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in October, 1776; in Massachusetts, December, scientific geology, composed of specimens of 1776; in Rhode Island, July, 1776; in New
rock, ores, fossils, and whatever illustrates the Jersey, August, 1776 ; in Pennsylvania, January, 1777; in Delaware, February, 1777; in economic geology of the mines, and the nature Maryland, April, 1777; in Virginia, May, 1777. and character of our mineral veins. These
“ In correcting a historical inaccuracy with regard to the source which declared the conti- | pe
til specimens shall be carefully collected from the nental money a legal tender, the reader will, different localities throughout the mining reof course, understand that it is no part of our gion; and so arranged as to represent, not only purpose to augur or suggest that Treasury
the locality from which they have been taken, notes issued by our government at the present day, under circumstances so different from but the peculiar formation to which they bethose surrounding the continental Congress, I long. They will also serve to illustrate the would be subject to any similar depreciation.”
detailed reports which will be made, and pub
lished in this journal, of the important mines THE MINER.
in the localities above referred to, and the facts J. MURRISH, : : : CORRESPONDING EDITOR. which otherwise may be obtained and recorded
here. It may be well, perhaps, before entering
For this purpose the use of the State Agriupon the work which properly belongs to this cultural Rooms are offered, a place beautifully department, to inform those interested in min
in adapted for the purpose. Those interested in ing, and in the development of the metallic
the development of our metallic and scientific resources of the State, what this department
resources, cannot too highly appreciate this contemplates doing. It is a well known fact,
offer, and the offer of this department, withthat up to the present time, but little, compar
out money or price for mining and scientific atively, has been done to ascertain the richness
purposes. And we hope they will put forth and extent of our mineral deposites. The
every effort to make this department, and the pioneers of mining-many of whom became
museum, worthy of it, and of the important rich-were too busy in their pursuit after
branch of industry which they represent. It wealth, to stop to enquire after facts, or even
is not necessary for me to argue the importance to record those which every day unfolded
of this work here, a moment's reflection will themselves before their view. And we, their
make it appear. I know there is a disposition successors, have up to the present time, fol
on the part of the mining community to reject lowed their example. It is time however to
| all speculative theories on our mineral veins; pause, and examine the facts accumulating
and it is right it should be so. But on the on our hands; systematically arrange them,
other hand we should search diligently for and place them on record to be examined by
that light which science and intelligence will others.
afford us on this great question. We may as We purpose in the first place to collect all the
well try to believe that there are no such practical information we can obtain from the
agents as heat, chemical affinity, and electrimining region, and publish it in such a way
city in physical nature, as that there are no that it will be accessible alike to the miner, the
laws under which mineral veins have been land-owner, and the capitalist; and that too
formed and filled. But the testimony of all with a view of ascertaining the extent and
scientific men is, and all experience goes to richness of our mineral veins, and the import
show, that they belong to that class of agents, ance of mining as a branch of industry. For
(or laws) whose mode of operation, and the this purpose this department is opened, and to
and to rule which they follow, lies deeply hid from the best of our ability will be devoted to min-| the theorist, or the superficial observer, and ing intelligence and mining interests.
can be detected only by a careful record of In connection with this department, we pur- their phenomena, and a careful arrangement pose also to form a museum of practical and of those facts which such phenomena afford. If
the work we contemplate doing now, had been. Allow me then, in entering upon the work, begun twenty years ago, and continued down in connection with this department, to which to the present time, the cabinet formed, and you have invited me, to feel that I am not inthe records preserved, would be worth to the truding on the columns of this journal, nor on mining region to-day a thousand times more the interests of agriculture ; but only engaged than the information we have obtained, or in another department in the great temple of shall obtain, from the geological survey, valu- industry, in which we have common interests ; able and important as that may be. As the to build up and adorn which, demands our collecting of the above named information and united efforts, and the sympathy and support specimens for the cabinet, is to be on the part of every citizen.
