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sist of three divisions and to be commanded by Brig. Gen. Keyes.
2d. That the divisions now commanded by the officers above assigned to the command of corps shall be embraced in and form part of their own corps. .
3d. The forces left for the defenee of Washington, will be placed in command of Brig. Gen. Jag. S. Wadsworth, who shall also be military governor of the District of Columbia.
4th. That this order be executed with such promptness and dispatch as not to delay the commencement of the operations directed to be undertaken by the army of the Potomac.
5th. A fifth army corps to be commanded by Maj. Gen. N. P. Banks, will be formed from his own division and Gen. Shield's (late Gen. Lander's) division.
[Signed] Abraham Lincoln.
Executive Mansion, \
Washington, March 11,1862. ( President's War Order, No. 3.
Maj. Gen. McClellan having personally taken the field at the head of the army on the Potomac, until otherwise ordered, he is relieved from the command of the other military departments, he retaining the command of the department of the Potomac.
Ordered, further, that the two departments now under the respective command of Generals Halleck and Hunter, together with so much of that of Gen. Buell's which lies west of a north and south line indefinitely drawn through Knoxville, Tennessee, be consolidated and designated the department of the Mississippi, and that until otherwise ordered Maj. Gen. Halleck have command of said department.
It is ordered, also, that the country west of the Department of the Potomac, and east of the Department of the Mississippi, be a Military Department, and that the same be commanded by Maj. Gen. Fremont; that all commanders of departments, after the receipt of this order, respectively report, severally and directly, to the Secretary of War, and that prompt and frequent reports will be expected of all. [Signed] Abraham Lincoln.
There is scarcely a rebel State over which the Stars and Stripes do not now float in triumph; and the work of planting it anew is still going forward gloriously. In Tennessee, Andrew Johnson is, by appointment of the President, Provisional Governor, and he firmly tells the people that their rebellion shall be crushed, even though slavery should require to be wiped out as a means to that end.
Congressional.—Congress has been very active during the past month, thought but few acts have been passed. The Tax Bill is being rapidly perfected. We shall publish a synop
sis of it as soon as it becomes a law. An appropriation of $15,000,000 for the building of iron clad gun boats has been made, and a law has been passed forbidding, under heavy penalties, the return of escaping slaves by any officer of the army. A bill for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia is in agitation.
The President has sent in a message recommending the initiation of measures to aid any of the Slave States who may desire it, to emancipate their slaves. The following is the resolution he offers for their adoption:
"Resolved, That the United States ought to cooperate with any State which may adopt a gradual abolishment of Slavery, giving to such State pecuniary aid to be used by such State in Its discretion, to compensate for the inconveniences, public and private, produced by such change of system."
Off for the World's Fair.—Ere the issue of another number of the Farmer, the Editor will have started on his mission to the Great Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations. He goes not for pleasure or mere personal advantage, but for the purpose of gaining all possible information calculated to be useful to the industry of this country—more particularly the industry of the Northwest.
The Exhibition will be our great study, though at convenient intervals of time we shall dash off into the country and make an inspection of the manufacturing, mining and agricultural districts. During the three or four months of our absence we shall prepare material for the Farmer the same as if we were at home in our sanctum —practical articles for the various departments and letters giving an account of matters connected with tho objects of our mission—and as wo havo arranged with a competent and experienced gentleman to have immediate supervision of the correspondence and the 'making up' of the paper, it is believed that our going will be an important advantage.
All communications intended for publication should be directed, as heretofore, to .T. W. Hoyt, Editor, Madison.
Communication* received from W. M. Lee, Thos. Sears and J. Edi, but too late for publication in their proper olace, will appear in next number.
Harris on Insects.—We have elsewhere spoken of tbia most excellent treatise on "Insects Injurious to Vegetation." the best, we have no hesitation in saying, that has ever ppeared on the subject, when its great practical value is considered in connection with its high scientific character. We should be glad to wo it placed in the hands of every farmer, particularly of every farmer who has children to educate. It would exert n vast influence in spreading abroad a higher knowledge and wider interest in natural history and do untold good in the future agricultural interests of the country.
