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the purpose of showing the nation his confi- soon placed them quite beyond all need of asdence in the success of the plan. So high an sistance; owing to them the silk trade prosexample could not but be followed. Experi-pered exceedingly, and by the year 1713 more ence had proved a thorough teacher, and the than 300,000 persons maintained themselves by process began anew and was carried on suc- it. The children's children of these weavers cessfully.

still live where their forefathers established Henry was as wise in religious as in political themselves. It is a weary life; all the bright matters, and about this time he granted liberty hours of the day are spent in close application of conscience to all his protestant subjects by to the loom, for he must make silk while the the well known edict of Nantes. The majority sun shines; there is constant stooping of the of these protestants were found among the ar- back, constant moving of the arms, constant tisans and mechanics of France; great num- watching with the eyes, and even the feet must bers of them were silk weavers; and the fact, do their share of work. that after all their persecution they were guar

The weaver grows pallid, and haggard, and anteed an unmolested life, infused a vigor and bent, and his wife and children wear their

nthusiasm into their pursuits, which could lives away over the finer and smaller silk fabnever have been felt by men who were living rications, tassels and gimos, and buttons, netunder a public ban, or carrying a death secret ted fringe and twisted cords. in their hearts. The silk manufacture increas- 1 In Lyons their life is, if possible, harder ed very rapidly, and so did the protestants. I still

Protestants: still. There, the ninety thousand weavers Within a century after the first planting of the work from four in the morning till nine at mulberry trees, there were eighteen thousand

night, crowded into great factories, that “relooms in operation in Lyons alone. But alas,

semble bee-hives, with their tiers of cells." Louis the Fourteenth was now on the throne ; | Each cell has a window, and each window -burdened with the knowledge that he fully

lights a machine. Yet, toilsome as these lives deserved purgatory, and stimulated by the fear

are, and striking as is the contrast between the of being sent there, he could think of no other

sallow, crooked artisan, and the flashing, brilway so sure to atone for a myriad of court

liant-hued fabrics into which he weaves his vices, as a good sharp persecution of heretics. health and strength and life, their condition Mass was good, but Massacre was better.

is a hundred times better than it was forty Four hundred thousand protestants poured years ago. Until that time the silk looms were out their life-blood to wash away the sins of very complicated, and not only was the weaver the Grand Monarque; the sacrifice was suffi- himself compelled to ten-fold exertion, but cient, indeed it was more than enough; and to their numerous cords and pedals required conprevent a waste of so much merit, and bring stant guidance. These must be managed by forward his own end of the account, the king young children, under-grown women, or stuntpermitted himself a few small extra peccadil-ed boys. Whatever was very small, and very loes for the rest of his life. How the balance nimble, and yery uncomplaining, would ansstruck at last, is an item not to be found in the wer. All day long, through weary, weary records of earth.

hours, the same distorted attitude must be reFour hundred thousand other protestants tained; they grew blanched in the heavy escaped, and of these, eighty thousand skillful shadow of the loom ; they breathed a deathworkmen took refuge in England. The entire giving atmosphere, composed of exhalations of commerce of France was crippled, many of her machinery-oil, and feathery floating silk fuzz; trades were crushed out of existence, more they crouched, in painful, cramped positions, than half of her silk weavers were gone, and till nature gave up her struggle for straightthe looms of Lyons had decreased to four ness, and lay aggrieved and ashamed under thousand. After having deliberately parted many a crook and twist, that soon fastened the with a large piece of her back-bone, France victim to a bed of sickness, or, more kindly, felt the need of the discarded vertebræ, and laid his body of pain in the grave. What phiwould fain have had it back again, but it was lanthropists had sighed over in vain, was at too late. The most solemn and brilliant prom- last attained by a poor artisan, Joseph Marie ises could not induce the best artisans to return. Jacquard, "the child of the people, the child England reaped a grand harvest in reward for of the loom.” He labored long and faithfully her hospitality towards the exiles ; many pur- in silence; but his toil was crowned at last suits, hitherto unknown in Great Britain, were with success. A certain change in the form of introduced and carried on by them, and the the loom, a certain ingenious way of securing silk manufacture in particular, which up to the threads, cancelled the need of more than that time had been extremely crude and imper- one attendant for each machine, and greatly fect, was brought to the highest perfection. lightened the labors of that one. Jacquard

