sist of three divisions and to be commanded sis of it as soon as it becomes a law. An apby Brig. Gen. Keyes.

propriation of $15,000,000 for the building of 2d. That the divisions now commanded by the officers above assigned to the command of iron clad gun boats has been made, and a law corps shall be embraced in and form part of has been passed forbidding, under heavy pentheir own corps. 3d. The forces left for the defence of Wash

Woch. I alties, the return of escaping slaves by any ington, will be placed in command of Brig. officer of the army. A bill for the abolition of Gen. Jas. S. Wadsworth, who shall also be slavery in the District of Columbia is in agitamilitary governor of the District of Columbia.

4th. That this order be executed with such tion. promptness and dispatch as not to delay the The President has sent in a message recomcommencement of the operations directed to be mending the initiation

be mending the initiation of measures to aid any undertaken by the army of the Potomac.

5th. A fifth army corps to be commanded by of the Slave States who may desire it, to emanMaj. Gen. N. P. Banks, will be formed from cipate their slaves. The following is the resohis own division and Gen. Shield's (late Gen. Lantion heo

lution he offers for their adoption: Lander's) division. [Signed] ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

Resolved, That the United States ought to co-operate

with any State which may adopt a gradual abolishment EXECUTIVE MANSION,

of Slavery, giving to such State pecuniary aid to be used Washington, March

by such State in its discretion, to compensate for the inPresident's War Order, No. 3.

conveniences, public and private, produced by such

change of system." Maj. Gen. McClellan having personally taken the field at the head of the army on the Potomac, until otherwise ordered, he is relieved! EDITORIAL MISCELLANY. from the command of the other military departments, he retaining the command of the 4e All communications, of whatever kind, intended department of the Potomac.

As for the EDITOR should be addressed to him exOrdered, further, that the two departments 49clusively; all remittances of money and all a now under the respective command of Generals de business letters, to the Publishers. The offices Halleck and Hunter, together with so much of are separate and distinct, and attention to this that of Gen. Buell's which lies west of a north

Ho request will save the Editor a great deal of time and south line indefinitely drawn through

4 and trouble, while at the same time, it will diKnoxville, Tennessee, be consolidated and designated the department of the Mississippi, and 40 minish the liability to mistakes. that until otherwise ordered Maj. Gen. Halleck

Off for the World's Fair.-Ere the issue of have command of said department.

It is ordered, also, that the country west of another number of the FARMER, the Editor will have the Department of the Potomac, and east of the started on his mission to the Great Exhibition of the InDepartment of the Mississippi, be a Military dustry of all Nations. He goes not for pleasure or mere Department, and that the same be commanded

personal advantage, but for the purpose of gaining all by Maj. Gen. Fremont; that all commanders

possible information calculated to be useful to the indusof departments, after the receipt of this order,

try of this country-more particularly the industry of respectively report, severally and directly, to

the Northwest. the Secretary of War, and that prompt and frequent reports will be expected of all.

The Exhibition will be our great study, though at con[Signed] ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

venient intervals of time we shall dash off into the counThere is scarcely a rebel State over which

try and make an inspection of the manufacturing, mining

and agricultural districts. During the three or four the Stars and Stripes do not now float in tri

months of our absence we shall prepare material for the umph; and the work of planting it anew is still

FARMER the same as if we were at home in our sanctum going forward gloriously. In Tennessee, An--practical articles for the various departments and letdrew Johnson is, by appointment of the Presi- ters giving an account of matters connected with the

objects of our mission-and as we have arranged with a dent, Provisional Governor, and he firmly tells

competent and experienced gentleman to have immediate the people that their rebellion shall be crushed, supervision of the correspondence and the making up' even though slavery should require to be of the paper, it is believed that our going will be an imwiped out as a means to that end.

portant advantage.

All communications intended for publication should be Congressional.-Congress has been very directed, as heretofore, to J. W. Hoyt, Editor, Madison. active during the past month, thought but few

Communications received from W. M. Loe, Thos. acts have been passed. The Tax Bill is being sa

is bemg Sears and J. Edi, but too late for publication in their rapidly perfected. We shall publish a synop- proper place, will appear in next number.