Let it bo placed, therefore, within the reach of the young, In every school library and in every family library. No book could be more suitable to offer as premiums by the agricultural societies. This mode of awarding premiums has many advantages over the ordinary one of small money premiums. Books are kept, laid upon the farmer's table, read by his children, taken up by every caller, and thus they are constantly carrying out the objects of a society, while they are a perpetiud advertisement of its existence and objects. This is especially the case of each book so awarded, has a Diploma attached, signed by the President and Secretary. A very beautiful and appropriate Diploma, has been engraved at great expense, with special reference to this volume on Insects and the other well known works of the Editor—Milch Cows and Dairy Farming, and Grasses and Forage Plants, and these Diplomas are furnished to societies ordering copies of these works, for this purpose, fret of cost, a Diploma being attached within each copy, with suitable blanks left to be filled up according to circumstances.
When small money premiums are paid out, they go into the farmer's pocket with other money, and are spent, leaving no trace of the society and no memorial of the farmer's success. A good book goes out on its useful mission, with the official seal of tho society In the form of a neat and tasteful Diploma, exerting its silent, permanent and powerful influence in the community, especially upon the young, and helps develope and improve the agriculture and horticulture of the country and to awaken a taste and interest in reading and study.
If it be objected that many men would prefer the amount, however small, in money, it may with equal truth, be said that within a week after a good book Is received In this way, even if not satisfactory at first, it would bocome a source of pride and satisfaction, not only because the recipient gets his money's worth, and, in addition, a beautiful diploma, but because he has something to show for what he has done, something to hand down to posterity
Every agricultural aud horticultural society In Massachusetts has offered Harris on Insects, liberally, as premiums, and most, if not all, the agricultural societies offered the work on Grasses, nearly three hundred copies of which were thus awarded the last year by them, and also many copies of the Dairy Book. In each of these volumes, this beautiful Diploma was attached.
We commend this subject to the serious thought and attention of the officers of agricultural and horticultural
societies in this State, aod hope it will lead to good result- and stop the practice of scattering money in little driblets, which every one, who has had any experience in the distribution of inch premiums, must see the folly of. See article on page 146 and send to Crosby A Nichols,
Boston, fur tho book".
Write for the Farmer.—We hope oar agricultural friends who have been accustomed to enlighten the readers of the burmtr upon subjects of practical interest relating to their vocation, have not become so absorbed in the prevailing war excitement as to abandon the use of the goose-quill altogether. Let us hear frem you! In the language of the Ohio Cultivator, we say to all:
"Give us field news, stock news,horse talk,cattle talk, hog talk, bear talk, turkey talk, fox talk, duck and goose talk, always giving preference to the more useful and substantial items in the above list. Write early, write often, and continue to write.
Take up your rusty pens, 01 ye Cattle Kings, ye Horse men, ye Shepherds of bill and plain, ye Dairy men and women, ye Wheat growers, Corn growers, Grass growers, ye Apple Kings and iiarden diggers, ye men and women of the rose tree au-1 tho pansy bed, ye lovers of the grape and the juices thereof, ye Nimrods of the bush and the saddle, yc Women of the gridiron and the frying pan, who know the mysteries of broiled quail and lordly steaks, and such generous dishes as make us stout and good natured."
Again we say, write! Give the pith of what you have to say, tho marrow, the quintessence. In these times the world won't stop to read long, prosy articles, however well written; therefore squeeze your ideas into the smallest practicable compass. If you can't write In the best rhetorical style, never mind: we want ideas, experiences, and will onrself put them in dress, if they need it, after you have done your best.
The State Agricultural Rooms will be accessible to the public during business hours, noi withstanding our absence, and all business communications will receive the prompt attention of our assistant in charge. The preliminary work for the State Fair will have been done before our leave, and we shall return in time to resume the more important of our remaining duties in connection therewith. * .*.
Garden, Field and Flower Seeds.—S. W.
