Severe Winters.

The Effect of the Frost on Iron. The Nord gives the following details on the practical man writes to the London Times subject of rigorous Winters: In 1709 the cold on this subject, advancing very conclusive arwas excessive throughout the whole of Europe; guments against the idea that tyres of railway the Adriatic was completely frozen over; a wheels which have broken lately, have done so general and destructive famine prevailed ; food in consequence of the strain arising from conof the first necessity was at exorbitant prices ; traction. “The greatest variation of temperat Paris bread made of oaten flour was served ature in the atmosphere of this country, say at the tables of the rich and of princes. Cat- between that of a hot summer's day to that of tle perished from cold and hunger. The crops a cold winter's day, will not affect the length in the year following was very abundant. In of malleable iron more than about one inch in 1784 the thermometer at St. Petersburg fell to 100 feet. This in a tyre nine feet long would 300 below zero centigrade (22° below zero Fah- be less than one-tenth of an inch; and, as the renheit). On the 30th of December the glass strain requisite to stretch malleable iron onefell to 1830 below zero Reaumur (90 below zero tenth of an inch in 9 feet does not exceed five Fahrenheit), and the ice at Brussels was 12. tons to the square inch, it follows that the force inches thick. In 1794 the cold was excessive, exerted by contraction alone is also under five and the army of General Pichegru invaded tons per square inch. But the breaking strain Holland by crossing the Wahal on the ice. In of ordidary malleable iron is known to be over 1812, a Winter rendered memorable from the fifteen tons per square inch, and that of good disasters of the French army in Russia, the tyre and axle iron over 25 tons; contraction thermometer on the 26th of November marked alone is, therefore, not the cause of fractured 18° below zero Reaumur (8° 50' below zero tyres in frosty weather. It is a known fact Fahrenheit). In 1820 the cold in Europe was that tyre iron of the very best quality has very rigorous. On the 10th of January the failed recently; also that a bar of good iron thermometer at Berlin fell to 200 below zero C. which, in an atmosphere of ordinary tempera(40 below zero F.), and at Brussels to 120 be-ture, would bend up like leather, has broken low zero C. (9o 50% below zero F.) It was in off short with the single blow of a hammer on this year that the Palace of the l'rince of Or- a frosty night. I, therefore, conclude that ange was destroyed by fire. On the 25th of frost exercises a subtle influence on the quality January, 1823, the thermomcier at Brussels of iron, reducing its tensile strength, and that fell to 1710 below zero Reaumur (6° 25' below the recent breakages were the result of this zero F). In 1815 the Winter was long and loss of cohesive power, and not from excessive severe. The thermometer at Berlin fell to 190 contraction.” below zero C. (2o 50% below zero F.); Strasburg, 14° C. (6o above zero F.) ; Paris, 1:20 C. NEW USE FOR APPLES.-It appears from the (9° 50' F.); and at Brussels it stood at 120 | following statement, which we ffnd in several below zeró Reaumur (50 below zero F). of the Euglish journals, that the people of that

country are threatened with a cidcr famine, Statistics of France. In the French em- not from the failure of the apples, although a pire, the annual number of male births is a partial crop, but because they are likely to be sixth greater than the births of females; but applied to a more profitable purpose (so far as the annual deaths of males surpass slightly the growers are cyncerned,) than in making a the deaths of the opposite sex, there being 65 household beverage. “It seems that the Mandeaths of females to 66 of males. From 1817 to chester calico dyers and printers have discov1853, the population increased steadily every ered apple juices supply a desideratum long year; but in 1854 and 1855 it diminished con- wanted in making fast colors for their printed siderably. The average annual increase, from cottons, and numbers of them have been into 1817 to 1857, was 159,018 inhabitants; or the Devonshire and the lower parts of Somerset810th part of the average population, calcula- shire, buying up all the apples they can get, ted at 33,410,000, up to 1857. If the same ra- and giving such a price for them as in the deartio should continue in the future, the popula- est years hitherto known has not been offered. tion will increase one-tenth in twenty years, We know one farmer in Devonshire who has a two-tenths in thirty-eight years, three-tenths large orchard, for the produce of which he in fifty-five years, and will not double itself never before received more than £250, and yet before the lapse of 146 years. There is one he has sold it this year to a Manchester man birth to 34,066 inhabitants, and 0.84 deaths— for £360. There can be no doubt that the disthat is to say, 100 births to 84 deaths. There covery will create quite a revolution in the apis one death ond 1.20 births to 41,050 inhabi-ple trade; and we may add that it will give an tants, or 100 deaths to 120 births.

impetus to the cultivation of this hardy fruit."

