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The community of the bees is the first, the vades the community, and no dead bee is sufgreatest and best example in nature, of a per- fered to remain in the hive. fect community. In their harmony and good. The particular laws of instinct begin to govorder, mutual enterprise, and efforts to pro- ern the bee as soon as it quits its nymphal mote the general good, in their ardor of pursuit state, and is capable of action; and one uniin quest of stores to load their legs, back and form system of order regulates his movements, wings, and fit away to the store-house of com- in union with the whole swarm, throughout all mon deposit; and in their mutual aid in assist their instinctive operations. As well might the ing each other to unload their burdens, together wise man have said, “Go to the Bee, thou slugwith their wise economy in feeding out of the gard; consider her ways and be wise.” common stock.
W. H. MORRISON.
TROY, Wis. The community of the bee is not a republic, but a brotherhood; a monarchy with a com- | Age of Bees.-Many people say bees only munity of goods, and governed by a queen.-
live six months; now I have two hives, to each
of which I introduced a Ligurian queen, by The queen is not the tyrant of the swarm, but fumigating them in July, 1860. In October, I the mother of the swarm. She is not the dis- bought a swarm that had been already fumigapenser of laws to the swarm, but the subject
ted, to take the honey; I fumigated it to take
the queen away, and then added to it one of of the same fixed and immutable laws of na my Ligurian queens to strengthen her. Now, turę, which govern every bee in the swarm.
this is the 16th of September, and there is not
only a large number of English bees in the The bees know each other, and are armed Ligurian swarms, but also a great number in wieh a sting for common defence. They know
the old stocks, the Ligurians having swarmed
-one twice, and the other (that from which I their keepers, and generally respect them. took the Ligurian queen to add to an English They possess natural disgusts, which have not stock) three times. Now there is a large qua
tity of bees alive that must be more than a yet been fully accounted for, and attack and
year old ; and not only are they that age, but sting the objects of this disgust wherever they many of them have been fumigated twice. As meet them, invariably. The bee is very saga- | I am not clever enough with bees to take the
queen away without fumigation, I generally cious in judging of the weather, and avoids
use it, and have found, when carefully done, the storm by retiring to her hive, or sheltering very little loss, and after a day or so the bees herself under the foliage of plants and trees. seem to have quite recovered.-London Field.
The whole swarm manifests an affectionate 19" I once, in searching for a young queen, attention to the queen mother, unexampled in placed the frame on which she was too near
the next frame and not in the position I found nature; and are constantly employed for her it. The queen at the time had her head in a support and preservation. The natural period cell. The comb at that point projected a great of the life of the bee is not yet known; but
deal. Two days after this, I searched again
for the queen, to show her to a friend, I found they are more generally the victims of the cas- her in the position in which I last saw her, ualties of nature than of old age. The dysen-(nearly starved, and past recovery.
Colonies infested with worms are often seen tery is the most common and fatal malady, and |
carrying out imperfect and mutilated bees.they destroy by violence all the lame and in- E. P., in American Bee Journal. firm, together with the drones, by banishing them from the hive, thus illustrating the sacred
Novel EXPERIENCE.-A young man named
Hunter, living some six miles east of Polk maxim, “ He that will not work, neither shall | City, on the prairie, where trees and fences he eat,” with the addition of their own natural were wanting, was the other day placed in a law, “He that cannot work, neither shall he
rather trying position. A large swarm of bees
seeking a resting place, settled upon his pereat.” The first is perfectly conformable to the son, completely covering his legs and body. principles of humanity, and common sense: In this condition he walked to the house, some
100 rods distant, where, obtaining a box, the the latter is repugnant to both.
bon. A general, as bees were successfully hived, without injuring
A general, as well as a particular system of cleanliness, per- him.--Des Moines Journal.
Look to the Apiary---January. lay it on gently but plentifully, and if there is Hives that are to remain out doors during no snow on the ground, all the more. Cover the severe weather of this month, should be the strawberry beds lightly; they are all right well ventilated, or they will smother; notice now, but may kill out in March or April, withthem occasionally to see that the air passages o
out some shading. are not closed by dead bees, frost or ice.
Grape vines can still be pruned; and the first Whenever the weather moderates, turn back mild weather should be improved to prune, and the hive, and clean the floor thoroughly, as cover them with litter when thrown on the much filth will accumulate. Endeavor to have ground. Cuttings and scions can not well be the hives so situated that the sun will strike
made now, but do it in mild weather; do not them during the middle of the day. If guard
cut when frozen.