Hubbell, successor to W. D. Potter, with whom he was associated last year, is again ready at No. 21 King street, Madison, with a fine assortment of seeds of nearly every description. His stock h decidedly the largest and best that wo have ever seen offered in Madison, and we hop© the people of the rity and vicinity will liberally patronize his establishment. Persons at a distance may order with an assurance that their communications will receive prompt attention. Tho postago on seeds, under the new law, it will be remembered is only 1 ct. an ounce.
Seedi for our Working Friends.—We aro
about receiving a lot of choice seeds of various kinds, which wo propose to distribute to such of our best friends as may especially desire and deserve them. Will send theai without order and at our own expense, as soon as they come to hand.
Agricultural JournalH,—Mr. Editor:—Being, a practical farmer myself, I have long noticed the ill effects of the absence of a good agricultural Journal In our neighborhood, and with a view to their palliation have recently obtained copies of the leading journals of the country; and after a careful examination, I most conclude that to the wants of the practical farmer of this State, the Wis. Farmex is best adapted. With this opinion I recommend it to our neighbors, with as yet, but indifferent success. Their general excuse is, "hard times are upon us, we must economise." So say I, but not with the idea that economy consists in cutting off our greatest source of profit. I am of the opinion that agriculture, notwithstanding the contempt with which it is regarded
by a certain class of 1 had nearly said human beings,
is one of tho most independent, honorable and healthful pursuits; and yet the deepest science which the genius of man has yet penetrated the energies of our most talented men havo been called forth in its study, and still there is scope for genius which man has not known; centuries to come will not bring it to perfection, yet the nearest approach must evidently be through the combined experience of practical fanners. Let each pursue his own course of experiment, and if successful, publish It that others may profit by it. Since their experiments tend In different directions, it becomes necessary to exchange ideas, and for this purposo, tho Yiis. Farmxr seems well adapted. For the many valuable opinions It contains, the result of much observation and experiment, we can recommend It to all readers. Hence we say that to sub* scribe for an Eastern paper for the sake of the politics it contains, and dispense with the Farmer, is not only bad policy, but a breach of duty to our country. Remember brother farmers, that the strongest resource of a nation is Its agriculture and Its ablest supporters the hands which hold the plough. John Rhodes.
Brighton, Kenosha County, Wit.
Hamburg Poland Urns—Who has them?
—I wish to procure somo hens of a better breed than the common barn-yard fowls, and not finding them in this part of the country, propose getting them at Madison, if they are to be obtained thero. Could you procure, or put me on the track so that I could procure, somo " Poland" hens in your place? If so, what would be the probable cost of them, apiece, thcro?
If possible, a "Hamburg'' cock, and white. Crested "Poland" hens would he preferred. Gko. B. Mcrrick.
Red Onion Seed.—I wish to get some Red Onion Seed that can be depended upon. Would prefer that from Weathersficld, Oonn., as it has been proven to be good. I also wish a small quantity of Imphee seed. Where can I obtain them I What will be the cost, and how much should I plant to the acre? John Johnson.
Lonk Rock, Wis.
Good Sorghum Seed.—For the benefit of an enquirer for good Sorghum Seed, I will say that hut year I obtained a little seed and planted on trial about ton days after planting my field crop. It got thoroughly ripe, suckers and all, before frost; while my field crop did not ripen at all. This is the only cane I have ever had that has produced syrup that would grain. Should think it two or three weeks earlier than the common cane which was some years since distributed from the Farmer office. I have a small quantity for sale, and it can also be obtained at the store of A. Garland, at Monticullo, and at the seed store in Munnte. I have also a quantity of the common kind. Thomas Sxaxs.
[You cau get it any of the Seed Stores advertised in the Farmer. Amount por acre, 2 to 3 pounds.]
Dr. Uott,—Dear Sir:—I should like to know where cranberry vines could be got, and at what price. If you will be kind enough to give me some Information on the above, you will greatly oblige. Edw. Hassk.
Milwaukee, March 11, 62.
[We are not in possession of the desired information, but presume some reader of the Farmer is and will hare plea&ure in notifying our friend H. by letter.]
Erratum.—Instead of "A. G. H." on page 143, read H. A. C.