Nearly thirty thousand refugees settled in was diffident and retiring, and had no knowlSpitalfields or thereabouts, the majority of edge of the means of securing public attention whom were weavers, penniless and homeless; or favor; but he showed the result of his inthey were at first relieved by an appropriation vention to one friend and another, and the of Parliament, but their skill and diligence piece of work passed as a curiosity from hand

to hand, till at last it arrived at Paris. In the nishes every year more than a third of the mean time Jacquard, busy about other things, whole silk produce of the world. Italy stands had almost forgotten his own invention, and next in the rank of cultivators, and from her the new loom had long lain in a corner of his vast cocooneries sends out one-fourth of the shop, broken and disordered, when suddenly entire supply; France and India contribute he was summoned before the prefect of Lyons, each one-tenth; Japan, Persia and Spain give and told to exhibit his machine. He demand- a lesser fraction, and the other nations come ed three weeks time to restore it to a working straggling after, with their smaller quotas. In condition again, and, on the appointed day, our own country, twenty years ago, the annual presented himself and his loom for the pre- crop was more than sixty thousand pounds of fect's inspection. This amiable functionary cocoons ; ten years ago it was less than eleven was delighted with it, more especially because thousand. In several other places the decrease he was able himself to continue the web which has been almost as great, and manufacturers the weaver had set up. The machine was sent have quaked a little with fear of a diminished to Paris, and by the next mail came an order supply. But there is no ground for any such for the presence of the inventor. Governments apprehension; the crop has lessened only in have an untender way of conferring benefits; the most northern boundaries of its cultivation. without a word of explanation, Jacquard was the resources of China, Italy, India or Spain seized, in a maze of terror, carried post-haste are not yet half developed, and there is no to Paris, under the escort of a guard, and definite limit to the amount of silk they might thrust suddenly into the presence of Napoleon produce, if they were stimulated to it by an and his minister, Carnot. The latter, with his increased demand. usual bluntness, exclaimed, “Is this the man, then, who pretends to do what Heaven has made impossible,-tie a knot with a tight SCIENCE, ART, STATISTICS. thread?” Quite appalled by the new and sacrilegious light in which his dear invention was The Sapsucker: Rare chance for a Bostoner to see held up to him, the poor weaver shook in his

the Great West without expense. sabots, and could find nothing to say ; but he put his machine in motion, and vindicated his As the Sapsucker appears to have a wakened aspersed piety by proving that Heaven had not

a good deal of interest among Naturalists of made the matter impossible to him. That fact established, he was presented with a big medal late, and has even been the occasion of severe and a little pension, both of which he carried, censure upon one of our most intelligent, genchuckling, home to his wife.

erous ornithologists, we have thought it well The loom was adopted everywhere, except in Lyons. The Lyonnese could not believe that

to make room for a yet fuller discussion of the one of their own ignorant artisans had achiev- subject, that our readers may judge whether ed so great a triumph. They scoffed at Jac- the severe rebuke administered by Mr. Samuels quard and mobbed his house; they tore his machine to pieces, burnt the 'wood, and sold of Boston is really deserved, we herewith rethe iron for its weight. His wife died, and, in publish from the 6th volume of Transactions all his sorrows, not one hand was stretched

of the State Agricultural Society, just out of out in sympathy, not one compassionate word was spoken. He went away, heavy-hearted, press, the communication of Dr. Hoy, which to an isolated cottage, where he lived alone, is, in every important respect, identical with with his medal and his pension, and where he died, solitary and despised. When Lyons found

the one reviewed in the Harch No. that rival cities were excelling her in the qual- ' DR. Hoyt: I respond to your call by furity and rapidity of their manufactures, she nishing the following auticle, the substance of adopted the new loom too; but Jacquard was which was communicated to the Wisconsin not there to see,-the web of his life had been Nat. History Society. It is at your service, finished long before, --so the people, with tardy with the belief that it embodies facte that add repentance, said, “ Poor Jacquard !”-and put something to the stock of useful knowledge: up a bronze statue of him in the public square. There is a singular want of agreement in

