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Apple-tree Blight—Cause and Remedy.
Prof. J. W. Hoyt.—Dear Sir:—Mr. Hinkley's querry, as to the cause of the bark of the apple-tree turning black at the crown, is a question of much importance; and to give an explicit answer, I ask your patience for a moment while I refer to other questions that are in reality involved in the above inquiry.
My experience has taught me that the evil is produced by extreme freezing, after thaws in winter and spring; and the ground upon which the trees stand, being cultivated and kept free from vegetation, is from its nakedness rendered more susceptible to the influence of sudden changes.'
For instance, the ploughed field thaws to a greater depth than the grass field, because the former absorbs the heat of the sun, while the latter reflects the same. The tops of the trees are not effected by these sudden changes, because, being continually in contact with them, it becomes a natural condition incidental to the growth and development of all trees in latitudes where Nature has designed each species to grow. In the forests and openings they are all carefully protected by leaves, grass and low shrubbery of various descriptions, and when civilization comes among them, we find some of the hardiest varieties of our native trees actually perishing from the severely of our winters. ,
We fail to secure those conditions to the orchard which Nature has given to the forest, hence they are winter-killed, or very much injured.
This fact was not learned by. Eastern fruitgrowers, because during the severity of the winters there, an even temperature is preserved in the earth by a deep covering of snow. It was our misfortune in the West to learn this lesson first, and when we profit by the lesson we will compete with any State in the Union in raising apples.
It is well ascertained tha 1.e a tree of
almost any description and n the cold
when the mercury in ' c' . Imr zero,
that the roots will br -i- I . - ,, killed as though they hud bee . p '. tiling water.
And by examining trees that have been injured by the winter, it will be found that the mean depth to which they have suffered will be about four inches; this being about the depth to which the earth is subjected to the greatest changes of tetnperature. The bark of the tree will be black or brown to the above stated depth, according to the amount of injury it has sustained. Below this depth the roots will be found sound and healthy.
In this condition, with the crown of the tree killed or injured, the flow of sap is more or less obstructed from the lower roots to the branches, hence originates the disposition to sprout from the roots. Here lies the cause of all the difficulties in fruit growing in the West. A. and B.'s recommendations in regard to winding them with straw to prevent sun scald on the south side, and scrubbing, scraping and washing to keep out the wood worm, is of about as much importance towards the removal of the primary cause of the difficulty as the perpetual application of quack medicines arc to poor Humanity. The worm does not seek shelter in a healthy tree. But they very soon make their way to the feast when the poor tree is suffering from disease. Take it for granted, reader, that if your tree had not suffered previously from cold toes, the wood worm would have passed it by unnoticed. Go into the forests and learn this truth. You will seek in a healthy tree in vain for the worm that is devouring its dead or diseased companions. This worm seems to prey upon all or nearly all diseased trees here. I have never supposed them to be what is called the borer, which I think I have never seen in this country.
Now for the remedy for all these difficulties, which after all is so simple that no one is excusable who does not apply it: Take as muoh straw as you can carry in your arms, place it about the crown of the tree, put a shovelful or two of earth next to the tree to guard against mice, or a wheelbarrow load of any kind of litter, spread it about the tree. This furnishes all that Nature requires to guard it against the vicissitudes of our climate.
Yours sincerely, John Willcox.
Omro, Dec. 12,1861.
The Sapsvcker.—You will find the following a safe and sure remedy against the sapsucker, which proves very destructive to some varieties: Take a piece of white rag, (or perhaps any other colored rag,) tie it loosely to a limb of the tree, a little above the stem, so that the wind may sway it, (the rag,) and the sapsucker will not trouble the trees. Wm. Powell.
Riwct.iv, Nov. 2r1, 1801.
MECHANICAL & COMMERCIAL.
The Lumber Trade.
The lumber trade of this country, according to the Boston Commercial Hull/fin, was for years confined to New England, and particularly the present State of Maine. Within the past ten years, the trade has greatly changed its direction, and within the past five years almost wholly. A well-written essay upon the causes and effects of this would be an interesting historical record. The home trade in lumber has pressed to the extremes—from the Penobscot to the Great Lakes. In 1851, a member of a firm in the lumber business, at Boston, conceived the idea of working Western and Canada lumber for the Boston market, a long experience having satisfied him that the forests of Maine would, in a short time, become essentially deficient in the supply of some of the most desirable qualities of lumber for building and shipping. To show what has been theresuit of this enterprise, we can state that the sales made by this firm, in the first year afterwards, (1852), were not over three hundred and fifty thousand feet. Now they sell about ticenty-five millions annually. The business has already outgrown the proportions of one concern, and there arc others here who are engaged in the business, as agents of Western and Canada houses.
