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Apple-tree Blight-Cause and Remedy. And by examining trees that have been injured PROF. J. W. Hoyt.-Dear Sir :-Mr. Hink- by the winter, it will be found that the mean ley's querry, as to the cause of the bark of the depth to which they have suffered will be about apple-tree turning black at the crown, is a
ack at the crown, is a four inches; this being about the depth to question of much importance; and to give an
which the earth is subjected to the greatest explicit answer, I ask your patience for a mo- changes of temperature. The bark of the tree ment while I refer to other questions that are will be black or brown to the above stated in reality involved in the above inquiry.
depth, according to the amount of injury it has My experience has taught me that the evil is sustained. Below this depth the roots will be produced by extreme freezing, after thaws in found sound and healthy. winter and spring; and the ground upon which
chich! In this condition, with the crown of the tree the trees stand, being cultivated and kept free
killed or injured, the flow of sap is more or less from vegetation, is from its nakedness rendered
obstructed from the lower roots to the branchmore susceptible to the influence of sudden
es, hence originates the disposition to sprout changes.'
from the roots. Here lies the cause of all the For instance, the ploughed field thaws to a
difficulties in fruit growing in the West. A. greater depth than the grass field, because the
and B.'s recommendations in regard to windformer absorbs the heat of the sun, while the ing them with straw to prevent sun scald on latter reflects the same. The tops of the trees the south side, and scrubbing, scraping and are not effected by these sudden changes, be- washing to keep out the wood worm, is of about cause, being continually in contact with them, as much importance towards the removal of the it becomes a natural condition incidental to the primary cause of the difficulty as the perpetugrowth and development of all trees in lati- al application of quack medicines are to poor tudes where Nature has designed each species
Humanity. The worm does not seek shelter to grow. In the forests and openings they are
in a healthy tree. But they very soon make their all carefully protected by leaves, grass and low way to the feast when the poor tree is suffershrubbery of various descriptions, and when
ing from disease. Take it for granted, reader, civilization comes among them, we find some
we find some that if your tree had not suffered previously of the hardiest varieties of our native trees
from cold toes, the wood worm would have actually perishing from the severety of our passed
passed it by unnoticed. Go into the forests winters.
and learn this truth. You will seek in a healthy We fail to secure those conditions to the or- tree in vain for the worm that is devouring its chard which Nature has given to the forest, dead or diseased companions. This worm hence they are winter-killed, or very much seems to prey upon all or nearly all diseased injured.
trees here. I have never supposed them to be This fact was not learned by Eastern fruit- / what is called the borer, which I think I have growers, because during the severity of the never seen in this country. winters there, an even temperature is preserved
re, an even temperature is preserved Now for the remedy for all these difficulties, in the earth by a deep covering of snow. It was our misfortune in the West to learn this cusable who does not apply it: Take as much lesson first, and when we profit by the lesson straw as you can carry in your arms, place it we will compete with any State in the Union about the crown of the tree, put a shovelful o in raising apples.
two of earth next to the tree to guard against It is well ascertained tha e a tree of
mice, or a wheelbarrow load of any kind of almost any description and n the cold
litter, spread it about the tree. This furnishes
all that Nature requires to guard it against the when the mercury in'cir uw zero, that the roots will be qui...?y killed as
vicissitudes of our climate.
Yours sincerely, John Willcox. though they had beep soiling water. Omro, Dec. 12, 1861.
THE SAPSUCKER.—You will find the following It is scarcely twenty years since the first lot of a safe and sure remedy against the sapsucker,
common river sawed boards arrived in this city
from Mobile, consigned to E. D. Peters & Co. which proves very destructive to some varie The trade has grown since then. In 1845 the ties: Take a piece of white rag, (or perhaps ship builders of Boston sent out men all through
the South to cut hard pine and oak for ship any other colored rag,) tie it loosely to a limb
building, and from this, and also from the fact of the tree, a little above the stem, so that the that hard pine boards were generally accepted wind may sway it, (the rag,) and the sa psucker
as the best for certain purposes, we have come
to believe that we could not do without the will not trouble the trees. WM. POWELL.
southern lumber. This is a mistake. RIDGEWAY, Nov. 26, 1861.
LAKE SUPERIOR Irox.-In 18.5.5 the shipMECHANICAL & COMMERCIAL
ments of iron from Lake Superior were 1,447 tons. The amount gradually increased until
1860, when 150,000 tons were shipped. This The Lumber Trade.
year the shipments will not exceed 10,000 tons.