J. M. of those engaged, a “ labor of love,” I would ask that some one be appointed in every min
Ancient Tin Mining, etc. ing locality throughout the State for this purpose, and forward the same to me at this place,
Tin was anciently the most celebrated pro(Mazomanie, Dane Co.,) or hold it subject to my duct of Britain, and appears even at that time order when I visit that place I MUST to have been extracted in considerable abun
dance, since it was the desire of obtaining
possession of these mines, and becoming thereMR. EDITOR:-I was very much pleased when by independent of the Phoenician monopoly, I noticed in the March FARMER, a Department
which first induced the Romans to visit the
island. called the “ Miner,"opened for mining intelli- Before the conquest of their country, the gence; and regarded it as a new and important ancient Britons extracted this metal from its era in the history of our mines. Nothing has
ores by methods which they had themselves
discovered, and which were probably improved done more to retard the progress of mining, on by their conquerors. The smelting process than a want of something of this kind; noth would seem to have been very simply conduct
ed. The broken ore was placed in a hole in ing will do more to infuse new life into it, to
the ground, the sides of wnich were lined wipe away the disgrace with which certain with pieces of wood; these, on being ignited, parties seek to cover it. to bring it out in its reduced the metal, which was separated from own light, and obtain for it the respect of the channel into an outer receptacle.
the slags by being run off through a narrow
Many of world, than the department referred to in your these rude furnaces have been found in vajournal Nor is there a journal published in rious parts of Cornwall and elsewhere, in
which only charcoal and slags have been the State, in which a department for mining discovered, but also portions of the reduced intelligence would be so well adapted to the metal. wants of the mining region as the FARMER.
You, very truthfully remarked, in your notice Copper MINING IN 1861.—The mines of Lake of this subject, that the mining interests of the Superior have closed the most vigorous and
| prosperous of campaigns, and have raised, in State were second only to the agricultural.
the aggregate, over ten thousand tons of copLet me here remind you of another fact, however per mineral, which will average, on metallurgclosely related these two branches of industry
ical treatment, about 85 per cent. for refined
metal. The district of Portage Lake, the may be in point of importance, there are other
youngest of the three sections—has led all in relations affording stronger reasons why they production, having raised and shipped, from should be united as twin sisters in your jour
the seven mines in operation during the sea
son, over 4,500 tons of high per centage ore. nal, and regarded not as though they had rival This, with the exception of that produced by claims to be supported, but as branches of in- the Quincy Company, has been treated at the
Portage Lake Smelting Works—the amount dustry whose sympathies and interests are
produced there being 5,129,000 pounds of inreciprocal. In this light they should be view- got copper. If we estimate the value of the ed, and in this journal they should be united, / Quincy's mineral to have been 75 per cent.
| (certainly low enough,) we will have 3,600 supported, and admired, as the pillars and or- ton
tons as the product of the Portage Lake mines naments of our political economy.
in refined metal. -Cor. Detroit Tribune.
Machines for Women's Work.
“Housekeeper" says " sewing machines are so dear that they are beyond the reach of those who need them." There are few farmers who are so well off as to have much out-door as well as in-door work to do, but can afford $40 or $50 for a sewing machine. Could they but realize what women's “never ending work” is, and study into the economy of its performance they would readily see what would be made by the purchase.
But they say “our mothers didn't need sewing machines ?” No, and our fathers did n't need mowers and reapers and thrashing machines,—but you have found out that you do, and many other conveniences for expediting your labor.
Men with their sinewy strength and iron nerves are apt to think sewing is n't much, that its a kind of second nature for women to keep their fingers busy when they've nothing else to do. It surely can't be hard work to wield so delicate an instrument as a needle, strung on a slender thread, even if the day has been passed in housework and child cares and mother is tired all over, before she sits down to her sewing. But its not so very easy to ply the shining shaft through and through the thick fabric of those heavy pants; so many such stitches in a year are to be thus taken one by one! that the sewing occupies every moment spared from housework. Ah, most of you can " afford" it! Let me persuade you to make the effort. There may be some sacrifice the first year, but the next will pay it back. Your wives will accomplish a vast deal more, be less hurried and worried and furried, have time to attend to a good many things hitherto neglected and practice many little economies for which now they have no time. Where the time for making is no longer a consideration-many an outgrown or no longer wearable garment will be remodelled and do good service, when if it were to be made by hand it would not pay. With patience and a little practice, one thing after another will be found possible on the sewing machine, till little is left for hand stitching, be| side button holes and darning.
