and dry, He cannot afford to buy plaster for his clobut contain sufficient clay to make them reten- ver and corn, although he knows that it will tive of moisture, and also to possess a strong do much to increase his crop; whereas, if he affinity for the more valuable elements of ma- were to apply plaster to his grass, he would nures. It is true that the experiments of Prof. double or treble his money in a very short