Tne total value of all the ore shipped, and that The lumber trade of this country, according melted, since the mines were worked, is about to the Boston Commercial Bulletin, was for years $1,326,000) at Marquette. The capital invested confined to New England, and particularly the in the mines amounts to $2,280,000. The present State of Maine. Within the past ten Lake Superior News, of November 20, from years, the trade has greatly changed its direc- which we gather the foregoing facts, says: tion, and within the past five years almost Of the companies now doing business here, wholly. A well-written essay upon the causes we know of none but what, with judicious and effects of this would be an interesting his management, can realize a handsome profit uptorical record. The home trade in lumber has on whatever branch they are engaged in. This pressed to the extremes-from the Penobscot year, however, is a peculiarly hard one upon to the Great Lakes. In 1851, a member of a all doing business in the Upper Peninsula. The firm in the lumber business, at Boston, con- general stagnation caused by the war has afceived the idea of working Western and Cana- | fected us severely, and now, with a six months' da lumber for the Boston market, a long expe- winter before us, during which time there is rience having satisfied him that the forests of no possibility of getting our products to marMaine would, in a short time, become essen.ket, the chance is, that all the manufacturing tially deficient in the supply of some of the companies will be straitened for available most desirable qualities of lumber for building means. Yet, as there is plenty of provisions in and shipping. To show what has been the re- the country, if all will “bear, and forbear,” sult of this enterprise. we can state that the they can weather the point; and from all indisales made by this firm, in the first year after-tions, we have no doubt that the next year will wards, (1852), were not over three hundred be one of general prosperity for Lake Superior. and fifty thousand feet. Now they sell about twenty-five millions annually. The business has The New Field TELEGRAPH. - Engineer already outgrown the proportions of one con- Rodgers, of New York, has put in operation cern, and there are others here who are en- his newly invented cordage or insulated line, gaged in the business, as agents of Western for field operations, and it proved eminently and Canada houses.
successful, giving entire satisfaction in the This lumber now takes the precedence for manner in which it operated. It is run off shipping over all other kinds; its widths, its reels upon the ground with great rapidity, as lengths and its adaptness to carriage, all excel required for instant use), across streams, the Eastern lumber. It is taken mostly from through woods, or over any localities. Lines the forests of Michigan, Upper Canada, and were yesterday, in extraordinary short time, Western New York, and is conveyed to the sea- thus laid between the head quarters of General board by way of the canals and the St. Law. McDowell and two or three of his most advanrence, and by railroad, via Ogdensburg and ced camps, and were worked in immediate conBurlington. The better qualities are sent in nection with the telegraph station in the War large quantities to the west coast of South Department. It is worthy of note that the America, California and Australia.
heaviest artillery may run over this Rodgers' The traffic in Eastern lumber has decreased cordage without damaging its effectiveness in proportionately ; where our old firms ten years | the least. It differs in many respects from the since used to average a cargo per day from the field telegraph used by Louis Napoleon in the Penobscot and Kennebec, they scarcely average Italian war, and embraces many advantages of a cargo per week.
convenient and certain operation, under any It has been supposed by many that we were possible circumstances over that (Louis Napodependent on the South for hard pine, or rather leon's) which contributed so signally to the that we could not find a substitute for hard pine. success of the French arms.-- Washington Star, Shoddy.
are made and pockets picked through its instru
mentality to an extent of which the cheated Woollen fabrics furnished for soldiers' wear, I community of shoddy cloth wearers have no have been the means of giving the defenders idea.-Merchant's Magazine. of the country an idea of the thing represented by shoddy. In many instances, a whole
Japanese Paper. corps have found their coats on their backs dropping to pieces after a few day's wear, ! We may take some instructions from the Japshowing their worthlessness for ordinary use anese, who do not use rags for making paper, of the garments allowed to be imposed upon but the inner bark of trees. From a recent them by the carelessness or fraud of inspect-account in Blackwood's Magazine, it appears ors. These frail textures owe their rottenness that this peculiar people are far in advance of to the liberal mixture in the fabric of an arti- the rest of the world in some specialities of cle called “shoddy," which is a discovery of a paper making. The writer of the article which recent period, and may be ranked, we suppose, we refer to, in describing the peculiarities of among the “latest modern improvements.” the Japanese, says: The raw material for shoddy is old rags.
