the purpose of showing the nation his confidence in the success of the plan. So high an example could not but be followed. Experience had proved a thorough teacher, and the process began anew and was carried on successfully.

Henry was as wise in religious as in political matters, and about this time he granted liberty of conscience to all his protestant subjects by the well known edict of Nantes. The majority of these protestants were found among the artisans and mechanic? of France; great numbers of them were silk weavers; and the fact, that after all their persecution they were guaranteed an unmolested life, infused a vigor and enthusiasm into their pursuits, which could never have been felt by men who were living under a public ban, or carrying a death secret in their hearts. The silk manufacture increased very rapidly, and so did the protestants. Within a century after the first planting of the mulberry trees, there were eighteen thousand looms in operation in Lyons alone. But alas, Louis the Fourteenth was now on the throne; —burdened with the knowledge that he fully deserved purgatory, and stimulated by the fear of being sent there, he could thinK of no other way so sure to atone for a myriad of court vices, as a good sharp persecution of heretics. Mass was good, but Massacre was better.

Four hundred thousand protestants poured out their life-blood to wash away the sins of the Grand Monarque; the sacrifice was sufficient, indeed it was more than enough; and to prevent a waste of so much merit, and bring forward his own end of the account, the king permitted himself a few small extra peccadilloes for the rest of his life. How the balance struck at last, is an item not to be found in the records of earth.

Four hundred thousand other protestants escaped, and of these, eighty thousand skillful workmen took refuge in England. The entire commerce of France was crippled, many of her trades were crushed out of existence, more than half of her silk weavers were gone, and the looms of Lyons had decreased to four thousand. After having deliberately parted with a large piece of her back-bone, France felt the need of the discarded vertebrie, and would fain have had it back again, but it was too late. The most solemn and brilliant promises could not induce the best artisans to return. England reaped a grand harvest in reward for her hospitality towards the exiles; many pursuits, hitherto unknown in Great Britain, were introduced and carried on by them, and the silk manufacture in particular, which up to that time had been extremely crude and imperfect, was brought to the highest perfection.

Nearly thirty thousand refugees settled in Spitalfielda or thereabouts, the majority of whom were weavers, penniless and homeless; they were at first relieved by an appropriation of Parliament, but their skill and diligence

soon placed them quite beyond all need of assistance; owing to them the silk trade prospered exceedingly, and by the year 1713 more than 300,000 persons maintained themselves by it. The children's children of these weavers still live where their forefathers established themselves. It is a weary life; all the bright hours of the day are spent in close application to the loom, for he must make silk while the sunshines; there is constant stooping of the back, constant moving of the arms, constant watching with the eyes, and even the feet must do their share of work.

The weaver grows pallid, and haggard, and bent, and his wife and children wear their lives away over the finer and smaller silk fabrications, tassels and gimps, and buttons, netted fringe and twisted cords.

In Lyons their life is, if possible, harder still. There, the ninety thousand weavers work from four in the morning till nine at night, crowded into great factories, that "resemble bee-hives, with their tiers of cells." Each cell has a window, and each window lights a machine. Vet, toilsome as these lives are, and striking as is the contrast between the sallow, crooked artisan, and the Hashing, brilliant-hued fabrics into which lie weaves his health and strength and life, their condition is a hundred times better than it was forty years ago. Until that time the silk looms were very complicated, and not only was the weaver himself compelled to ten-fold exertion, but their numerous cords and pedals required constant guidance. These must be managed by young children, under-grown women, or stunted boys. Whatever was very small, and very nimble, and yery uncomplaining, would answer. All day long, through weary, weary hours, the same distorted attitude must be retained; they grew blanched in the heavy shadow of the loom; they breathed a deathgiving atmosphere, composed of exhalations of machinery-oil, and feathery floating silk fuzz; they crouched, in painful, cramped positions, till nature gave up her struggle for straightness, and lay aggrieved and ashamed under many a crook and twist, that soon fastened the victim to a bed of sickness, or, more kindly, laid his body of pain in the grave. What philanthropists had sighed over in vain, was at last attained by a poor artisan, Joseph Marie Jacquard, "the child of the people, the child of the loom." He labored long and faithfully in silence; but his toil was crowned at last with success. A certain change in the form of the loom, a certain ingenious way of securing the threads, cancelled the need of more than one attendant for each machine, and greatly lightened the labors of that one. Jacquard was diffident and retiring, and had no knowledge of the means of securing public attention or favor; but he showed the result of his invention to one friend and another, and the piece of work passed as a curiosity from hand to hand, till at last it arrived at Paris. In the mean time Jacquard, busy about other things, had almost forgotten his own invention, and the new loom had long lain in a corner of his shop, broken and disordered, when suddenly he was summoned before the prefect of Lyons, and told to exhibit his machine. He demanded three weeks time to restore it to a working condition again, and, on the appointed day, presented himself and his loom for the prefect's inspection. This amiable functionary was delighted with it, more especially because he was able himself to continue the web which the weaver had set up. The machine was sent to Paris, and by the next mail came an order for the presence of the inventor. Governments have an untender way of conferring benefits; without a word of explanation, Jacquard was seized, in a maze of terror, c.-.rried post-haste to Paris, under the escort of a guard, and thrust suddenly into the presence of Napoleon and his minister, Carnot. The latter, with his usual bluntness, exclaimed, "Is this the man, then, who pretends to do what Heaven has made impossible,—tie a knot with a tight thread?" Quite appalled by the new and sacrilegious light in which his dear invention was held up to him, the poor weaver shook in his sabots, and could find nothing to say; but he put his machine in motion, and vindicated his aspersed piety by proving that Heaven had not made the matter impossible to him. That fact established, he was presented with a big medal and a little pension, both of which he carried, chuckling, home to his wife.