If you have trees or shrubs of any descriped from mice, no trouble need be taken to shovel them out when they happen to get |
tion which are tender, and not easily covered buried in the snow.
with mulch, bind long straw around the trunks,
wind with old cloths, mats, or even paper. An Those that are in the cellar or house should
excellent way to treat tender, long bodied remain unmolested, unless it is to notice that mice or rats gain no access; small pieces of
trees, is, to tack two strips of lath or boards comb are sure indications of their presence.
together in the form of a trough, and bind
against the sunny side of the trunk; or, in Keep the air pure and sweet by scattering air
other words, make a north side all around, by slaked lime upon the floor. W. H. Morrison.
shading the sunny side. Trees on the north
side of a fence, building, grove or hill, generTHE HORTICULTURIST. ally escape injury, while those upon the sunny
side suffer severely, from the great changes of A.G. HANFORD, : : CORRESPONDING EDITOR.
atmosphere to which they are subject in the
latter part of winter. Orchard and Fruit Garden.---Winter Protection.
Protection from rabbits is secured in several As much as we said in the last volume on
ways: First, by binding with straw, &c., as this subject, we wish still to urge upon the at
mentioned above. Another very simple and tention of gardeners and fruit growers the neces
efficient way, is to bind three or four cornsity of protection to half hardy, and even har
stalks round the trunk, at the ground. Another dy trees and plants from the extremes and sud
antidote for their tree-loving appetites, is to den changes of the weather during the winter,
thoroughly rub a dead rabit upon the trunk, and especially after the first days of January.one animal being found sufficient for a number But little damage is done before this time, as of trees. This was recommended to us by a the oblique rays of the sun have little effect friend who had faithfully tried it for two years, upon the dormant vegetation.
in a locality terribly infested with rabbits and We must say, that in all our experience in mice, and he assured us that it was efficient. the West, we have never before seen the wood Further, we know nothing, but would commend of trees and plants go into winter quarters so it to trial by persecuted fruit growers. well ripened, and so full of constitutional vigor. We have noticed that rabbits are partial to But when the bright suns of February and pears, and some other varieties of vigorous, March shall come, there will be some suffering, soft wooded trees. These should be looked to unless we have an unusual amount of snow and first. uniform weather.
Rabbits, as well as mice, are not commonly To prepare for the worst is policy. Begin fond of tobacco; an occasional wash with a by thoroughly mulching with straw manure, strong decoction will prevent their depredaor litter, the door-yard shrubs and garden fruits; ( tions. Do not use any sort of grease, or tar,
during winter ; it can be safely applied only
Winter Pears. during the period of growth in the spring and
Everybody is familliar with the old cooking summer. Yet, a stiff varnish applied would varieties of
varieties of winter pears, “the Pound,” or not injure trees any time.
" Winter Bell," and " Black Worcester.” Many The simple reason why grease cannot be ap
suppose all winter pears are of the same charplied safely during winter, is that the fluids acier are nearly dormant, and consequently the! There are quite a number of long keeping, grease would gradually penetrate to the cambi- fine dessert sorts, which only need to be known um-or inner bark—and forever prevent the to become popular. flow of sap therein; but the same application There is no mystery or peculiar skill requirmade during the flow of sap, in the spring ed io manage and ripen them; they should be and summer, would be harmless-like greasing | suffered to hang upon the trees as long as they a wet boot.
J. C. PLUMB. are safe from frost. Pick carefully, so as not
I to break the stems or bruise the fruit; place Valuable Contributions Promised.
| in tight boxes or barrels, and keep in a dry, We deem ourselves fortunate in having been cool cellar, until the usual season of ripening. able to engage the services of A. G. HANFORD, | Remove in such quantities as may from time Esq., late of Waukesha, and so favorably known to time be desired, to a warm room, a few days to our readers and to all fruit-growers in the
ne before wanted for use. West, as a corresponding Editor of the Horti
It may be observed thai no fruit shows the efcultural department of the FARMER. His con
fect of culture more plainly than the pear. There tributions are always reliable and of a great
is as much difference in the ripening and quality value, and the readers of the Farmer will be
between the well grown fruit of a properly glad to learn that his removal from the State cultivated tree and that of another left to starhas not deprived them of his instructions and
vation and neglect, though of the same variety, suggestions. The following letter announces
as is observable in any garden vegetables his assent to propositions made :
subjected to similar treatment. De. J. W. HOYT, Dear Sir:-In reply to your Brief descriptions of a few varieties may inrequest, I would say that you may give your terest your readers. readers to expect a monthly article from me
Leurre d'Aremberg.–Fruit, medium to large, according as time and circumstances will obovate, skin thick, yellow with light russet, permit.