" It is wonderful to see the thousand useful Woollen rags that were once consigned to the as
as well as ornamental purposes for which pamanure head furnish this material. When the per is applied in the hands of these industrious new demand for them first arose, the price was and tasteful people, Our papier mache manuabout $5 per ton; since then it has advanced.
ad facturers should go to Yedo to learn what can They are collected and assorted and then haled be done with paper. We saw it made into a for manufacture into carpets. shawls. linsey material closely resembling Russian and Moand black cloths. Selected rags, thus baled, I
ne halen rocco leather; it was very difficult to detect when of the best description, are worth over
on the difference. With the aid of lacker, varnish $100 per ton. The assorters sell to the shoddy an skillful painting, paper makes excellent manufacturer. This agent, in the process of
trunks, saddles, telescope cases, the frames of making old garments into new, takes these
microscopes; and we even saw and used exrags and passes them through a ‘rag machine,'
ne cellent water proof coats made of paper, which which is a cylinder, armed with teeth, that,
did keep out the rain, and were as supple as revolving at high speed, pulls them to pieces,
the best Mackintosh, (India rubber). The reducing them to wool, and freeing them from
Japanese use neither silk nor cotton handkerdust. It is now shoddy, and in this state it is chiefs, towels or dusters; paper in their hands saturated with oil or milk, and frequently
serves as an excellent substitute. It is soft, scoured in heaters, in combination with some
thin, and of a pale yellow color, plentiful and chemicals. The process completed, the shoddy
cheap. The inner walls of many a Japanese is ready for manufacture into cloth. For this
apartment are formed of paper, being nothing purpose it is mixed with new wool in as large
more than painted screens. Their windows are proportions as possible. White is used in light covered with a fine translucent description of colored goods and blankets, and the dark des
the same material. We saw what seemed to be criptions for coarse cloths, carpets, &c. The
balls of twine, which were nothing but long " shoddy" is the product of soft woollens, but
shreds of tough paper rolled up. If a shopthe hard or black cloths, when treated in a
keeper had a parcel to tie up, he would take a similar manner, produce mungo,” which is strip of paper, roll it up quickly between his used extensively in superfine cloths, which
he which hands and use it for twine. In short, without have a finish that may deceive a good judge.
paper, all Japan would come to a dead lock. It is used largely in felted fabrics.
* * Japanese mothers-in-law invariably stip
ulate in the marriage settlement that the bride The shoddy parts of a garment made of the is to have a certain quantity of paper allowed mixed material give way very soon, rubbing her." out of the cloth. It accumulates between it and the lining. Formerly it was largely im- NEW TELEGRAPH Lines.--The telegraph caported from England. After a while, the de- ble between London and the Ajaccio, on the mand for it here was found to be so good, that Island of Corsica, has been successfully laid machines were sent over for its manufacture over a length of 205 miles, and an average of here. In New York there are six shoddy mills. 1,500 fathoms in depth.
As we have intimated, the impositions of The wires of the new telegraph line from contractors in palming shoddy uniforms on the Boston to Washington, are laid already to volunteers, left the soldiers, after a few days' Providence. The line is constructed by the trial of the rotten fabrics, almost naked. It is Independent Telegraph Company, consists of probable that the shoddy fraud was carried to three wires, and is what is called a metallic à more outrageous excess in these instances circuit. The wires may be fastened to trees or than in ordinary dealings. But it is believed any convenient object, or pass through water that a large proportion of the clothes sent to mar- without impairing their efficiency, and they ket in ordinary times is, so to speak, adulterated cannot be tapped to take away what is passby this base-born material, and that fortunes ing.
Flocks, shoddy and Noils.
SCIENCE, ART, STATISTICS. As there is a great discussion about the composition of woollen fabrics for the army, and
About Diamonds. as the terms commonly used are not familiar to the generality of people, and as many are apt The Paris correspondent of the V. 0. Pickto be misled through ignorance, we have ayune, writes to that journal on the above thought it of sufficient interest to obtain all theme, from which we take the following almost the facts connected therewith, and we have incredible story of the treasures, pleasures, and been kindly furnished with samples of the dif measures of the Duke of Brunswick, the “most ferent materials known as “flocks, shoddy and profound adamantologist in the world :" noils,” by a practical manufacturer of this He has in his possession three millions of city, with explanations accompanying : dollars worth of diamonds. He has just pub
lished a catalogue of his diamonds, and in the SAMPLES.
appendix there is a notice of the most celebraNo. 1.- Voils. That is, short wool combed ted diamonds in the world. This catalogue from long wool to fit the latter for worsted, for numbers not less than 203 quarto pages. It kerseys and blankets.