This lumber now takes the precedence for shipping over all other kinds; its widths, its lengths and its adaptness to carriage, all excel the Eastern lumber. It is taken mostly from the forests of Michigan, Upper Canada, and Western New York, and is conveyed to the seaboard by way of the canals and the St. Lawrence, and by railroad, via Ogdensburg and Burlington. The better qualities are sent in large quantities to the west coast of South America, California and Australia.
The traffic in Eastern lumber has decreased proportionately; where our old firms ten years since used to average a cargo per day from the Penobscot and Kennebec, they scarcely average a cargo per week.
It has been supposed by many that we were dependent on the South for hard pine, or rather that we could not finda substitute for hard pine.
It is scarcely twenty years since the first lot of common river sawed boards arrived in this city from Mobile, consigned to E. D. Peters & Co. The trade has grown since then. In 1845 the ship builders of Boston sent out men all through the South to cut hard pine and oak for ship building, and from this, and also from the fact that hard pine boards were generally accepted as the best for certain purposes, we have come to believe that we could not do without' the southern lumber. This is a mistake.
Lake Kvperior Ibox.—In 1855 the shipments of iron from Lake Superior were 1,447 tons. The amount gradually increased until 1860, when 150,000 tons were shipped. This year the shipments will not exceed 40,000 tons. Tne total value of all the ore shipped, and that melted, since the mines were worked, is about $1,320,000 at Marquette. The capital invested in the mines amounts to $2,286,000. The Lake Superior i\>a.«, of November 2d, from which we gather the foregoing facts, says:
Of the companies now doing business here, we know of none but what, with judicious management, can realize a handsome profit upon whatever branch they are engaged in. This year, however, is a peculiarly hard one upon all doing business in the Upper Peninsula. The general stagnation caused by the war has affected us severely, and now, with a six months' winter before us, during which time there is no possibility of getting our products to market, the chance is, that all the manufacturing companies will be straitened for available means. Yet, as there is plenty of provisions in the country, if all will "bean and forbear," they can weather the point; and from all inditions, we have no doubt that the next year will be one of general prosperity for Lake Superior.
The New Field Teleoraph. — Engineer Rodgers, of New York, has put in operation his newly invented cordage or insulated line, for field operations, and it proved eminently successful, giving entire satisfaction in the manner in which it operated. It is run off reels upon the ground with great rapidity, (as required for instant use), across streams, through woods, or over any localities. Lines were yesterday, in extraordinary short time, thus laid between the head quarters of General McDowell and two or three of his most advanced camps, and were worked in immediate connection with the telegraph station in the War Department. It is worthy of note that the heaviest artillery may run over this Rodgers' cordage without damaging its effectiveness in the least. It differs in many respects from the field telegraph used by Louis Napoleon in the Italian war, and embraces many advantages of convenient and certain operation, under any possible circumstances over that (Louis Napoleon's) which contributed so signally to the success of the French arms.— Washinqton Star. Shoddy.
Woollen fabrics furnished for soldiers' wear, have been the means of giving the defenders of the country an idea of the thing represented by shoddy. In many instances, a -whole corps have found their coats on their backs dropping to pieces after a few day's wear, showing their worthlessness for ordinary use of the garments allowed to be imposed upon them by the carelessness or fraud of inspectors. These frail textures owe their rottenness to the liberal mixture in the fabric of an article called "shoddy," which is a discovery of a recent period, and may be ranked, we suppose, among the "latest modern improvements."