Since then, many varied improvements, of the statements of writers, especially in the less importance, have been made, here and Agricultural Journals, in respect to the Sapthere, in both the manufacture and culture of sucker. One says the Sapsucker molests trees silk. There is hardly a civilized nation which only that are infested by worms-that the worms has not experimented, more or less, in both are what it is after, and nothing more. Anothpursuits; to see with what success, we need er, that the Sapsuckers are not in quest of only look at the present political position of worms but the vital juice of the tree—that this masterful insect, Bombyx. He clings they suck the sap of fruit trees and so on. with unchanging fondness to China, his own, These articles indicate the lack of close obserhis dear, his native land, and that empire fur- vation-of something definito by which we can determine what species of bird they refer horny tip is very much larger than in any to; for all of the spotted Woodpeckers, and other species, of the same size, with which I even including the Nuthatcher, are by many am acquainted; the point is rounded, unlike indiscriminately called Sapsuckers.

the sharp, lancet-like tip of the Downy, and A term so indefinitely applied should either Hairy Woodpecker, so well fitted to explore for be dropped or restricted to one species, the those worms that burrow in trees. The tongue yellow-bellied Woodpecker which not only is short and stout, admirably adapted for sucks the sap, but eats the inner bark, (liber,) scooping out the inner bark and viscid cambiof various ornamental, fruit, and forest trees. um, (the jelly-like substance which is to form

the new growth, situated between the wood and bark,) on which it subsists.

[graphic]

The SAPSUCKER (Picus varius).

The outline cut will explain the difference Description.—The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, between the tongues of the Hairy Woodpecker, (Picus varius of Naturalists,) is in length 82 figure 1, and that of the yellow-bellied speinches; expanse of wings 15 inches. The cies, figure 2; the two birds being nearly of whole crown and throat is a rich, deep scarlet the same size, the tongues are represented as red, bordered with black. From the nostrils being thrust out to their full length. In vastly there is a white stripe running down the sides the majority of Yellow-bellied Woodpeckers of the neck, curving slightly around the breast, the tongue is not capable of being extended which has a black spot in the centre. Wings more than from one-half to three-fourths of an black, with an oval spot of white: the prima- inch beyond the beak; while in other species ries tipperl and spotted with the same. Rump the tongue can be protruded from two to four white, bordered with black; belly yellow; inches. The stomach, or gizzard, is large and back dusky yellowish, waved and spotted with muscular. There are other anatomical peculiwhite.

arities, all, however, fitting it to procure and The female marked nearly as the male, but digest the bark on which it mostly lives. wants the scarlet throat, which is whitish. I Prof. Spencer F. Baird, of the Smithsonian

The young in October have the red mixed Institute, has recently constructed the new and mottled with brown.

genus Sphyrapicus, of which Picus varius is The tongue of this species is quite unlike constituted the type; a wise disposition, doubtthat of any other of our Woodpeckers; the less, for in habit and voice, as well as anatomically considered, this species differs widely cohol, “as my statements were highly interfrom all other of the so called spotted Wood- esting, being new to Science.” In compliance, peckers.