gives, with great detail, a list of his white No. 2.-Washed and unwashed Russian and transparent, first-white, second-white, steelSouth American wool; the first for blankets, white, blue-white, light blue, black-blue, lightthe second for kerseys.
yellow, bright-yellow, amber-yellow, straw, No. 3.-Shoddy.-Blue for kerseys and stock
champagne, deep-rose, rosy, light-rose, opalesing yarn ; black for satinets and mixed goods.
cent, pome-granate, violet, greenish, green, No. 4.–Flocks.--For satinets and cotton sea-green, brown, light-brown, deep-brown, warp goods and kerseys.
dusk-black, opaque-black, London, fog, sandy, No. 5.-Noils.-Suited for kerseys and blan
frosty, black-spotted, cracked, split, scratched, kets, of finer class than No. 1.
ill-cut, uncut, square, round, oval, oblong, No. 6.-Shoddy.-Made of old carpets--such octagon, pointed, pigeon-eyed, almond, Chineseas is used in English blankets--and, perhaps, eyed, diamonds. It relates how this once some American. Price, 10 cents a pound; adorned a Turkish sabre, that a royal diadem, English blankets, 40 cents. This is mixed with another an imperial collar, a third a grand long wool and spun into filling.
electoral hat; this black diamond was an idol's
eye, that brilliant rosy diamond was taken Large EXPORTS TO EUROPE.-The month of from the Emperor Baber, at Agia, in 1527, it November has shown a marked change in the weighs 41 carats, and is worth $69,000; those business features of New York. A continued were the waistcoat buttons of the Emperor activity has prevailed in the export trade to Don Pedro; this diamond ring, with the Stuart foreign countries, showing, as general results, coat of arms and the cypher " M. D, .
coat of arms and the cypher “M. S," belonged exclusive of specie :
to Mary, Queen of Scots; that pair of earOctober, 1861. Ten Months, 1861.
rings hung once on Marie Antoinette. The Exports............... $13,157,000
Duke of Brunswick has in his possession fifteen
........, $109,934,000 Imports............... 10,201,000
141.754.000 of the ninety known diamonds, weighing thirThe grain movement will form one of th ex
ty-six carats, but he has not a diamond worth traordinay features of the year 1861, and con
$200,000. He has plenty of diamonds worth tributes largely to the strength of the country
$20,000, $30,000, and $ 45,000 a piece: he has in sustaining an expensive war. The aggre
two worth $60,000 each, one worth $70,000,
and one worth $80,000; but he has'nt one gate receipts to 14th November, at tide water, were as follows:
worth $200,000. He is in treaty now for two
diamonds, one of which is worth $232,000, Flour, bbls. Whent, bush. Cora, bus. Barley, bus.
and the other $650,000, and which rank in the 1860...... 1,051,900 ... 15,771,009 ... 13,400,300 ... 2,393,000 1861...... 1,221,200 ... 25,054,700 ... 20,659.600 ... 1,703,900 order of precedence established by adamantoBy reducing the wheat to flour, the quantity
logists, in the sixth rank, which is next after of the latter left at tide water this year, com
the Regent's diamond, and former in the eighth
rank, that is, next after the Orloff diamond of pared with the same period last year, shows a gain equal to 1,625,000 barrels of flour. The
Russia. In his list of celebrated diamonds he receipts at tide water, since the opening of the places in the front a brilliant white diamond
weighing 250 carats and belonging to some canals, for three years, to the 14th November, have been as follows:
East Indian prince, and worth $2,500,000;
next comes the Kohinoor, which weighs 186 1859. 1860.
1861. Canals open,... April 15. April 25. May 1.
carats, and which he sets down as worth $1,Flour, bbls. 600,600 1,051,900 1,221,200
383,840; next comes the Rajah of Matar's Wheat, bus....... 3,523,200 15,771,600 25,054,500 (Borneo) diamond, it is of the most beautiful Corn, bus........ 2,488,700 13,409,300 20,559,600 / water conceivable; the governor of Batavia Barley, bus............ 1,909,200 2,393,000 1,703,900 offered the Rajab 1500
offered the Rajah $150,000, two brigs of war, Rye, bus............... 320,000
304,500 Oats, bus.............. 4,697,500 5,948,600 4,806,200 armed, equipped, and provisioned for six -Hunt's Merchant's Magazine.