Harris on Insects.-We have elsewhere spoken societies in this state, and hope it will lead to good reof this most excellent treatise on “Insects Injurious to sults and stop the practice of scattering money in little Vegetation," the best, we have no hesitation in saying, dribleta, which every one, who has had any experience in that has ever ppeared on the subject, when its great the distribution of such premiums, must see the folly of. practical valuo is considered in connection with its high See article on page 146 and send to Crosby & Nichols, scientific character. We should be glad to see it placed Boston, for the books. in the hands of every farmer, particularly of every farmer

Write for the Farmer.-We hope our agricalwho has children to educate. It would exert a vast influ-l tural friends who have been accustomed to enlighten the ence in spreading abroad a higher knowledge and wider

readers of the Farmer upon subjects of practical interest interest in natural history and do untold good in the fu

relating to their vocation, have not become so absorbed ture agricultural interests of the country,

in the prevailing war excitement as to abandon the use Let it be placed, therefore, within the reach of the

of the goose-quill altogether. Let us hear from you! In young, in every school library and in every family library.

9. the language of the Ohio Cultivator, we say to all: No book could be more suitable to offer as premiums by

"Give us field news, stock news, horse talk, cattle talk, the agricultural societies. This mode of awarding pre-hog talk, bear talk, turkey talk, fox talk, duck and goose miums has many advantages over the ordinary one of talk, always giving preference to the more useful and

substautini items in the above list. Write early, write small money premiums. Books are kept, laid upon the often, and continue to write. farmer's table, read by his children, taken up by every

Take up your rusty pens, 01 ye Cattle Kings, ye Horse

men, ye Shepherds of hill and plain, ye Dairy men and caller, and thus they are constantly carrying out the old women, ye Wheat growers, Corn growers, Grass growers,

ye Apple Kings and Garden diggers, ye men and women jects of a society, while they are a perpetual advertise

of the rose tree aud the pansy bed, ye lovers of the grape ment of its existence and objects. This is especialiy the and the juices thereof, ye Nimrors of the bush and the case of each book so awarded, has a Diploma attached,

saddle, ye Women of the gridiron and the frying pan,

who know the mysteries of broiled quail and lordly signed by the President and Secretary. A very beautiful steaks, and snch generous dishes as make us stout and and appropriate Diploma, has been engraved at great ex

good natured." pense, with special reference to this volume on Insects

Again we say, write! Give the pith of what you have and the other well known works of the Editor- Milch

to say, the marrow, the quintessence. In these times Cows and Dairy Farming, and Grasses and Forage Plants,

the world won't stop to read long, prosy articles, however and these Diplomas are furnished to societies ordering

well written; therefore squeeze your ideas into the sinallest copies of these works, for this purpose, free of cost, a

practicable compass. If you can't write in the best rheDiploma being attached within each copy, with suitable

torical style, never mind: we want ideas, experiences, and blanks left to be filled up according to circumstances.

will ourself put them in dress, if they need it, after you

have done your best. When small money premiums are paid out, they go into the farmer's pocket with other money, and are spent, The State Agricultural Rooms will be acleaving no trace of the society and no memorial of the cessible to the public during business hours, noi withstandfarmer's success. A good book goes out on its useful

ing our absence, and all business communications will mission, with the official seal of the society in the form

receive the prompt attention of our assistant in charge. of a neat and tasteful Diploma, exerting its silent, per. The preliminary work for the State Fair will have been manent and powerful influence in the community, espe

done before our leave, and we shall return in time to recially upon the young, and helps develope and improve sume the more important of our remaining duties in conthe agriculture and horticulture of the country and to

sorticulture of the country and to nection therewith. awaken a taste and interest in reading and study.

ng and study.

Garden, Field and Flower Seeds.-S. W. If it be objected that many men would prefer the

Hubbell, successor to W. D. Potter, with whom he was amount, however small, in money, it may with equal truth,

associated last year, is again ready at No. 21 King street, be said that within a week after a good book is received

Madison, with a fine assortment of seeds of nearly every in this way, even if not satisfactory at first, it would be

description. Iis stock is decidedly the largest and best that come a source of pride and satisfaction, not only because

we have ever seen offered in Madison, and we hope the the recipient gets his money's worth, and, in addition, a

people of the city and vicinity will liberally patronize his beautiful diploma, but because he has something to show

establishment. Persons at a distance may order with an for what he has done, something to hand down to posterity

assurance that their communications will receive prompt Every agricultural and horticultural society in Massa

attention. The postage on seeds, under the new law, it usetts has offered Harris on Insects, liberally, as pre- will be remembered is only 1 ct. an ounce. miums, and most, if not all, the agricultural societies offered the work on Grasses, nearly three hundred copies Seeds for our Working Friends.-We are of which were thus awarded the last year by them, and about receiving a lot of choice seeds of various kinds, also many copies of the Dairy Book. In each of these which wo propose to distribute to such of our best friends volumes, this beautiful Diploma was attached.

as may especially desire and deserve them. Will send We commend this subject to the serious thought and them without order and at our own expense, as soon as attention of the officers of agricultural and horticultural they come to land.