An application has been made to the 19" The anticipated cost of the railroads Commissioners for the London Exhibition of already in progress in India, is $250,000,000. 1862 for permission to exhibit “ specimens il- The English Government guarantees 5 per lustrative of the seven ages in the life of a bug." cent. dividends.

The Origin of Coal Oil.

issippi, Tennessee and Kentucky-furnished

22,899 men. The loss from this force by disAt a meeting of the Manchester Geological

ease, and death caused by disease, was 4,315, Society. Mr. E. W. Binney, F. R. S., F. G. S., or more than one-fifth-a very considerable read a paper on “ Dorin Holland Moss,” in difference in favor of northern troops. which he discussed at length the origin of coal oil. * * After considering and rejecting

The British NationAL DEBT.-On March other explanations of the origin of the coal oil,

31, it was as follows : Mr. Binney says: “These circumstances led to the conclusion that it is produced by the de

| 2% per cents....... £2,981,038 | 34 per cents....... £2,630,769

232 per cents,...... 418,300 317 per cents,... 240,746 composition of the upper bed of peat, where 4' per cents,.......779,258,542 6 per cents.......... 423,603 it is overlaid by the sand."

-making a total of £785,961,998, on which Mr. Dickinson, F. G. S., said that it was not the

the annual interest payable amounts to £23,at all uncommon to observe mineral pitch or 579.340 petroleum oozing from a stratum of coal in our

In the course of the last financial year the pits, distillation having taken place in the bed debt had been reduced £838,153, chiefly by where external heat could have no influence. I stock being transferred for the purpose of an

Mr. Binney stated that “Petroleum or rock nuities (but there was $48,855 stock transferoil is found in various parts of the world-in red for redemption of land tax.) the Burman empire, on the banks of the Tra- The terminable annuities in existence (for waddi, are powerful springs of it; it is abund- lives or terms of years) are stated to amount ant in Persia; it occurs in Barbadoes; at I to £1,346,944, but there are also the naval and Tegernsee, in Bavaria; in Auvergne, near military pension annuity of £585,740 purchClaremont; in Switzerland, near Neufchatel ; I ased by the Bank of England in 1823, and exat Amiano, in Italy; and in Sicily; and near | piring in 1867: the annuity of £116,000 creathe volcanic isles of Cape de Verde the sea is

ted by the £16,000,000 loan of 1855 (Crimean sometimes covered with it."

war) expiring in 1865, and the Tontine annuiIt will be remembered that Dr. Stevens' ex-ties created in the reign of George III, £46,256. planation of the origin of the coal oils was, that the coal or other carbonaceous deposit is decomposed by the operation of natural forces, INFLUENCE OF EXTREME COLD UPON SEEDS.producing results similar to those which occur Some experiments have been made this year when coal is distilled in a retort for the artifi- by Prof. Elie Wartmann, of Geneva, Switzercial manufacture of oil. Some difference of land, on the influence of extreme cold upon opinion was expressed by the members of the the seeds of plants. Nine varieties of seeds, Manchester Society, in regard to the necessity some of them tropical, were selected. They of external heat to effect the decomposition of were placed in hermetically sealed tubes, and coal. Some geologists believe that the decom- submitted to a cold as severe as science can position takes place spontaneously from the produce. Some remained fifteen days in a natural disposition of the elements of organic mixture of snow and salt; some were plunged compounds to fall asunder.--Scientific American. in a bath of liquid sulphuric acid, rendered

extremely cold by artificial means. On the

5th of April they were all sown in pots placed Northern and Southern Troops. in the open air. They all germinated, and

those which had undergone the rigors of frigComparing the northern soldier with the lidity, produced plants as robust as those which southern, we believe the former will stand the had not been submitted to this test. effects of the climate for a short campaign of a year or more better than the latter, and though

29 There is a factory near Breslau, Silesia, the popular belief is different to this view, the statistics of our war with Mexico fully sustain

for converting fine leaves into a kind of cotton it, and the published opinion of no less an au

or wool. Blankets, jackets, stockings, and thority than Dr. Nott. of Mobile, in the South

other articles of dress, are manufactured from ern Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy, for Jan

this wool, and sold extensively in Vienna. uary, 1847, confirms it.