The raw material for shoddy is old rags.— Woollen rags that were once consigned to the manure heap furnish this material. When the new demand for them first arose, the price was about $5 per ton; since then it has advanced. Tbey are collected and assorted, and then baled for manufacture into carpets, shawls, linsey and black cloths. Selected rags, thus baled, when of the best description, are worth over $100 per ton. The assorters sell to the shoddy manufacturer. This agent, in the process of making old garments into new, takes these rags and passes them through a 'rag machine,' which is a cylinder, armed with teeth, that, revolving at high speed, pulls them to pieces, reducing them to wool, and freeing them from dust. It is now shoddy, and in this state it is saturated with oil or milk, and frequently scoured in heaters, in combination with some chemicals. The process completed, the shoddy is ready for manufacture into cloth. For this purpose it is mixed with new wool in as large proportions as possible. White is used in light colored goods and blankets, and the dark descriptions for coarse cloths, carpets, &c. The "shoddy" is the product of soft woollens, but the hard or black cloths, when treated in a similar manner, produce "mungo," which is used extensively in superfine cloths, which have a finish that may deceive a good judge. It is used largely in felted fabrics.
The shoddy parts of a garment made of the mixed material give way very soon, rubbing out of the cloth. It accumulates between it and the lining. Formerly it was largely imported from England. After a while, the demand for it here was found to be so good, that machines were sent over for its manufacture here. In New York there are six shoddy mills.
As we have intimated, the impositions of contractors in palming shoddy uniforms on the volunteers, left the soldiers, after a few days' trial of the rotten fabrics, almost naked. It is probable that the shoddy fraud was carried to a more outrageous excess in these instances than in ordinary dealings. But it is believed that a large proportion of the clothes sentto market in ordinary times is, so to speak, adulterated by this base-born material, and that fortunes
are made and pockets picked through its instrumentality to an extent of whioh the cheated community of shoddy cloth wearers have no idea.—Merchant's Magazine.
We may take some instructions from the Japanese, who do not use rags for making paper, but the inner bark of trees. From a recent account in Blackwood's Magazine, it appears that this peculiar people are far in advance of the rest of the world in some specialities of paper making. The writer of the article which we refer to, in describing the peculiarities of the Japanese, says:
"It is wonderful to see the thousand useful as well as ornamental purposes for which paper is applied in the hands of these industrious and tasteful people, Ouf papier mache manufacturers should go to Yedo to learn what can be done with paper. We saw it made into a material closely resembling Russian and Morocco leather; it was very difficult to detect the difference. With the aid of lacker, varnish an skillful painting, paper makes excellent trunks, saddles, telescope cases, the frames of microscopes; and we even saw and used excellent water proof coats made of paper, which did keep out the rain, and were as supple as the best Mackintosh, (India rubber). The Japanese use neither silk nor cotton handkerchiefs, towels or dusters; paper in their hands serves as an excellent substitute. It is soft, thin, and of a pale yellow color, plentiful and cheap. The inner walls of many a Japanese apartment are formed of paper, being nothing more than painted screens. Their windows are covered with a fine translucent description of the same material. We saw what seemed to be balls of twine, which were nothing but long shreds of tough paper rolled up. If a shopkeeper had a parcel to tie up, he would take a strip of paper, roll it up quickly between his hands and use it for twine. In short, without paper, all Japan would come to a dead lock. * * Japanese mothers-in-law invariably stipulate in the marriage settlement that the bride is to have a certain quantity of paper allowed her."
New Telegraph Lines.—The telegraph cable between London and the Ajaccio, on the Island of Corsica, has been successfully laid over a length of 205 miles, and an average of 1,500 fathoms in depth.
The wires of the new telegraph line from Boston to Washington, are laid already to Providence. The line is constructed by the Independent Telegraph Company, consists of three wires, and is what is called a metallic circuit. The wires may be fastened to trees or any convenient object, or pass through water without impairing their efficiency, and they cannot be tapped to take away what is passing.
Flocks, Shoddy and Noils.
As there is a great discussion about the composition of woollen fabrics for the army, and as the terms commonly used are not familiar to the generality of people, and as many are apt to be misled through ignorance, we have thought it of sufficient interest to obtain all the facts connected therewith, and we have been kindly furnished with samples of the different materials known as " flocks, shoddy and noils," by a practical manufacturer of this city, with explanations accompanying:
No. 1.—Noils.—That is, short wool combed from long wool to fit the latter for worsted, for kerseys and blankets.
No. 2.—Washed and unwashed Russian and South American wool; the first for blankets, the second for kerseys.
No. 3.—Shoddy.—Blue for kerseys and stocking yarn: black for satinets and mixed goods.
No. 4.—Flocks.—For satinets and cotton warp goods and kerseys.