The loom was adopted everywhere, except in Lyons. The Lyonnese could not believe that one of their own ignorant artisans had achieved so great a triumph. They scoffed at Jacquard and mobbed his house; they tore his machine to pieces, burnt the wood, and sold the iron for its weight. His wife died, and, in all his sorrows, not one hand was stretched out in sympathy, not one compassionate word was spoken. He went away, heavy-hearted, to an isolated cottage, where he lived alone, with his medal and his pension, and where he died, solitary and despised. When Lyons found that rival cities were excelling her in the quality and rapidity of their manufactures, she adopted the new loom too; but Jacquard was not there to see,—the web of his life had been finished long before.—so the people, with tardy repentance, said, "Poor Jacquard !"—and put up a bronze statue of him in the public square.

Since then, many varied improvements, of less importance, have been made, here and there, in both the manufacture and culture of silk. There is hardly a civilized nation which has not experimented, more or less, in both pursuits: to see with what success, we need only look at the present political position of this masterful insect, Bombyx. He clings with unchanging fondness to China, his own, his dear, his native land, and that empire fur

nishes every year more than a third of the whole silk produce of the world. Italy stands next in the rank of cultivators, and from her vast cocooneries sends out one-fourth of the entire supply; France and India contribute each one-tenth; Japan, Persia and Spain give a lesser fraction, and the other nations come straggling after, with their smaller quotas. In our own country, twenty years ago, the annual crop was more than sixty thousand pounds of eocoons; ten years ago it was less than eleven thousand. In several other places the decrease has been almost as great, and manufacturers have quaked a little with fear of a diminished supply. But there is no ground for any such apprehension; the crop has lessened only in the most northern boundaries of its cultivation. The resources of China, Italy, India or Spain are not yet half developed, and there is no definite limit to the amount ef silk they might produce, if they were stimulated t» it by an increased demand.


The Sapsucker: Rare chance for a Bostoner to see the Great West without expense.

As the Sapsucker appears to have awakened a good deal of interest among Naturalists of late, and has even been the occasion of severe censure upon one of our most intelligent, generous ornithologists, wc have thought it well to make room for a yet fuller discussion of the subject, that our readers may judge whether the severe rebuke administered by Mr. Samuels of Boston is really deserved, we herewith republish from the 6th volume of Transactions of the State Agricultural Society, just out of press, the communication of Dr. Hoy, which is, in every important respect, identical with the one reviewed in the March No.

Dr. Hoyt: I respond to your call by furnishing the following ajticle, the substance of which was communicated to the Wisconsin Nat. History Society. It is at your service, with the belief that it embodies facts that add something to the stock of useful knowledge:

There is a singular want of agreement in the statements of writers, especially in the Agricultural Journals, in respect to the Sapsucker. One says the Sapsucker molests trees only that arc infestedby worms—that the worms are what it is after, and nothing more. Another, that the Sapsuckers are not in quest of worms but the vital juice of the tree—that they suck the sap of fruit trees and so on. These articles indicate the lack of close observation—of something definite by which we

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The Sapsdckeb (Picut variu»).

Description.-—The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, {Pictttt varius of Naturalists,) is in length 80 inches; expanse of wings 15 inches. The whole crown ami throat is a rich, deep scarlet red, bordered with black. From the nostrils there is a white stripe ruaning down the sides of the neck, curving slightly around the breast, which has a black spot in the centre. Wings black, with an oval spot of white: the, primaries tipped and spotted with the same. Hump white, bordered with black: belly yellow; back dusky yellowish, waved and spotted with white.