On April 8th, 1848. the Secretary of War 2 A man that hath no virtue in himself, made a report to the U. S. Senate, of the loss- ever envieth virtue in others, for men's minds es of the volunteer forces employed in Mexico. will either feed upon their own good or upon From this it appears that seven northern states others' evil; and who wanteth the one will -Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Penn- prey upon the other, sylvania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois-furnished, in the course of that war, 22,573 men. Der Knowedge cannot be acquired without Of this force, the total loss from disease was pains and application. It is troublesome, and 2,931-less than one eighth of the whole. Nine like deep digging for pure water; but when slave states—Virginia, North Carolina, South once you come to the springs, they rise up and Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Miss- / meet you.


THE HOME. whole family circle. Such a wife and mother,

one who having the thought has also the tact Love of Country and of Home.

to bring out to useful ends and in agreeable

variety the knowledge, wit, humor and sportThere is a land, of every land the pride, Beloved by heaven o'er all the world beside,

iveness of the entire group of those who claim Where brighter suns dispense serener light, And milder moons emparadise the night

her daily care and love, is verily a jewel withA land of beauty, virtue, valor, truth, Time-tutored age, and love-exalted youth.

out price. The wandering mariner, whose eye explores The wealthiest isles, the most enchanting shores,

Conversations by the hearth-stone where Views not a realm so beautiful and fair,

were celebrated the marriage loves of those Nor breathes the spirit of a purer air; In every clime, the magnet of his soul,

whose blended lives have long been as one Touched by remembrance, trembles to that pole; For, in this land of heaven's peculiar grace,

heart-beat; where children have grown to The heritage of nature's noblest race, There is a spot of earth supremely blest,

be an honor and wealth of which the early A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest, Where man, creation's tyrant, casts aside

time scarce dreamed, how can they be but as His sword and sceptre, pageantry and pride, While in his softened looks benignly blend

"apples of gold in pictures of silver,” chaste, The sire, the son, the husband, brother, friend. Here woman reigns; the mother, daughter, wife,

beautiful, elevating. And how much more so Strews with fresh flowers the narrow way of life; In the clear heaven of her delightful eye,

ought this to be the case on those days when An angel guard of loves and graces lie;

the circumstances of the external world houses Around her knees domestic duties meet, And fire-side pleasures gambol at her feet.

them in closer union of thought, feeling and “Where shall that land, that spot of earth be found?” Art thou a man, a patriot? look around;

occupation? There is something in the aspect Oh! thou shalt find, howe'er thy footsteps roam, That land thy country, and that spot thy home. of such a day as this that should bring the

members of a family into more sacred relations Hearthstone Conversations.

to each other. The thoughts, turned from To-day, this individual one, cold, wet, tem- things without, have a tendency to dwell upon pestuous, is, perhaps, as unpleasant as åny of the interior life, and opportunity to discover the those that lie in the unrevealed calendar of the less obvious, but often most valuable phases of winter now sternly before us. And how many character and gifts of those who, too frequenteyes are looking out upon it, and with what ly walk, unknown, in the same daily paths varied emotions are the contemplations of those with ourselves. Then there is the reflection who look stirred? To some it may appear but that few who ever think at all can always a type of the condition of things in our coun- escape, that the day comes, and the storm, try, so late in the summer of its prosperity, which will seperate, for all the hereafter of now swept with the blasts of faction and con- this beautiful or this bleak world those now so fusion. To others, moody and foreboding by closely knit in household loves. nature, the day, with its sullen sky, fierce Mother, wife, sister, make one more resolve, breath and shiverings is but a reflex of what, and, with faith that it can be done, try to make to them, has been the most of life. How few, the uncomfortableness of the days of the seacomparatively, seem to have any true idea of son whose joys must be mostly within doors, the uses and blessing of such days. So rare if had at all, your opportunity for such conare they that we would go a long distance to versation as shall instruct and amuse the young, see the face of a mother, who, in view of the cheer the aged, and invigorate and beautify uncomfortableness of every thing without, says the characters of all those whom God, in his to herself, “Now husband and children can providence has gathered around the same find no pretext of business or pleasure to be hearth-stone. out of doors ; so we shall have a delightful