I months, and a large quantity of cannon balls,
powder, and congreve rockets: the Rajah re- dozen six barreled revolvers, loaded and capfused them all, and preferred keeping his dia- ped, lies open upon a table within reach of his mond, which passes for a talisman; it is worth bed. Would you like to be in his place? $1,339,455. Next comes the great Mogul, which is of a beautiful rose color, and of the
Trades and Employments in France. shape and size of an hen's egg, it is worth $781,000, according to the Duke of Brunswick's An interesting document has lately been valuation, though Tavernier, the traveler, sets published in Paris, giving the number of the it down as being worth $5,341,655 ; the Re- individuals in France at the date of the last gent’s diamond of France (and which, by the census (1856) who were engaged directly or way, belong to Lord Chatham's grand father, indirectly in various professions and trades, who brought it from India, concealed in the from which they derived their support. The heel of his shoe,) comes only in the fifth rank; returns include not only adults, but also chilit weighs 135 carats--it is worth $739,840; it dren, and are thus classed : is the purest diamond known, it required two
| Agriculture.........19,031,071 | Clergy of all peryears to cut it: before it was cut it weighed Manufactures ......10,690,961 suasions. ... 142,705 410 carats; the chippings of it were sold for Commerce ............ 1,652,331 Persons without $10,000. The Duke of Brunswick says the
Professions........... 1,462,14 any trade or
I profession....... 3,241,457 Orloff diamond of Russia is worth only $344,350, and not $18,516,580, as some persons
A comparison between the population rehave pretended; and he says the Nancy dia
din turns of 1861 and 1856, shows a sensible dimimond, which Prince Paul Demidoff purchased
hased nution in the number of persons engaged in at the price of $100,000, is worth only $29,- ag
400 agricultural labor, and an increase in the class 160; but then the Duke of Brunswick reckons following manufacturing pursuits. Here are its historical value as nothing, although it the nigures : once adorned the sword of Charles the Bold,
1856 was found after his death on the battle field of Agriculture..................... 21,902,874
19,031,071 Manufactures, ..............
12,202,391 Nancy, was sold in Switzerland, carried to
Professions ........ ......... 3,483, 538
3,262,282 Portugal and there sold, belonged to King An- | Without profes'n or trade 1,022,063
1,480,925 tonio, to Henry III, was swallowed by a noble to whom he confided it-swallowed by a faith
35,732,370 36,009,669 ful noble rather than deliver it to robbers, and During the preceding year (1854) the rewas found in his body, which was disinterred ceipts from the octroi in Paris were fifty-four for the purpose of discovering it. The Duke millions of francs, being an increase of twentyof Brunswick dares not leave Paris at any pe- one millions of francs in ten years; and the riod of the year; his diamonds keep him total receipts of the metropolis, in the same chained there. He dares not sleep from home year, amounted to 110,306,124 francs, while the (some people reckon this liberty of pillow one expenditures, during the same period, was of the great franchises of Paris,) a single 97,720,554. night. Then, he lives in a house not constructed so much for comfort as security. It is bur
" A curious discovery was made the other glar proof, surrounded on every side by a high day at the National Observatory at Washington, wall, the wall itself is surmounted by a lofty from which Lieut. Maury seceded. On attemptiron railing, defended by innumerable sharp lin
"Ping to use some of the instruments for obserspear heads, which are so contrived, that if à
vation, it was found that a large tree had grown person touches any one of them, a chime of
up in front of them so as to completely obstruct bells begins instantly to ring an alarm. This the view-thus giving conclusive evidence that iron railing cost $14,127. He keeps his dia- the instruments have not been used for years! monds in a safe built in a thick wall; his bed
| A striking commentary on the manner in which is placed against it, that no burglar may break
as the seceding superintendent discharged his duinto it without killing, or at least waking him, ties. Workmen are now cutting away the mute and that he may amuse himself with them/h without leaving his bed. The safe is lined
but unimpeachable witness against him. with granite and iron; the locks have a secret spring which must be known before they can
Joy That gigantic plant, the Victoria Regia be opened: if they are opened by violence, a or Royal Lily, is producing a succession of its discharge of fire-arms takes place which will go
which will gorgeous blossoms in the aquarium of Kew inevitably kill the burglar, and at the same
Gardens, England. The leaves of the lily are time a chime of bells in every room in his
is three feet in diameter. house are set ringing. He has but one in his bedroom: the sash are of the strongest iron, Bay Among the curious weapons of war the shutters are of thick steel iron. The door captured in India, which have been brought to opening into it is of solid sheet iron, and can- the tower of London, is an ax more than one not be entered unless one be master of the se- hundred pounds in weight, used by the king of cret combination of the lock. A case of a Oude's executioner.