No. 5.—Noils.—Suited for kerseys and blankets, of finer class than No. 1.
No. 0.—Shoddy.—Made of old carpets—such as is used in English blankets—and. perhaps, some American. Price, 10 cents a pound; English blankets, 40 cents. This is mixed with long wool and spun into filling.
Large Exports To Europe.—The month of November has shown a marked change in the business features of New York. A continued activity has prevailed in the export trade to foreign countries, showing, as general results, exclusive of specie:
October, 1861. Ten Months, 1861.
Exports $13,157,000 $109,934,000
Imports 10,201,000 141,754,000
The grain movement will form one of th extraordinay features of the year 1861, and contributes largely to the strength of the country in sustaining an expensive war. The aggregate receipts to 14th November, at tide water, were as follows:
Flcur.bbl,. WhMt.buh. Coro.l,iu. Ilir.rj, tin.
1860 1,061,900 ... 15,771,000 ... 13,400,300 ... 2,393,000
1861 1,221,200 ... 25,054,700 ... 20,559,600 ... 1,703,900
By reducing the wheat to flour, the quantity of the latter left at tide water this year, compared with the same period last year, shows a gain equal to 1,625,000 barrels of flour. The receipts at tide water, since the opening of the canals, for three years, to the 14th November, have been as follows:
1859. I860. 1861.
Canals open,... April 15. April 25. May 1.
Flour, bb!« 600,600 1,061,900 1,221,200
Wheat, bus 3,523,200 15,771,600 25,054,700
Com, bus 2,488,700 13,409,300 20,559,600
Barley, bus.... 1,909,200 2,393,000 1,703,900
Rye, bus 320,000 304,500 725,000
Oats, bus 4,697,500 5,948,600 4,806,200
—Hunt's Merchant's Magazine.
SCIENCE, ART, STATISTICS.
The Paris correspondent of the N. 0. Pkkayunt. writes to that journal on the above theme, from which we take the following almost incredible story of the treasures, pleasures, and measures of the Duke of Brunswick, the "most profound adamantologist in the world:"
He has in his possession three millions of dollars worth of diamonds. He has just published a catalogue of his diamonds, and in the appendix there is a notice of the most celebrated diamonds in the world. This catalogue numbers not less than 203 quarto pages. It gives, with great detail, a list of his white transparent, first-white, second-white, steelwhite, blue-white, light blue, black-blue, lightyellow, bright-yellow, amber-yellow, straw, champagne, deep-rose, rosy, light-rose, opalescent, pome-granate, violet, greenish, green, sea-green, brown, light-brown, deep-brown, dusk-black, opaque-black, London, fog. sandy, frosty, black-spotted, cracked, split, scratched, ill-cut, uncut, square, round, oval, oblong, octagon, pointed, pigeon-eyed, almond, Chineseeyed, diamonds. It relates how this once adorned a Turkish sabre, that a royal diadem, another an imperial collar, a third a grand electoral hat; this black diamond was an idol's eye, that brilliant rosy diamond was taken from the Emperor Baber, at Agia, in 1527, it weighs 41 carats, and is worth $69,000; those were the waistcoat buttons of the Emperor Don Pedro; this diamond ring, with the Stuart coat of arms and the cypher " M. S." belonged to Mary, Queen of Scots; that pair of earrings hung once on Marie Antoinette. The Duke of Brunswick has in his possession fifteen of the ninety known diamonds, weighing thirty-six carats, but he has not a diamond worth $200,000. He hns plenty of diamonds worth $20,000, $30,000, and $45,000 apiece: he has two worth $60,000 each, one worth $70,000, and one worth $80,000; but he has'nt one worth $200,000. He is in treaty now for two diamonds, one of which is worth $232,000, and the other $650,000, and which rank in the order of precedence established by adamantologists, in the sixth rank, which is next after the Regent's diamond, and former in the eighth rank, that is, next after the Orloff diamond of Russia. In his list of celebrated diamonds he places in the front a brilliant white diamond weighing 250 carats and belonging to some East Indian prince, and worth $2,500,000; next comes the Kohinoor, which weighs 186 carats, and which he sets down as worth $1,383,840; next comes the Rajah of Matar's (Borneo) diamond, it is of the most beautiful water conceivable; the governor of Batavia offered the Rajah $150,000, two brigs of war, armed, equipped, and provisioned for six months, and a large quantity of cannon balls, powder, and congrcve rockets; the Rajah refused them all, and preferred keeping his diamond, which passes for a talisman; it is worth $1,330,455. Next comes the great Mogul, which is of a beautiful rose color, and of the shape and size of an hen's egg, it is worth $784,011", according to the Duke of Brunswick's valuation, though Tavernier, the