NOTICES OP NEW ADVERTISEMENTS.
The attention of our readers Is especially called to tho advertisement of the Seed Warehouse of J. M. Thorburn A Co., New York. Their** is probably the largest establishment of the kind In this country, and their long experience in the business and their eminent success are good evidence that they are worthy of patronage.
Among the seed dealers in our own State—who, other things being equal, should always have the preference— we know of none more worthy of confidence than Thos. Hlslop, Esq., proprietor of the Wisconsin Seed Store, Milwaukee. He keeps a good assortment and has the credit of being accommodating, reliable and prompt.
See advertisement of Early African Imphee Seed by J. C. Plumb, well known to our readers.
E. B. Quim-r, Ksq.,has established a general War Claim Agency, in which all persons entitled to soldier's pay, pensions, bounty money or anything of tho kind cannot fail to be interested. Mr. Q. has had considerable experience in tb-'se matters and is possessed of unusual facilities for the transaction of such buslneess. We cordially recommend his agency to tho soldiers and citizens of this State,
The Eagle Works Manufacturing Company, Chicago, manufacture somo of the best machinery for agricultural, milling, su^ar-making and other purposes that can be found in this or any other country. See advertisement.
Mr. Powers talks to the public again, in our advertia
Work for May.
May is the month of sunshine, of green grass and springing flowers—the poet's month. But it is also the farmer's month—the season of labor. If its days are not filled full of the work of preparation—of plowing, seed-sowing and planting, but little may be expected in the golden autumn but bitter disappointment.
The preparation of the soil for crops of every kind should be thorough; no work on the farm pays so good an interest in the investment. A third more labor expended in plowing, harrowing and rolling, will often double the yield of the crop.
Manures—Don't be sparing of them in garden or field. Let some of the precious foods they offer to the plant vanish in them and escape to neighboring fields—that is unless you exceed the measure of Scripture benevolence and love your brother farmers better than yourselves.
Corn has proven a good crop, better than all wheat. Don't fail to give it its just proportion of area and labor. In many localities the Dent succeeds perfectly; others, theAVebster, King Philip and kindred varieties do better. Read article in last number in relation to hastening germination and preventing destruction of the seed by gophers. All things considered, check-rowing or planting in hills is better than drilling. It allows the sun to do its work more effectually and admits of more thorough cultivation, without which it would be better not to plant at all.
Give the potato crop your waste ashes. It will pay you well for the trouble. Our experience favors the use of the best for seed—but
little difference whether whole or cut. Plant in drills so as to dig with potato digger. The Carter, the Tinkeye and the Meshannock are favorite varieties. The Prince Alb^-t ranks No. 1, wherever known, and is sure of a wide popularity, when more generally introduced.
Deans will be in great demand, at least so long as the war lasts. Brain-recruiting and muscle-forming are superior diet for persons whose nervous force is subject to severe tax. They can be grown on a poor quality of land and pay well.
Horses.—It is inevitable that they should bo in greater demand than for years before the war. Immense numbers will be killed, crippled and used up, while the uses to which they have been accustomed to be put will be, in no respect, diminished. It would be well to breed extensively—and from horses of the best blood. The policy which prompts so many of our farmers to employ cheap "stock horses" is of the same class with that which would recommend an inferior quality of seed because of a less price. It costs no more to raise a fine animal than a mean and worthless scrub.
Other stock.—The same course of reasoning is applicable to stock of all other kinds. Now is the time to think of it, and now is the time to aot upon our suggestions.
Trees—Evergreen, Fruit and Shade—Now is the time to plant them. Don't omit it. Secure the best and plant in the best manner.
The Garden.—Who is not fond of the vegetables and fruits which are properly grown in the garden—the lettuce, the radishes, fresh and earthy, the asparagus, the spinach, the beets and onions, the summer squashes, cucumbers and melons, the early green peas, potatoes anil sweet-corn, gooseberries and all the rest of the luscious, wholesome berries? And yet how few farmers are well provided with them.— Words like these we have said again and again, until some of our readers have doubtless wearied of them. Well we are equally tired of your unpardonable procrastination and neglect.— When you stop sinning we shall stop preaching repentance—not before.