BE There is nothing in what has befallen day, all to ourselves in the house." We are or befalls you, my friends, which justifies imthinking now of those who live in farm-houses, patience or peevishness. God is inscrutable,

but not wrong. Remember, if the cloud is over where the weather, more than in any other, you, that there is a bright light always on the compels the occasional ingathering of the other side ; that the time is coming, either in


this world or the next, when that cloud will be

The Useful and Beautiful. swept away, and the fulness of God's light and wisdom poured around you. Everything which The tomb of Moses is unknown; but the has befallen you, whatever sorrow your heart traveler slakes his thirst at the well of Jacob. bleeds with, whatever pain you suffer, nothing The gorgeous palace of the wealthiest and is wanting but to see the light that actually ex-wisest of monarchs, with the silver and gold, ists, waiting to be revealed, and you will be and ivory, and even the greatest temple of Jesatisfied. If your life is dark, then walk by rusalem, hallowed by the visible glory of the faith, and God is pledged to keep you as safe deity himself, are gone; but Solomon's reseras if you could understand everything. He voirs are as perfect as ever. One of the anthat dwelleth in the secret place of the Most cient architectuary of the Holy city, not one High shall abide under the shadow of the stone is left upon another; but the pool of Almighty.

Bethsada commands the pilgrim's reverence at the present day. The colums of Persepolis

are mouldering into dust; but its cisterns and , The Suitors.

acqueducts remain to challenge our admira

tion. The golden house of Nero is a mass of BY GEORGE P. MORRIS.

ruins; but Aquis Claudia still pours into Rome Wealth sought the bower of Beauty,

its liquid stream. The temple of the sun at Dressed like a modern beau :

Tadmor in the wilderness, has fallen; but its Just then Love, Health and Duty

fountains sparkle as freshly in his rays, as Took up their caps to go. Wealth such a cordial welcome met,

when thousands of worshippers thronged its As made the others grieve;

lofty colonnades. It may be that London will So Duty shunned the gay coquette, Love, pouting, took French leave

share the same fate of Babylon, and nothing He did!

be left to mark its site, save mounds of crumbLove, pouting, took French leave!

ling brick work. The Thames will continue Old Time, the friend of Duty,

to flow as it does now. And if any work of Next called to see the fair;

art should still rise over the deep ocean of Ile laid his hand on Beauty,

time, we may well believe that it will be neithAnd left her in despair. Wealth vanished !- Last went rosy lealth

er a palace nor a temple, but some vast acqueAnd she was doomed to prove

duct or reservoir; and if any name shall flash That those who Duty slight for Wealth,

through the midst of antiquity, it will probaCan never hope for Love! Ah, no!

bly be that of the man who in his day sought Can never hope for Love! [Home Journal. the happiness of his fellow-men rather than

their glory, and linked his name to some great

work of national utility and benevolence. This Cold Uninviting Rooms.

is the true glory which outlives all others, and

shines with undying lustre from generation to The following from one of Beecher's recent

generation; imparting to works some of its sermons, contains a good hint:

immortality, and in some rescuing them from "When you go into some men's houses you

the ruin which overtakes the ordinary monufind the halls gloomy and forbidding. The old

ments of historical tradition, or mere magnifipyramids of Egypt are not so dark and bleak

cence.--Edinburg Review. as the entrances to some dwellings. It seems to me as though the door ought to be the most attractive place in a house, so that on approach SENSIBLE.—Jane Eyre says :-“I know that ing it one should feel assured that there was if women wish to escape the stigma of hus. hospitality within. And the hall should be band-seeking, they must act and look like cozy and warm. I hate narrow halls, I hate a marble or clay, cold, expressionless, bloodless ; hali with bare walls, that seem to say, “Starve! for every appearance of feeling, of joy, sorstarve! starve!' But the halls of many a row, friendliness, antipathy, admiration, dishouse are cold and barren and uninviting.- gust, are alike construed by the world into an And some people keep their parlor everlastingly attempt to hook a husband. Never mind! well in order, as if it were arranged for a funeral; meaning women have their own consciences to and nobody goes into it without feeling as if comfort them after all. Do not, therefore, be he was at a funeral, except that the minister too much afraid of showing yourself as you and the services are wanting. The carpetare, affectionate and good-hearted ; do not too says, “Do not touch me;' and every chair and harshly repress sentiments and feelings excelsofa says, “It is an impertinence to sit on me;' lent in themselves, because you fear that some and every piece of furniture says, “Let me puppy may fancy that you are letting them alone;' and the whole room says, “What are come out to fascinate him; do not condemn you doing here?' A man leads you through yourself to live only by halves, because if you an inhospitable door and a disagreeable hall showed too much animation, some pragmatical into a stiff parlor; and you say, If the peo- thing in breeches might take it into his pate to ple that live here are like these things, I do imagine that you designed to devote your life not want to have anything to do with them.'" | to his inanity.”