flesh white, buttery, melting, juicy; flavor, It is true, I have had much observation in
rich, sprightly vinous. Tree, a good grower, the North west, and a good deal of dear-bought
very productive, requires high culture,, ripens experience.
| in November and December. The lessons thus acquired, I would most
Glout Morceau.--Fruit, large obtuse pyracheerfully give to others. Wisconsin is already indebted to Ohio for
form, skin smooth greenish yellow, with many many of her hardiest trees and finest orchards.
greenish specks, flesh white, fine grained, meltI find growing here some other excellent varie-ing and buttery, with an agreeable sweet rich ties of apples which are unknown with you.
flavor. Tree, a thrifty, fine grower and good Then too we have in cultivation a large list of
bearer, suited to strong soil and high culture, ornamental trees, shrubs and flowering plants,
succeeds admirably upon the quince. Season,
November to January some of which will be new to the readers of the
Vicar of Winkfield.–Fruit, large, long pyriFARMER. Notices of these will be given from
form, showy and handsome, skin smooth, pale time to time, with general hints on planting, care and culture.
yellow, sometimes with a brownish cheek.-Very truly yours, A. G. HANFORD.
Flesh white, juicy, with a sprightly flavor. COLUMBUS, Ohio, Dec. 16th, 1861,
This is a fine cooking, and often, though not
always, a good dessert fruit. Tree vigorous on Illinois State Horticultural Society. both pear and quince, hardy and exceedingly | Being a self-constituted committee from Wigproductive. ;. blossom buds seem a little consin to report the good deeds of the Minois tender, and in tl north, after several winters, Fruit men in council, in Chicago, Dec. 3d to 6th the crop often fails. Elsewhere it is regarded inclusive, it is with pleasure we accept your as a profitable market variety.
request to publish our short and simple "say" Our trees at Waukesha yielded a moderate in the Farmer. The attendance at the above crop in 1860, and a heavy one the past season, I named
season, named meeting was good, and we should think which is now ripening, and are unusually fully
uany fully equal to any of the preceding annual fine. November to January.
meetings. Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and WisLawrence.-Fruit rather large, long obovate, consin
consin, were represented in the council by one yellowish green, flesh yellowish white, juicy, from the two former, two from the second, and melting, rich, sugary, excellent. Tree, mode
six or more from your own State. Those from rate grower, shoots rather slender, very pro-Labroad were principa
abroad were principally hearers, while those of ductive, does finely on either pear or quince. — Minois were doers of the work and word in November to January.
the good cause they so nobly represent. A Passe Colmar.-Fruit, large obovate, to ob
whole souled set of men they are too; ever tuse pyriform, pale yellowish white, juicy and
willing to “impart what little they know" of buttery, sweet, rich, aromatic. Tree vigorous,
any value to the brotherhood, and in spite of making long straggling shoots, inclined to
their invaluation of their knowledge, much overbear. Fruit should be thinned, and the
valuable thought did escape from their “cratree receive high culture. Succeeds well on
neums ;? which, like the silent drippings of quince. November to January.
the sanctuary, is destined to do good--someWinter Nelis.--Fruit, medium round obovate,
oborate, time. We wished that every orchadists (as well yellowish green when ripe, with much russet ;
as those who would be) in Wisconsin were flesh yellowish white, fine grained, melting there to
memm there to hear of the troubles and discourageand juicy, rich, sugary and aromatic. One of
ments of the fruit growers, even far towards the best of winter pears. Tree thrifty, shoots
the Sunny South. I would say to one and all slender, straggling; an early, good and regu
who think this is “not a Fruit State,” that lar bearer. Should always be grown as a
we are far ahead of Northern and Central Illistandard, as it does not succeed on the quince.
nois in point of soil, aspects and protection. December to January. A. G. ILANFORD.
