sure to produce frowiness of an unpleasant plow in the ground. I had five acres, and the taste to the butter; and the entire freedom

result was 400 bushels ears of good corn. For from this constitutes the grand secret of making good butter. There are many who think two or three years this ground had been nearly washing butter with water incompatible with worthless. After corn I raised a heavy crop retaining the rich flavor; but if the water is

of barley, the soil still remaining in good concold and pure, it is scarcely possible anthing should be washed away--the buttermilk which dition for wheat. I move my corn field every destroys the flavor of all butter, and that which year, thus securing a rotation of crops, and in in all markets commands the highest priceviz., Dutch butter-is invariably made in this this way my farm is kept in good condition till way; and where the example has been followed I come around to where I commenced. If I by others, it has rarely failed of success. If wish to seed to clover and timothy, the barley any, however, doubt the propriety of washing butter, they may use any method they please,

crop is the one with which to seed; the grass provided that the milk is separated perfectly. seed should be sowed on and dragged in with Entirely free from the substance that causes it to assume the putrid, frowy taste of bad butter,

the barley, which gives it deep root and does it may be kept with almost as much ease as not kill with the drouth. . lard. Solidity in packing, clean, sweet vessels,

| The secret of this kind of manuring is, that and a low temperature, will ensure its keeping for any reasonable time. Let no one expect

in cultivating the ground there is a nitre cregood butter, however, as long as coarse, impure ated which the straw absorbs, forming a very 13

rich mould, there is no danger of the corn allowed to remain in it.-Genesee Farmer.

suffering with drouth. I heartily wish the

ruinous practice of burning straw could be Use the Straw for Manure.

discontinued and thereby save many regrets MR. Editor :-Taking an interest in our in future when we shall surely be convinced of Wis. FARMER, I wish to scratch a little more our error.

R. MacomBER. of my experience. I believe if all were inter- LA PRAIRIE, Wis. ested as they should be, we might give and re

Action of Manures. ceive much information that would be a great benefit to us. When I first came to this coun

D. M. Sargent, Esq., of Warner, N. H., in

communications to the New Hampshire Journal try, it was the practice of the farmers to burn

of Agriculture, has broached a few new ideas their straw piles. I questioned the propriety in regard to the action of manures. He assumes of such a course, but was told that the straw

that plants derive more food from the atmos

phere than from the soil, and that manures act was of no value for manure; and I have found as much out of the soil as they do in-that by trial, that owing to the dryness of soil and there is more food for plants in whatever we

feed to our animals before it is eaten than there climate, it is not as beneficial for sowed crops

is in the excrements made from it. He also as in the eastern States. By trial, I have believes that light is absorbed in plants, therefound that for corn it is the very thing.

by giving them color, and that caloric is also absorbed and retained by them thereby ena

bling them to give it out when burnt. out my straw and dung, on land laid out for Without vouching for his correctness in all corn, and cover the whole ground, then plow the positions taken, we will give one or two

experiments he relates in reference to the abdeep, and cover the straw as well as I can, and,

sorption of ammonia by the leaves of plants : without disturbing the ground with drag, I put "Ammonia, I think, beyond a doubt, is abon my roll and press down the soil upon the

sorbed from the atmosphere by the leaves. Fill

a flower pot with sand and plant a seed corn if dung, which leaves it in a good shape for mark- you please, it will germinate and grow very ing, then mark both ways and plant; if well slow, look yellow and stunted, perhaps die in

a little time if nothing is done for it. But take tended, it will insure a good crop. I have

a phial of spirits of ammonia, insert it in the never failed of a heavy crop in this way. I Band with the mouth up and the cork loose tried a piece last year, in this way, on a piece

enough for a small portion to escape, and the

plant will soon turn dark green-that peculiar of ground where the stone quarry gravel was green that farmers like so well to see. Hide so thick that it was very difficult to keep the the light and it will soon turn yellow, and finally, nearly white. Exclude the air, and see no reason why clover should be kept from admit the light, it cannot grow.