The female marked nearly as the male, but wants the scarlet throat, which is whitish.

The young in October have the red mixed and mottled with brown.

The tongue of this species is quite unlike that of anj- other of our AVoodpeckcrs; the

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The outline cut will explain the difference between the tongues of the Hairy Woodpecker, figure 1, and that of the yellow-bellied species, figure 2; the two birds being nearly of the same size, the tongues are represented as being thrust out to their full length. In vastly the majority of Yellow-bellied Woodpeckers the tongue is not capable of being extended more than from one-half to three-fourths of an inch beyond the beak; while in other species the tongue can be protruded from two to four inches. The stomach, or gizzard, is large and muscular. There are other anatomical peculiarities, all, however, fitting it to procure and digest the bark on which it mostly lives.

Prof. Spencer F. Baird, of the Smithsonian Institute, has recently constructed the new genus Sphyrapicus, of which rieus variut is constituted the type; a wise disposition, doubtless, for in habit and voice, as well as anatomically considered, this species differs widely from all other of the so called spotted Woodpeckers.

The yellow-bellied Woodpecker is found throughout North America, east of the Rocky Mountains; north-west of the great lakes it is the most numerous species. They make their appearance at Racine, Wis., suddenly in large numbers after a warm night, about the 15th of April; for, like many other birds, Woodpeckers migrate only during the night. Then comes "prime boy-time ;" armed with bow and arrow, cross-bows, guns, pistols and stones, all sorts and sizes hurry to wage war against the "Supsucker ;" and so eager is the pursuit that it is sometimes difficult to determine which do the greater damage for the time, the boys or the birds. The Sapsuckers time is now divided between playing bo-peep with the boys, and gouging out the tender bark of various trees; maple, cherry, peach, plum, apple, pear, mountain ash, poplar, pine, spruce, in fact almost every species of tree suffers more or less. The holes are made on the trunk and large branches, usually in a line running around the tree or branch, so as to girdle it with a row of punctures. These arc from one-sixth to onehalf an inch in diameter, and placed so close that there is only a narrow septum between, not sufficient, many times, to keep up the circulation and in consequence the tree dies; a result that occurs more frequently from wounds thus made in the summer and fall, when the divisions are more liable to dry, than during the spring when the active forces of vegetable life more readily repair the injury. There is not an orchard or garden of any size in this vicinity, that does not number trees killed outright by these sapsucking Woodpeckers.— All go further North by the 5th of May, except sueh as remain to nest in the adjacent woods. While in the forest they feed on the bark of the wild cherry, iron wood, basswood, and white oak, but continue to visit neighboring orchards for a more dainty meal, as they prefer thrifty cultivated trees. By the middle of September the young appear in the orchards and gouge the trees on their own hook; they retire South by the first of November. A silent bird, especially when sucking their food, an occasional kewee, keweeah, uttered in a minor key, is all the note they have.

I have shot and dissected many at all seasons, and in every case bark was found in the stomach, and in a majority of instances nothing but bark and a few gravel stones, a substance not met with in other species of Woodpeckers. When insects were found they proved to be ants and small bettles; in no instance have I found the larva of the borers or elators, which constitute so large a share of the diet of the Hairy and Downy Woodpecker.

Several years since these facts were communicated to Prof. Joseph Leida, of Philadelphia, who requested me to forward specimens in al

cohol, "as my statements were highly interesting, being new to Science." In compliance, I shot a specimen while he was engaged in breakfasting on a Silver-leafed Poplar; I also chipped out that portion of the tree on which he was operating at the time. In answer, Prof. Leida stated that his dissections confirmed my statements in every particular.

I have described the migration as occurring at Racine, which will answer equally well for most localities in the North-west, with the exception of numbers, for it is an interesting fact that for physical reasons elsewhere explained, birds are met in greater variety, and in larger numbers, during their migrations, at this point than in any other place, perhaps, in North America. A statement amply proved by the large number of species in my cabinet, collected within ten miles of Racine.

Downy Woodpecub(Picus pubescent.)

The second species is in rather bad repute for its sapsucking propensity. It is more commonly called the Little Sapsucker, in contradistinction to- the Hairy Woodpecker [Picus villosus), which it closely resembles in everything except size; even the same plick, plick, plip, is repeated, only in a more feeble voice.

The Downy Woodpecker is only fii inches in length, and 12 inches in expanse of wings — Color, black and white, spotted and streaked; the male has a small red spot on the back of the head; female similar, without the red.

This little hardy species, together with the larger Hairy Woodpecker, remain with us during the entire year.