I shot a specimen while he was engaged in The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker is found breakfasting on a Silver-leafed Poplar; I also throughout North America, east of the Rocky chipped out that portion of the tree on which Mountains; north-west of the great lakes it is he was operating at the time. In answer, Prof. the most numerous species. They make their Leida stated that his dissections confirmed my appearance at Racine, Wis., suddenly in large statements in every particular. numbers after a warm night, about the 15th of I have described the migration as occurring April; for, like many other birds, Woodpeckers at Racine, which will answer equally well for migrate only during the night. Then comes most localities in the North-west, with the ex“prime boy-time;" armed with bow and arrow, ception of numbers, for it is an interesting cross-bows, guns, pistols and stones, all sorts fact that for physical reasons elsewhere exand sizes hurry to wage war against the “Sap-plained, birds are met in greater variety, and sucker ;” and so eager is the pursuit that it is in larger numbers, during their migrations, at sometimes difficult to determine which do the this point than in any other place, perhaps, in greater damage for the time, the boys or the North America. A statement amply proved birds. The Sapsuckers time is now divided by the large number of species in my cabinet, between playing bo-peep with the boys, and collected within ten miles of Racine. gouging out the tender bark of various trees;

Downy WOODPECKER—(Picus pubescens.) maple, cherry, peach, plum, apple, pear, mountain ash, poplar, pine, spruce, in fact almost

| The second species is in rather bad repute

The second eneries is in ro every species of tree suffers more or less. The

for its sapsucking propensity. It is more comholes are made on the trunk and large branch

monly called the Little Sapsucker, in contraes, usually in a line running around the tree

distinction to the Hairy Woodpecker (Picus or branch, so as to girdle it with a row of Willosus), whi

villosus), which it closely resembles in everypunctures. These are from one-sixth to one-thine

o one thing except size; even the same plick, plick, half an inch in diameter, and placed so close plip, is repeated, only in a more feeble voice. that there is only a narrow septum between, The Downy Woodpecker is only 64 inches in not sufficient, many times, to keep up the cir- | length, and 12 inches in expanse of wings culation and in consequence the tree dies; a Colorblack and white, spotted and streaked : result that occurs more frequently from wounds | the male has a small red spot on the back of thus made in the summer and fall, when the the head: female similar. without the red. divisions are more liable to dry, than during This little hardy species, together with the the spring when the active forces of vegetable arcer

of vegetable larger Hairy Woodpecker, remain with us durlife more readily repair the injury. There is ling the entire year. not an orchard or garden of any size in this

| The habits of this industrious, cheerful bird, vicinity, that does not number trees killed

have been severely commented upon by many; outright by these sapsucking Woodpeckers.

but I am of the opinion it has been made, unAll go further North by the 5th of May, except

justly, to answer for the sins of the Yellowsuch as remain to nest in the adjacent woods. The

8. bellied species. That the Downy Woodpecker While in the forest they feed on the bark of

does, during early spring, tap the maple for the wild cherry, iron wood, basswood, and

the purpose of slaking its thirst, I have had white oak, but continue to visit neighboring

occular demonstration, and that it makes many orchards for a more dainty meal, as they pre

small punctures in certain sweet apple-trees, fer thrifty cultivated trees. By the middle of

for which it pays rather frequent visits to the September the young appear in the orchards

orchard, I have but little doubt; yet I do know and gouge the trees on their own hook; they

that I have shot and dissected very many with retire South by the first of November. A si

the object of ascertaining the contents of the lent bird, especially when sucking their food,

stomach, and in no case have I found vegetable an occasional kewee, keweeah, uttered in a mi

matter; but in all instances I have found nor key, is all the note they have.

abundant evidence that the bird has been enI have shot and dissected many at all sea-gaged in a good work-in destroying the larvæ sons, and in every case bark was found in the of the borer and elators, that do so much injury stomach, and in a majority of instances noth- to our fruit and ornamental trees. ing but bark and a few gravel stones, a sub- There is one valuable office to which, so far stance not met with in other species of Wood- as I can learn, this species alone is engaged peckers. When insects were found they proved in; that is the destruction of the pupa of the to be ants and small beetles ; in no instance various species of Atacus, (the native silkhave I found the larva of the borers or elators, worm moths,) thereby keeping in check and which constitute so large a share of the diet preventing the undue multiplication of the of the Hairy and Downy Woodpecker. large, voracious larvæ of these splendid in