It was the universal opinion that the last COLUMBUS, Dec. 16, 1861.
named was absolutely necessary to many fruits The Borer and the Sapsucker.
in winter, especially grapes and peaches.Mr. Editor:-I observed in the April No. Pears, particularly the dwarfs, and cherries of 1861 a new mode of saving trees from the were much benefitted thereby, and apples, ravages of the borer. All information relative to
with all the rest, would thankfully receive a the destruction of that pest, ought to be gratefully received by every orchardist. Having thorough mulching winter and summer. discovered the borer in some of my apple trees The Grape discussions were full of interest. the past summer, and having tried the probing
Delaware, Concord, and Diana, were lauded system, and all remedies suggested, without any apparent effect I tried the following, most. A fact was brought out in regard to the by way of experiment, which I believe has
growth of the Delaware of much value, viz.: proved effectual: I took with me to the orchard a pipe and tobacco, lit the pipe, and then put
That while the young plant brought here from the stem into a hole I had previously bored another climate is universally of slow growth, with a half inch anger, and then blowing into frequently hard to make live at all,--these the bowl of the pipe forced the smoke into the
same plants, layered, as soon as new growth is hole made by the borer, and I have not seen anything of the borer since. J. Roberts.
made sufficiently, (which requires but two or RIDGEWAY, Nov. 26, 1861.
three eyes) and you have a plant full of vigor, ly killed.
adapted to the Western soil, climate, and hard- Milwaukee, made the best display of pears, ships-a plant which will grow with almost and it was a display, well worth the name; the any known sort, while the parent plant, with grandest specimens the wi dTever saw for the equal care and soil, too often “grows beauti- number, nearly twenty, (aid he thinks he has fully less." Concords were admired by all for seen the sights). Plumb, Willey & Co., Vine quality, hardiness and fine appearance of fruit. Hill Nursery, showed twenty-five sorts of apples, Diana not so thoroughly tested, but met with and Dr. Hoy, of Racine, apples and pears, much praise.
which made up all from out of Illinois. Deep and thorough cultivation was deemed
The address of welcome from C. D. Bragdon, indispensable, trenching to an equal amount in
President of Chicago Gardner's Society, and depth in the sub-soil with the surface soil, and
the President's Inaugural and Valedictory mixing all together thoroughly. In this mix
combined, were things of interest in the first ture grape cuttings rooted well and vines with
day's history, and will be of interest to read stood the drouth, and more than all, the roots
hereafter. Dr. Hoy delivered an address the would get down more effectually out of the way
" second evening on “sap-suckers” and other of the frost, and hence winter better. Too
insects injurious to fruit trees, well worth a heavy fruiting is often allowed. By thinning
vice in every orchardists library, and then to the fruit and leaving all the vine growth be
be studied, too. yond the fruit, will hasten the ripening process
Then last if not least in the programme was several days.
the entertainment by the Messrs. Gage Brothers Strawberries had a severe handling, but they
of the Tremont, who, with their usual generall came out none the worse for it, while a few
osity, invited the Illinois State Horticultural had their garments cleansed and their colors
Society to their repast on Friday. brightened. Wilson's Albany, “ the berry for the people,” is getting a little sour-else some
Though many members had gone home, and of the strawberry growers had their teeth set
our numbers were much reduced, still about on edge by some still worse-and now have no forty-five accepted the invitation. The bill of hope of a “smooth run" on any thing short of
fare was all that could be wished, and the the Triomphe de Grande. Many efforts were
wine, pure Catawba from several vintages, was made to displace the Wilson from the general
certainly “not bad to take.” Several toasts list, but to no avail; it is yet the plant for the
were drank and responded to by Messrs. M. L. masses—a large, abundant bearer, tenacious Dunlap, Chase, Bragdon, Menere, and others. of life, and does well everywhere. Evidently
The whole thing passed off in good style, and somebody's pockets needed a new hobby to much to the satisfaction of all concerned. ride on. Wilson is too common—not much sale.
0. S. WILLEY. Hooker was thought best for amateurs, and all who would serve for it; rather a shy bearer,
How to Destroy Bark Lice. but fruit of super-excellent quality. Triomphe I will give you a better receipt than coal tar de Grande, and many other foreign sorts, were for Bark Lice: strongly urged, but most of the Society proved Burn roll sulphur with old scraps of leather, “ know-nothings” with foreigners (strawber- under the trees to be treated, in a pan, moving ries).
it about so as to smoke thoroughly every twig Dwarf Pearg.—Plant so that the union comes affected. I have tried this when all else failed, below the ground. If budded too high so as and found it effectual. It is done to the best to necessitate planting the roots too deep, re- advantage when the leaves begin to start; for move the lower portion of them; cut back, then these pests are most lively, and most easiand mulch thoroughly.
N. F. Thomas. The show of fruit was fine; Col. Crocker, of' BURNETT Station.