traveler, sets it down as being worth $5,344,650; the Hegent's diamond of France land which, by the way, belong to Lord Chatham's grand father, who brought it from India, concealed in the heel of his shoe,) comes only in the fifth rank; it weighs 135J carats—it is worth $739,840; it is the purest diamond known, it required two years to cut it: before it was cut it veighed 410 carats; the chippiugs of it were sold for $40,000. The Duke of Brunswick says the Orloff diamond of Russia is worth only $344,350, and not $18,510,580, as some persons have pretended; and he says the Nancy diamond, which Prince Paul Dcmidoff purchased at the price of $10t1,000. is worth only $29,100; but then the Duke of Brunswick reckons its historical value as nothing, although it once adorned the sword of Charles the Bold, was found after his death on the battle field of Nancy, was sold in Switzerland, carried to Portugal and there sold, belonged to King Antonio, to Henry III, was swallowed by a noble to whom he confided it—swallowed by a faithful noble rather thau deliver it to robbers, and was found in his body, which was disinterred for the purpose of discovering it. The Duke of Brunswick dares not leave Paris at any period of the year; his diamonds keep him chained there. He dares not sleep from home (some people reckon this liberty of pillow one of the great franchises of Paris,) a single night. Then, he lives in a house not constructed 60 much for comfort as security. It is burglar proof, surrounded on every side by a high wall, the wall itself is surmounted by a lofty iron railing, defended by innumerable sharp spear heads, which are so contrived, that if a person touches any one of them, a chime of bells begins instantly to ring an alarm. This iron railing cost $14,127. He keeps his diamonds in a safe built in a thick wall; his bed is placed against it, that no burglar may break into it without killing, or at least waking him, and that he may amuse himself with them without leaving his bed. The safe is lined with granite and iron; the locks have a secret spring which must be known before they can be opened: if they are opened by violence, a discharge of fire-arms takes place which will inevitably kill the burglar, and at the same time a chime of bells in every room in his house are set ringing. He has but one in his bedroom: the sash are of the strongest iron, the shutters are of thick steel iron. The door opening into it is of solid sheet iron, and cannot be entered unless one be master of the secret combination of the lock. A case of a
dozen six barreled revolvers, loaded and capped, lies open upon a table within reach of his bed. Would you like to be in his place?
Trades and Employments in France.
An interesting document has lately been published in Paris, giving the number of the individuals in France at the date of the last census (1856) who were engaged directly or indirectly in various professions and trades, from which they derived their support. The returns include not only adults, but also children, and are thus classed:
Clergy of all per-
A comparison between the population returns of 1801 and 1850, shows a sensible diminution in the number of persons engaged in agricultural labor, and an increase in the class following manufacturing pursuits. Here are the figures:
Agriculture 21,902,874 19,034,071
Manufactures, 9,233,895 12,202,391
Professions 3,483,538 3,262,282
Without iirofes"n or trado 1,022,063 1,480,925
During the preceding year (1854) the receipts from the octroi in Paris were fifty-four millions of francs, being an increase of twentyone millions of francs in ten years; and the total receipts of the metropolis, in the same year, amounted to 110,306,124 francs, while the expenditures, during the same period, was 07,720,554.
B3f A curious discovery was made the other day at the National Observatory at Washington, from which Lieut. Maury seceded. On attempting to use some of the instruments for observation, it was found that a large treo had grown up in front of them so as to completely obstruct the view—thus giving conclusive evidence that the instruments have not been used for years! A striking commentary on the manner in which the seceding superintendent discharged his duties. Workmen are now cutting away the mute but unimpeachable witness against him.
That gigantic plant, the Victoria Regia or Royal Lily, is producing a succession of its gorgeous blossoms in the aquarium of Kew Gardens, England. The leaves of the lily are three feet in diameter.
Among the curious weapons of war captured in India, which have been bi ought to the tower of London, is an ax more than one hundred pounds in weight, used by the king of Oude's executioner.