the sun, while other hay is admitted to be “Take a wet spot of earth, so wet that corn sweetened by it. will hardly germinate, prepare it as you would Clover should be quickly dried, because it to plant corn, drop in nothing but gypsum, and does not shed rain well when cocked up in the that in only part of the holes so prepared, field. When cut in due season and well cured, cover them all up, and smooth with the hoe as cattle will eat the stems as well as the leaves. you would in planting corn, and after a time I When a few leaves drop off in drying their loss can tell every spot where the gypsum is buried, is trifling compared with the loss of the stems and can tell if it were dropped in a bunch, or for want of proper care. scattered, by the fact that something white will If it is past the middle of July, the grass collect on the surface, corresponding with the does not need so much drying as it did on the plaster below. But if you put in corn, the first, yet a portion of two days is necessary to white powder will not be there; it will be ab- fit it for the mow, even where the barn boards sorbed by the growing plant. What this white are so far apart that you can see through the substance is, I do not pretend to know, but I crevices. think, beyond the possibility of a doubt, that it is extracted from the atmosphere. Now the

Ploughing among Corn, &c. question arises what part of the plant absorbs this white substance; is it the roots or leaves ?

| Some farmers have boys who may, as well as I believe it to be the growing blade, predisposed

not, ride and guide the horse among the rows. thereto by the action of the escaping ammonia

But when no boys are about it is quite an obfrom the earth or the manure applied, and here

ject to have a horse so taught that he will go comes in the effect of light, mixing, and per

between the rows without a leader or a rider. fectly combining with the ammoniacal, and

It often saves the labor of one man to lead. other gasses afloat in the air, and absorbed by

Some farmers make it a practice to put on the leaves, and with those drawn from the soil

long reins and manage the horse as they do in by the roots forms those healthy green juices

a chaise. But this is not equal to a handy which give color to the plant, and which are

horse without long reins-for on coming around absolutely necessary for a full development of

at the end of the rows the horse will blunder

on to the corn, potatoes, and beans, oftener the plant. “I have come to the conclusion that light is

than he will when let alone and being governmatter; therefore has a body. It is absolutely

ed by the voice of the ploughman.

1 A horse is not to be taught at once how to go impossible to grow plants without it, but if it does not combine with, and form a part of the

by the sound of his master's voice. Repeated plant, we could grow them without it.

teachings are as necessary for him as for boys “ Again, light is absorbed by everything with

who ride him. which it comes in contact; if it is not so, what

A great majority of our farm horses may be becomes of it when the sun is gone? There

taught to follow the rows without a driver in fore it is absorbed by plants, and as it has a

case the master has a little patience, and does

not, at first, require too much. body it must increase their volume. "Again, ammonia in its relative state, predis

All horses should be made to know the meanposes plants to absorb light, heat, air, and all ||

ing of the word "whoa” before they are offered other gasses that are necessary for their perfect

| for sale. In carriages and chaises the reins development, while it adds to the bulk of the

often fail. The hostler may be careless in putplant, by its own matter ; therefore manures

ting on the harness. Then how important it is that contain it should be so applied as to have

to be able to stop the animal by the use of a the most direct influence upon the plant out of

single word! the ground, while the juices will descend and

The ploughman should always have blinders act upon the soils and roots. But if we bury

on his horse while at the plough—whether or the manure so deep that nothing can escape to

not he uses them in other cases. And we adact upon the plant out of the soil, our crops

mit that all horses should be tauglit to go withmust be small and our manure wasted, and our

out blinders whenever the master chooses, in labor profitless."

order that he may see objects more clearly, and learn that they will not hurt him.

In teaching a horse to work without a rider HAYING.-It cannot be expected that all or a leader, it is of the utmost importance to farmers practice alike. Some cut their grass treat him kindly. Harsh language will not very early-others very late. Some are in fa- answer when you give him the liberty of workvor of thorough drying and letting it have the ing without reins. After he has been led a few benefit of the sun to sweeten it.

times across a corn-field, let him go between Some men pack their hay in air tight barns, the rows without a leader, though a man may and in the Spring complain that their cattle go a few times by his side, a little distance cough, and are threatened with fevers. The from him. idea of keeping clover grass in the shade to be Should the horse miss the row speak to him cured is still advocated by many, though we plainly. Say haw or gee, as the case may re

quire. If he does not mind, call on him to the surface is evaporated, and robs the soil of stop, and second the call by running the plough a large amount of heat which should benefit or cultivator deep into the soil.