Where now Columbia lies spread
From Plymouth to Pacific strand, The memory of whose glorious dead
Yet holds in trust the world's right hand,
Where Liberty is still a name
Where victor songs are proudly sung, And highest in our nation's fane
Her bannered trophies still are hung,
Lo, on the hills with bleeding feet,
That blessed child, no longer fair, While traitor hordes, with hell's deceit,
Flaunt her pure robes in heaven's blue air.
No longer fair? Never so fair
As now from east to western main, Lighting her camp-fires everywhere
Her ancient glories to regain.
God pity us! Hold up our hands;
Make our dear land the great and strong; Loved with a love that breaks all bands,
And dashes out all human wrong;
Until no wail from quivering hearts
Shall smite the seas from off our shore, And not till hope from time departs
Go down the flag our fathers bore.
I purchased a Wheeler & Wilson's sewing for hand sewing. Of machinery there is so machine four years ago. In less than two little and that so simple and substantial, as to years it changed the price was reduced one carry durability on the face of it. third. Was I sorry I had not waited! No With regard to knitting machines, when indeed! Money could not buy the relief and living in Wisconsin I looked about for one but comfort it had been to me. In four years was not satisfied. They did not seem yet adaptthorough testing on every thing needed by a ed in price or capability to family use. Perfamily of seven, its excellence suffers no dimi- sons convenient to cities or large towns, can nution, but rather increases. I never find my- purchase the hose and make up stockings as self with a huge pile of sewing ready prepared, needed, or they may be purchased complete at but a sweet sense of satisfaction steals over comparatively reasonable rates. The knitting my spirit, and I bless my sewing machine!- machine is not so continually needed as the Bless it for the ease from that burden of sew-sewing machine, and might be owned by a ing which was forever increasing beyond my company or neighborhood. ability to despatch it, and was a constant in- There are many things about women's work cubus upon the spirits.
that needs to be done, day after day and week If there are girls and boys in the family who after week, for which there should, and surely have leisure, they can be easily taught to op- will be efficient, simple, and inexpensive imerate while mother sits by and prepares the plements invented. work.
The sewing machine is the only thing which There are sewing machines cheap enough for I happen thoroughly and satisfactorily to have any purchaser. My investigation and obser-tested. vation before purchasing, inclined me to the Washing and sweeping machines should, by decision that the best was the cheapest,--doing
this time, be perfected, but I have not chanced all kinds of work needed in the family-work-to find them so. I have heard of a clothes ing smoothly, with little expenditure of wringer highly commended, which may be atstrength.-no getting out of order, repairing tached to any tub, wringing the clothes through or wearing out, with ordinary care and use.
| the various waters. If this works well, and The Wheeler & Wilson-Singers' and Grover
without tearing the fabric, or wringing off but
tons, it will prove an admirable lightener of & Baker's are acknowledged the best three.
wash day labor. To perform their many duSinger's seemed best adapted for heavy man- ties, women need all the help they can get in ufacturing purposes and is more complicated. I the way of conveniences and implements, and The Grover & Baker stitch is an objection, I am always interested in every invention havmaking a cord on the under side and is more ling this end in view.
ELSIE. profuse of thread, while the manner of hold- COLUMBUS, Ohio. ing the work is more inconvenient. The W. & W. makes a stitch on both sides alike-80 POCKET THREAD CASES.-Cut morocco or that in hemming, or other work where it is cloth, a quarter of a yard long and four inches more convenient, the sewing can be done on
wide, round off one end, line with silk or woolthe wrong side; thus dispensing with much
en stuff. Sew lappets for needles on the square basting. Then the work running in a straight
end, make three pockets-red, white and blue,
1-embroider the blue with thirty-four stars in line before the operator is in its favor. An
white silk, and run elastic cord on the wrong erect posture can be maintained, with little
side of the top of each, baste on the morocco reaching of the arms or wearying of shoulders
at proper distances and bind the whole with and back, while the seam is easily guaged and galloon or worsted binding. When suitably kept true without basting. After a little prac- furnished, is a useful gift for a friend going to tice there is no more, if as much, basting as serve in army or navy.-Farmer and Gardener.