The Mechanical Condition of the Soil Favorable for the Growth of Agriculture
The last Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society contains a Prize Essay on this subject, from Professor Tanner, of Queen's College, Birmingham. We give some extracts below:
The conditions which control the growth of sccda are, the presence of air, moisture and warmth; and, to produce healthy germination, all are required in definite proportions.
In regard to tho preparation of land for wheat, Prof. Tanner thinks that on heavy clay soils the bare fallow is best. He is not in favor of making the land too fine. It should be left "tolerably rough." These clods of soil, he says, "will afford good shelter in the winter months, and by return of spring will have mellowed down into a nice mould, valuable to the young plant when the important operation of spring rolling is carried out."
"The great advantages of clover-ley for wheat consists in the firm furrow which can be turned over when it is plowed, to promote whioh object our best plows effect the inversion of the furrow without materially breaking it. Upon clay soils, and even upon strong loamy soils, a careful plowing of the clover-ley is found to produce n sufficiently firm seed bed for the wheat, especially when it is allowed to lie for some time to get settled, so that the seed may be sown upon a stale furrow. The use of a share or skim coulter with the plow, as it assists in burying the turf more completely, is generally desirable, otherwise the clover is apt to spring up between the furrow-slices, which is very objectionable.
"As the land gets lighter in its character, the well known land-presser comes in as a valuable help. These implements are generally made with two pressers, which, following immediately after two plows, very completely compress the two furrow-slices turned over, and give the land the required solidity.
"As the soils get lighter there is less objection to working them when wet; in some cases, indeed, this becomes necessary in order to give them the required firmness. It is not often in the south of England that a wet time is selected for sowing; but, when rain comes on after the work has commenced, I have known it to j
be continued until the soil was quite muddy, and yet no disadvantage has resulted; on the contrary, the plant has proved firmer on the portion sown wet than upon any other part.— This, which may be sale upon one soil, will often be very injurious upon another apparently of the samc character. Soils which have a sufficient portion of sand or grit intermixed with them are thus preserved from that adhesion of the soil which would take place in stronger land, so that, in their case, the germination of the seed.is but little delayed, whilst the treading of the land when wet gives it a greater degree of firmness, and this is favorable to the stability of the plant.
"The rules which regulate the quantity of seed wheat to be sown to the acre are simply these:—the early sowings require less seed, whilst for the later sowings the quantity should be gradually increased; and, again, as the soil and climate become moro favorable to the growth of wheat, less seed becomes necessary.
"The depth most desirable for the germination of seed wheat depends upon the closeness or adhesive character of the soil. The seed should be placed in that position which will secure to it such a supply of moisture, warmth and air, as will most rapidly promote healthy germination. It is clear that these conditions can not be secured in soils of a different texture at one uniform depth.
"Upon loamy soils of medium character we find the depth of about 1 inch superior to any other, but as the soil becomes lighter and more sandy in its nature, the depth may be advantageously increased to 1 A or 2 inches. In a dry season, a less depth than 1 inch can seldom be looked upon as sufficient to secure to the seed a necessary degree of moisture; and a greater depth than two inches is not desirable, because the plant has then generally to raise itself in the soil so that its roots may commence their duties within a moderate distance of the surface. Tho mode of plowing in seed-wheat with a 3i or 4-inch furrow is clearly wrong, for the wheat will not ostablish its roots in the soil at this depth, and the germination must necessarily be delayed in consequence of this increased depth. If I may make any difference in the depth of seed upon soils of this character, I let the early sown wheat be deposited rather deeper than that which may be sown later, and my reason is because the early sowings have plenty of time for making their growth, and, therefore, full depth insures a firmer root, whereas with late sowings this delay cannot be allowed, for the young wheat will then gain more by appearing more quickly nbove the ground; but even these variations in depth should not range more than half an inch either way. The lighter the soil becomes, the more important it is to sow at a considerable depth, as this favors the stability of the plant, and the stronger the land, the greater the necessity of keeping near to the surface.