the crop. Where the land is drained, this waThen go to his head, and speak as kindly as ter, instead of being evaporated near the surpossible. Put him on the right track again face is carried down through the soil, and and when he deviates, as he will often do, for- discharged by the drain. After a shower, the give him, though he may go wrong seventy and water on the surface sinks to the drains, and is seven times. He will at length learn to keep soon carried off, but by its passage through the the track—and he will soon learn to come soil it opens the pores of the soil, and as soon round at the ends of the rows without tramp as the water is gone, they are filled with air ling down the corn and other plants. He will from the surface and from the drain. All soil do less mischief than he will when he is pulled contains various metallic salts which are injuabout by a rein.

rious to vegetation; the air by coming in contact with these converts them into oxides, which

are either beneficial to or do not affect vegetaWhat do we Drain For ?

tion. The air has the power of decomposing This question will be answered very differ any vegetable matter it may meet with in its ently by different farmers. The most common passage through the soil. A warm rain falling idea is that the object in draining is to carry

Jon a drained soil sinks through, and imparts off the surplus water. This idea is good | its warmth to the soil. enough as far as it goes, but it is but one of

Some would be disposed to think that it canthe many benefits derived from draining.

not be a good plan to remove the water from If a lighted candle be held at the outlet of a

a soil during dry weather; but practice has good tile drain, we will find that there is a very

proved that drained soils suffer much less from strong draught inward and that the strength of long-continued drouth than those which are this draught is proportionate to the length of

not drained. This is easily accounted for: the the drain. Here then is a supply of air rush

air which passes along the drain is charged ing up the drain, but what becomes of it? It with a large amount of moisture, which it impasses out through the soil to the roots of the parts to the soil while passing through it. plants growing thereon. This supply of air

air Many soils contain a portion of the sulphate from below causes the roots to run deep, and

nd of iron; the air coming in contact with this thus enables the plants to withstand a dry sea

compound will impart to it an additional proson.

portion of oxygen, and thus form a peroxide of It is a well-established fact that any soil is iron. The sulphate is injurious to vegetation greatly benefited by water passing through it: / and the peroxide healthful. hence the benefit of rain. On drained land. It has been found by repeated experiments. the rain-water. instead of running off and made in England, that the cost of judicious washing away the soil, sinks readily, and as it draining is repaid every three or four years. opens a passage through the soil is followed The average cost of draining English land is by the air from above.

about $30 per acre. If this would increase the It seems to be fixed idea that it will not wheat crop but five bushels per acre, it would pay” to drain land on which the water does give an interest of 25 per cent. on the cost, or not stand after a rain; but in England, where

would repay the outlay in four years. Draindraining has reached a high state of perfec

ing is very beneficial in the North, where the tion, it has been found that any land may be

seasons are short; for a crop on drained land much benefited by draining. In addition to

will ripen ten or fourteen days sooner than one the above-mentioned benefits, the following may

on undrained land. Another benefit of drainbe enumerated:

ing is the improved health of the country; It prevents the winter-killing of the crops,

which is a very important consideration with, such as wheat and grass. Wheat and grass are

as are AGRICOLA, in Germantown Telegraph. often killed or injured during the winter by the water in the soil freezing and causing it to

Farmers' Gardens. expand. This tears and injures the roots of the plants. Good drainage removes this water, It is a fact too patent to require argument, and thus obviates the evil.

though realized by few, that the gardens of Draining is equivalent to lengthening the most farmers are by no means what they should season, for the soil warms sooner in the spring, be. This is more particularly observed by and does not part with its heat so soon in the those who make gardening an exclusive busiautumn as undrained land. Thus, drained ness. Too little attention is paid by the farmland can be worked without injury much soon- er to this branch of his industry. Upon how er in the spring, and much sooner after a wet many farms of two or three hundred acres is spell, than undrained land.