Several years since these facts were commu- sects. nicated to Prof. Joseph Leida, of Philadelphia, Prof. J. P. Kirtland, in his report on the who requested me to forward specimens in al- | Zoology of Ohio, condemns the Downy Wood

emo in

pecker for mischief-doing, and invokes that He has committed the blunder of applying this extermination I would call down on the Picus varius, and for similar reasons. But I must

sap-sucking quality to the wrong bird, and believe that the Professor has inspected the very naturally comes to the conclusion that Dr. work of the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, and Hoy is altogether mistaken. If he should tell charged the innocent with the damage. With all the evidence I have collected, in the four

us that squirrels do not eat nuts—he knows teen years my attention has been directed to they do not-because he has examined the the Woodpeckers, with the view of deciding stomach of a cat and finds in it only the mangled this matter, I would not dare recommend the destruction of the Downy Woodpecker; but, remains of a mouse--his argument would be instead, I would commend this bird to the kind about as conclusive as in the present case! protection of the Horticulturist, believing it to When Mr. Samuels examines the matter with be his best interest so to do.

Yours truly, P. R. Hoy. as much care, skill and thorough scientific acFrom a private letter just received from Dr. curacy, as Dr. Hoy has, he will find reason to Hoy, we venture to make the following pithy

apply to himself some of the harsh words he

has hurled at that naturalist. It will be found extract without further comment: “I do not know who this Mr. Samuels is ;

that he is himself the “educated man” who is but I do know that he is in great haste to re

teaching the “ignorant farmers” absurd docmind us of the West that we must be extremely

trines; though he is not a man who has the careful how we write or talk of things new,

reputation of being scientific, nor does he unless we first ask the Boston FOLKS, for what

“understand the subject of which he speaks.” ever is worth knowing must come from that

I. A. L. heaven-favored spot, where the shriveled leaves

Continental Money. of the Book of Nature can only be read with

The National Intelligencer says: “As we profit. The habits of the wild denizens of the

the wild denizens of the have repeatedly seen it stated that the contiwestern forests can only be studied with profit nental Congress, under the articles of confederain the Cabinets of Cambridge or the Museums

tion, exercised the right of declaring Treasury

notes lawful money, and made them a tender of Boston - Wonderful Samuel!! Great is in payment of debts, it may be proper to reBoston !!

mind the reader that this statement is somewhat

inaccurate. The Congress of that date had no "I shall not answer the article, for he is

power to enact any such law, but merely rebarking up the wrong tree. I have nothing to commended the legislatures of the several gay against the Picus villosus-one of my fa- States to adopt measures to this effect.

"In the journals of Congress, for January vorites. I wish I had a spare copy to send to 14th, 1777, we read that that body, on that him.

day, resolved itself into committee of the whole, "I will authorize you to say that I will ob

to take into consideration the state of the

Treasury and the means of supporting the ligate myself to pay the expense of Mr. Samuels credit of the continental currency, and, after from Boston to Racine and home again, if I some time spent thereon, the president resumed

the chair, and Mr. Nelson reported that they, fail to convince him of the truth of every

having had under consideration the matters to statement in my lecture.”

them referred, had come to sundry resolutions, which were then submitted and agreed upon.

The closing paragraph of the report was as Shall we Destroy the Sapsucker? follows: After this question had been fully settled by

"Let it be recommended to the legislatures of the

United States to pass laws to make the bills of credit is nurserymen, and others who have lost their sued by the Congress a lawful tender in payment of pub

lic and privato debts, and a refusal thereof an extinguishyoung and tender trees by the injury these I ment of such debts; that debts payable in sterling money

be discharged with continental dollars, at the rate of 43.6 I sterling per dollar; and that, in the discharge of all other

debts and contracts, continental dollars pass at the rate Dr. Kirtland of Cleveland, Dr. Hoy of Racine

fixed by the respective States for the value of Spanish

milled dollars.' and Dr. Leidy of Philadelphia, it is attempted

1 “In accordance with the recommendation to be again opened by Mr. E. A. Samuels of contained in these resolutions, continental Boston, in the March No. of the Wis. FARMER. 'money was made a legal tender in Connecticut

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