The habits of this industrious, cheerful bird, have been severely commented upon by many; but I am of the opinion it has been made, unjustly, to answer for the sins of the Yellowbellied species. That the Downy Woodpecker does, during early spring, tap the maple for the purpose of slaking its thirst, I have had occular demonstration; and that it makes many small punctures in certain sweet apple-trees, for which it pays rather frequent visits to the orchard, I have but little doubt; yet I do know that I have shot and dissected very many with the object of ascertaining the contents of the stomach, and in no case have 1 found vegetable matter; but in all instances I have found abundant evidence that the bird has been engaged in a good work—in destroying the larvae of the borer and elators, that do so much injury to our fruit and ornamental trees.

There is one valuable office to which, so far as I can learn, this species alone is engaged in; that is the destruction of the pupa of the various species of Atacus, (the native silkworm moths,) thereby keeping in check and preventing the undue multiplication of the large, voracious larva) of these splendid insects.

Prof. J. P. Kirtland, in his report on the Zoology of Ohio, condemns the Downy Woodpecker for mischief-doing, and invokes that extermination I would call down on the Picut variut, and for similar reasons. But I must believe that the Professor has inspected the work of the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, and charged the innocent with the damage. With all the evidence I have collected, in the fourteen years my attention has been directed to the Woodpeckers, with the view of deciding this matter, I would not dare recommend the destruction of the Downy Woodpecker; but, instead, I would commend this bird to the kind protection of the Horticulturist, believing it to be his best interest so to do.

Yours truly, P. R. Hot.

From a private letter just received from Dr. Hoy, we venture to make the following pithy extract without further comment:

"I do not know who this Mr. Samuels is; but I do know that he is in great haste to remind us of the West that we must be extremely careful how we write or talk of things new, unless we first ask the Boston Folks, for whatever is worth knowing must come from that heaven-favored spot, where the shriveled leaves of the Book of Nature can only be read with profit. The habits of the wild denizens of the western forests can only be studied with profit in the Cabinets of Cambridge or the Museums of Boston—Wonderful Samuel!! Great is Boston!!

"I shall not answer the article, for he is barking up the wrong tree. I have nothing to say against the Picut villosus—one of my favorites. I wish I had a spare copy to send to him.

"I will authorize you to say that I will obligate myself to pay the expense of Mr. Samuels from Boston to Racine and home again, if I fail to convince him of the truth of every statement in my lecture."

Shall we Destroy the Sapsncker?

After this question had been fully settled by nurserymen, and others who have lost their young and tender trees by the injury these birds have inflicted, and by such naturalists as Dr. Kirtland of Cleveland, Dr. Hoy of Racine and Dr. Lei Jy of Philadelphia, it is attempted to be again opened by Mr. E. A. Samuels of Boston, in the March No. of the Wis. Farmer

He has committed the blunder of applying this sap-sucking quality to the wrong bird, and very naturally comes to the conclusion that Dr. Hoy is altogether mistaken. If he should tell us that squirrels do not eat nuts—he knows they do not—because he has examined the stomach of a cat and finds in it only the mangled remains of a mouse—his argument would be about as conclusive as in the present case!

When Mr. Samuels examines the matter with as much care, skill and thorough scientific accuracy, as Dr. Hoy has, he will find reason to apply to himself some of the harsh words he has hurled at that naturalist. It will be found that he is himself the "educated man" who is teaching the "ignorant farmers" absurd doctrines; though he is not a man who has the reputation of being scientific, nor does he "understand the subject of which he speaks."

Continental Money.

The National Intelligencer says: "As we have repeatedly seen it stated that the continental Congress, under the articles of confederation, exercised the right of declaring Treasury notes lawful money, and made them a tender in payment of debts, it may be proper to remind the reader that this statement is somewhat inaccurate. The Congress of that date had no power to enact any such law, but merely recommended the legislatures of the several States to adopt measures to this effect.

"In the journals of Congress, for January 14th, 1777, we read that that body, on that day, resolved itself into committee of the whole, to take into consideration the state of the Treasury and the means of supporting the credit of the continental currency, and, after some time spent thereon, the president resumed the chair, and Mr. Nelson reported that they, having had under consideration the matters to them referred, had come to sundry resolutions, which were then submitted and agreed upon. The closing paragraph of the report was as follows:

'"Let it be recommended to the legislatures of the United States to pass laws to make the bills of credit issued by the Congress a lawful tender in payment of public and private debts, and a refusal thereof an extinguishment of such debts; that debts payable in sterling money be dischargod with continental dollars, at the rate of 43.6 sterling per dollar; and that, in the discharge of all other debta and contracts, continental dollars pass at the rate fixed by the respective States for the value of Spanish milled dollars.'

"In accordance with the recommendation contained in these resolutions, continental money was made a legal tender in Connecticut

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