the garden limited to half or even to a quarter We know that when water evaporates, it car- of an acre; and this, how often, nothing more ries off a large amount of heat. In undrained than a sort of home patch of the same things land a large proportion of the water at or near which are produced from the fields, with the advantage of a little earlier maturity. A few overlooking the fact that the weeds have been things, it is true, find a place here, which can- silently yet sturdily at work in pillaging from not be planted in the fields with profit or con the treasury whence alone the aliment necessavenience, such as several kinds of herbs, some ry to their development can be derived. If we roots, and perhaps a few early cabbages.- must cultivate weeds, let us, by all means apHow remarkably innocent is the ground of any propriate to them a certain prescribed portion likeness to a garden. There may be men whose of our soil, and keep them there. But the man ideal of a garden is filled by that which they who should do this, would be regarded as inso designate, but it must certainly arise from sane, while he who permits them to overrun a lack of observation. It would most unques- and strangle his corn and other valuable crops, tionably do these men good to journey abroad, is regarded as anything but a fit subject for a if for no other purpose than to cultivate their straight waistcoat. conception of proper gardening

| Every inch of your enclosed lands should be That it is no part of good husbandry and turned to profit,-made to produce something very bad economy to bestow so little care upon of value. Therefore, remove all the stumps, this part of the farm may be easily seen by stones, and bushes, that encumbereth them.any one who will give the slightest thought to August is the best month for the destruction of the subject. The larger a man's farm the lar- briars, bushes, &c. ; but weeds, stones and ger should be his garden; and let the farm be stumps should be attacked at all times.-AN of whatever size, the garden should be well Old FARMER in Ger. Telegraph. cared for. The man who farms on a small scale ought to see to it that he raises as much as possible from the garden, so that he may

Agricultural Capital. save the profits of his farm to apply to other What in the hands of the farmer constitutes uses, and if possible add something to his in

capital ? With the merchant, cash is capital; come by the sale of whatever he can spare. with the land speculator, land is capital; with The man who owns hundreds of acres and em

the farmer, cash, land and stock are capital. ploys several men has need to make his garden

Nor do these constitute all a farmer's capitaltell in the economy of the kitchen. He, surely,

many other items, too often overlooked, also has the means of making much of his garden. | form capital, such as implements, manure, and, He has the manure, the land, the men to work

most of all, labor. it, and to consume its products. · To take care

Capital is either productive or non-producof it, if rightly managed, will not detract just | tive: a million of dollars in gold or silver, or so much time from the labor of the fields. Set

one thousand acres of unproductive land may it down as a fact, that any time during the

be capital, but while it remains in this state it summer, when a leisure hour occurs which produces nothing, and the owner may be actucannot be profitably spent elsewhere, you or

ally growing poorer. some of your men may work in the garden to

| Increase in wealth does not depend so much good advantage. And let it be so managed upon the amount of capital as upon the use that two or three crops shall be taken from the

made of it; and in nothing is this more plainly soil. This can as easily be done as to get only shown than in farming. one. Odd spells are continually occurring, and There is many a farmer who commenced on let some crops be put in early, and a succes fifty acres; on this he annually expended sion of the same be kept up at intervals of a

I twenty per cent., in manure, labor, &c., &c., week or ten days, somewhat according to your and the produce was perhaps forty per cent. convenience; and let others follow in their Encouraged by this success, he adds fifty acres season.

more, but does not proportionally increase his You will then soon enlarge the ground de- active capital, and the profits are lessened in voted to garden purposes, give it better culti

proportion. Still he has not land enough, and vation and more skillful management; eat of

buys more, still adding very little or nothing its fruits, you and your household; so shall

to his active capital. The consequence is that your pork and beef barrels be lengthened out while on fifty acres he made forty per cent., on and your measures of meal enlarged.-P. P. in five hundred he would realise nothing. He has Homestead.

converted his productive into non-productive

capital. Weeds, Bushes, &c.

There is nothing more true than that the in

ordinate desire for large farms has been the MR. PRINTER:-Declare unceasing war ruin of thousands. against weeds; cleanse your lands thoroughly, it is true that a large farm may be made as no matter what the labor or expense—and keep productive as a small one; but to do this there them cleansed. Few are aware how much nu- must be expended on it an amount of active triment they abstract from the soil. When the capital, in the shape of manure, labor, &c., in corn, or wheat, or potato crop fails to realise proportion-thing rarely done. our expectations, we vent bitter invectives Let no one undertake to have or hold more against the soil, or the season, or the seed, I land than he has capital to manage well.