Life Constantly Narrowing.

Abou Ben Adhem and the Angel. If the votaries of pleasure, on whom time Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase) hangs heavily, and who are devising expedi

Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace,

And saw, within the moonlight in his room, ents to relieve its tedium, could only compre Making it rich and like a lily in bloom, hend the importance of life, and the vast issues An angel writing in a book of gold.

Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold, involved in it, they would be startled effectu

And to the presence in the room he said, ally from their dreams. There is a depth of “ What writest thou ?" The vision raised its head, meaning in the following paragraph from the And with a look, made all of sweet accord, National Preacher :

Answered, “The names of those who love the Lord."

"And is mine one?" said Abou. “Yay, not so," - The narrow limits of the longest life is Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, every day becoming narrower still. The story But clearly still, and said, "I pray thee, then,

Write me as one that loves his fellow-men." is told of an Italian State prisoner, who, after some week's confinement, became suddenly The angel wrote and vanished. The next night aware that his apartment was becoming small

It came again with a great wakening light,

And showed the names whom love of God had blessed, er. He watched, and saw with horror that a

And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest. moveable iron wall was gradually encroaching

(LEIGH HUXT. on the space, and that as the movement came on, it must crush him to death, and he could THINK.--Thought engenders thought. Place calculate it to a day! But you have not that one idea upon paper, another will follow, and advantage. John Foster' yet more appropri- still another, until you have written a page. ately resembles our time to a sealed reservoir, You can not fathom your mind. There is a from which issues daily a certain small quan- well of thought there which has no bottom. tity of water, and when the reservoir is ex- The more you draw from it, the more clear and hausted, we must perish of thirst; but we fruitful it will be. If you neglect to think have no means of sounding it to ascertain how yourself, and use other people's thoughts, givmuch it originally contained, or whether there ing them utterance only, you will never know be even enough remaining for to-morrow." what you are capable of. At first your ideas

may come in lumps--homely and shapelessWASHINGTON AND FRANKLIN.-It may be

but no matter ; time and perseverance will armentioned as a somewhat striking fact, and range and polish them. Learn to think, and one, I believe, not hitherto adverted to, that you will learn to write; the more you think the families of Washington and Franklin-the

anklin_the the better you will be enabled to express your former the great leader of the American Revolution, the latter not second to any of his patriotic associates were established in the same LOVE OF THE WONDERFUL.-What stronger central county of Northampton, and within a pleasure is there with mankind, or what do few miles of each other; the Washingtons, at they earlier learn or longer retain, than the Brighton and Sulgrave, belonging to the land- love of hearing and relating things strange and ed gentry of the country, and in the great civil incredible. How wonderful a thing is the love war supporting the royal side; the Franklins, of wondering and of raising wonder! 'Tis the at the village of Eaton, living on the produce delight of children to hear tales they shiver of a farm of thirty acres, and the earnings of at, and the vice of old men to abound in strange their trades as blacksmiths, and espousing stories of times past. We come into the world some of them at least, and the father and uncle wondering at every thing; and when our wonof Benjamin Franklin among the number--the der about common things is over, we seek principles of non-conformists. Their respect- something new to wonder at. Our last scene ive emigrations, germs of great events in histo- is to tell wonders of our own, to all who will ry, took place—that of John Washington, the believe them. And amid all this, 'tis well if great grandfather of George, in 1567, to loyal truth comes off but moderately tainted. Virginia ; that of Josiah Franklin, the father of Benjamin, about the year 1685, to the me

In OLD MAN.- What 'I call an old man, is tropolis, of Puritan New England. ---Edward one who has a smooth shining crown and a Everett.

fringe of scattered white hairs; seen in the

streets on sunshiny days, stooping as he walks, CHILDREN.-Hard be his fate who makes no bearing a cane, moving cautiously and slowly, childhood happy; it is so easy. It does not telling old stories, smiling at present follies, require wealth, or position, or fame; only a living in a narrow world of dry habits; one little kindness and the tact which it inspires. that remains waking when others have dropped Give a child a chance to love, to play, to exer- asleep, and keeps a little night-lamp flame of cise his imagination and affections, and he will life burning year after year, if the lamp is not be happy. Give him the conditions of health upset, and there is a careful hand held round -simple food, air, exercise, and a little variety it to prevent the puffs of wind from blowing in his occupations, and he will be happy, and the flame out. That's what I call an old man. expand in happiness.



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