OBSERVATIONS ON MAKING Puddings. The outside of a broiled pudding often tastes disa
greeably, which arises by the cloth not being Remarks on the Egg Question.
nicely washed, and kept in a dry place, It Ep. Wis. FARMER: I would say that I, as should be dipped in boiling water, squeezed well as Mrs. R. Gibson, packed eggs in ashes it should be tied loose : if batter, tight over.
dry, and floured, when to be used. If bread, last summer, and think there is nothing supe- The water should boil quick when the pudding rior for warm weather, where they are kept
is put in; and it should be moved about for a
minute, lest the ingredients should not mix.dry; mine kept nice and fresh until they were Batter pudding should be strained through a removed to the cellar, then the ashes becoming coarse sieve, when all is mixed; in others, the damp they soon became thoroughly impregnated
eggs separately. The pans and basins must
be always buttered. A pan of cold water with ley. I have usually packed my eggs as should be ready, and the pudding dipped in as recommended by Mrs. R. W. Lansing, and find soon as it comes out of the pot, and then it
will not adhere to the cloth. it answers for all practical purposes.
Mrs. M. ADAMS. TO BROIL BEEF-STEAK.-Cut slices of beef DANVILLE, April 9.
as thick as your hand, put each on the gridiron,
and set it over a bed of live coals free from any Potato YEAST.-Five large potatoes boiled smoke, and broil ten minutes; when done, take and mashed, three pints of boiling water, flour it up on a platter or deep plate, and put pieces enough to make it a little thicker than flap- of butter over the ineat; it should be broiled jacks, and one cup of yeast. This is enough the last thing before the family sit down, and to rise five loaves of bread, which may be mix- brought to the table hot; pour a very little hot ed with water, or milk, and will rise enough water over the meat. while your oven is heating. Save out enough of this yeast for your next baking.
WIT AND WISDOM. CHICKEN Pot Pie.-Wash and cut the chick - A lady well advanced in maidenhood, at her en into joints; boil them about twenty min- marriage, requested the choir to sing the hymn utes; take them up, wash out your kettle, fry commencingtwo or three slices of fat salt pork, and put in
"This is the way I long have sought,
And mourned because I found it not." the bottom of the kettle; then put in the chicken, with about three pints of water, a
-"Jacinto" says he once courted a down piece of butter the size of an egg; sprinkle in
17. in East gal and "popped the question” to her, she
immediately pitched her entire mass of lovely a little pepper, and cover over the top with a
clay into his willing arms, and answered: "I light crust. It will require one hour to cook.
want to know." It's an even bet that" Jacinto"
imparted the desired knowledge. GOOD, WHOLESOME SMALL BEER.—Take two
-Among the excuses offered for exemptiong ounces of hops, and boil them, three or four from gere
four from service in the southern army, one fellow hours, in three or four pailfuls of water; and wrote opposite his name, one leg too short." then scald two quarts of molasses in the liquor, Another, thinking to better it, wrote opposite and turn it off into a clean half-barrel, boiling bis, both legs too short." He had been read. hot; then fill it up with cold water; before it ing some of the exploits of the sou:hern armies, is quite full, put in your yeast to work it; the doubtless, and supposed legs to be the first eg. next day you will have agreeable, wholesome sential. small beer.
-A lady in Troy, N. Y., one day last week
purchased $40 worth of Honiton lace, which SIMPLE REMEDY TO PURIFY WATER. -Pulver
she left in tbe wrapper on a table. The next ized alum possesses the property of purifying
morning it was missing. Op interrogating & water. A large spoonful stirred into a hogs
servant she replied that she saw a bit of paper head of water will so purify it. that in a few on the table and took it to light the fire with: hours it will be as fresh and clear as spring
and sure enough, “Biddy' bad burned the lace.
An expensive article of kindling. water. Four gallons may be purified by a tea-spoonful.
-The following is a correspondent's account of an interview with a contraband: "We ac.
costed on whose very immense blackness comMEASURE CAKE.-Take one tea-cup of but
mended him as a genuine, unadulterated scion ter, and stir it to a cream, two tea-cups of l of Africa. Where do you hail from ?? "Cul. sugar, then stir in four eggs that have been peper Court House, sah.' What news do you beaten to a froth, a grated nutmeg, and a pint bring?' 'Nothing, massa, 'cept dare a man of flour; stir it till it is ready to bake. It is lost a mighty good nigger dar dis morning, and good baked in cups or pans.
I guess he dun lose some more 'fore nighē.""