We hear a certain class of farmers (90-called) | STOCK REGISTER. say they are “too poor to buy lime," " too poor to buy cattle" to make manure. These are the kind who have too much land. Such a

Shoop vs. Cattle. farmer, holding one hundred acres, would find

Mr. Epitor:-Will you please allow a pracit more profitable to dispose of fifty, and expend the proceeds as active capital on the remaining tical farmer to occupy a small space in your half.

excellent paper, the Wis. FARMER, on the above What is the use of capital if it is not to ex

subject, and first let me say that if the farmers pend it so that it may increase!

If a farmer has surplus capital, the best themselves would spend a few of their leisure manner in which he can invest it is in lime or moments in writing for their paper, at such manure for his farm. If he cannot get six per cent. from it in this way he does not deserve

e times as they may think they have anything of the name of farmer.

general interest to communicate, they, as a If a farmer has fifty acres, with a soil only class, would receive more benefit from its consix or eight inches deep, instead of buying more let him double what he has, by doubling

tents. For it is from the practical as well as the depth of the soil.

from the scientific, that we can mutually benefit Draining makes a good, permanent and safe investment for surplus capital. Such invest

each other by comparing ideas and experiences. ments not only pay an interest as they go along, Now let me ask, how many farmers there are but also increase the capital by increasing the in our own Wisconsin, that have, around their value of the farm. A western writer has said that “large farms

barns or sheds, double the number of scrubs of are the curse of the West;' nor does this ap- cattle than they are able to furnish with even ply to the West alone, but also to the East.

| a limited supply of marsh hay. Every spear By increasing the depth of his soil, the farmer increases his crops, without increasing the poor man can rake and scrape, and all his his number of acres, and with little or no ex coarse fodder, must go into these scrubs to tra expense in labor. In this way a farm of fifty acres may pro

keep them alive through the winter, and to duce more than many of one hundred now what benefit in these hard times, or in fact yield.-A., in Germantown Telegraph.

almost any times ; they are worth very little, if Tools—To Preserve Them from Rust.

any more, on the first day of June than they

were on the first of October. Ask them where Tools of a fine character and polished, if first rendered warm, and then dipped in a satu

and how they procure their wearing apparel, rated lime water, permitting them to dry quick-the woolen garments for themselves and family, will be protected for many months from rust.

rust. ly. The answer will almost invariably be, The shovel manufacturers pursue this plan-80 algo do the manufacturers of razors and other “Buy them at the store and rely on the compolished cutlery; the film of carbonate of limeing wheat crop for the money to pay for them formed is so slight, as not to dim the polish, I with " while its ability to absorb moisture protects

Now if these persons would procure a few the surface of the metal.

For the rougher tools of the farm which have good sheep, in place of the unnecessary portion become polished by use, it is better to apply a of their profillese cattle not more than they thin varnish, made by dissolving one ounce of gum shellac in one quart of alcohol, at ninety-could profitably feed and comfortably shelter, five degrees of strength ; the alcohol evaporates it appears to me their condition and prospects immediately, leaving a very thin coating of shellac, which will not peel off, and which is

for a confortable livelihood would be greatly entirely water-proof. This is the gum used on improved thereby, to say the least. Now there the inside of hats to render them water-proof, I are profits in keeping a reasonable number of and it will thoroughly prevent the rusting of plow-shares, spades, knives of reaping ma- sheep. At any rate the wool brings a price, and chines, etc. We frequently see it recommended | generally a good one, in cash each year. You to coat bright tools with bees-wax, oil, etc. It

are not compelled to wait from three to five is true that for a time these substances will protect surfaces from rust, but when the oxy- years to turn your stock into money, and then dation does commence, it is more severe than as to the amount finally received there is this when they are not used. If applied at all, they should be wiped off again, leaving only

difference, the cattle will probably bring a 80 much as will scarcely be perceptible. | part, and in most localities in this State, a


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