Good Sorghum Seed.--For the benofit of an en

quirer for good Sorghum Seed, I will say that last year I Agricultural Journals.-MR. EDITOR :-Being obtained a little seed and planted on trial about ten days a practical farmor myself, I have long noticed tho ill after planting my field crop. It got thoroughly ripe, effects of the absence of a good agricultural journal in suckers and all, before frost; while my field crop did not our neighborhood, and with a view to their palliation ripen at all. This is the only cane I have ever had that have recently obtained copies of the leading journals of has produced syrup that would grain. Should think it the country; and after a careful examination, I must

two or three weeks earlier than the common cane which conclude that to the wants of the practical farmer of this was some years since distributed from the FARMER office. State, the Wis. FARMER is best adapted. With this opin. I have a small quautity for sale, and it can also be obion I recommend it to our neighbors, with as yet, but tained at the store of A. Garland, at Monticello, and at indifferent success. Their general excuse is, “hard times the seed store in Monroe. I have also a quantity of the are upon us, we must economise." So say I, but not with common kind.

THOMAS SEARS. the idea that economy consists in cutting off our greatest | MONTICELLO, Wis. source of profit. I am of the opinion that agriculture, (You can get it any of the Seed Stores advertised in notwithstanding the contempt with which it is regarded the FARMER. Amount per acre, 2 to 3 pounds.] by a certain class of — I had nearly said human beings, is one of the most independent, honorable and healthful Dr. IIoyt,-- Dear Sir:--I should like to know where pursuits; and yet the deepest science which the genius of cranberry vines could be got, and at what price. If you' man has yet penetrated the energies of our most talented will be kind enough to give me some information on the men have been called forth in its study, and still there is above, you will greatly oblige.

Edw. Hasse. scope for genius which man has not known; centuries to MILWAUKEE, March 11, 62. come will not bring it to perfection, yet the nearest ap [We are not in possession of the desired information, proach must ovidently be through the combined experi- but presume some reader of the FARMER is and will have ence of practical farmers. Let each pursue his own pleasure in notifying our friend H. by letter.] course of experiment, and if successful, publish it that others may profit by it. Since their experiments tend in

Erratum.--Instead of “A. G. H." on page 143, different directions, it becomes necessary to exchange

read H. A. C. ideas, and for this purpose, the Wis. FARMER seems well adapted. For the many valuable opinions it contains, the

NOTICES OF NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. result of much observation and experiment, we can recommend it to all readers. Honce we say that to subscribe for an Eastern paper for the sake of the politics it

The attention of our readers is especially called to the contains, and dispense with the FARMER, 'is not only bad

nly bad advertisement of the Seed Warehouse of J. M. Thorburn policy, but a breach of duty to our country. Remember

& Co., New York. Their's is probably the largest estab. brother farmers, that the strongest resource of a nation

lishment of the kind in this country, and their long exis its agriculture and its ablest supporters the hands

perience in the business and their eminent success are which hold the plough.


good evidence that they are worthy of patronage. BRIGHTON, Kenosha County, Wis.

Among the seed dealers in our own Stato--who, other

things being equal, should always have the preferenceHamburg Poland Heng-Who has them: we know of none more worthy of confidence than Thos. -I wish to procure some hens of a better breed than the Hislop, Esq., proprietor of the Wisconsin Seed Store, common barn-yard fowls, and not finding them in this Milwaukee. He keeps a good assortment and has the part of the country, proposo getting them at Madison, if credit of being accommodating, reliable and prompt. they are to be obtained thero. Could you procure, or put Seo advertisement of Early African Imphee Seed by J. me on the track so that I could procure, some “Poland" | C. Plumb, well known to our readers. hens in your place? If so, what would be the probable E. B. Quiner, Esq., has established a general War Claim cost of them, apiece, there?

Agency, in which all persons entitled to soldier's pay, If possible, a “Hamburg" cock, and white. Crested pensions, bounty money or anything of the kind cannot “Poland" hens would be preferred. Geo. B. MURRICK.

tail to be interostod. Mr. Q. has had considerable expeHUDSON, Wis.

rience in th:se matters and is possessed of unusual facili

ties for the transaction of such busineess. We cordially Red Onion Seed. I wish to get some Red Onion recommend his agency to the soldiers and citizens of this Seed that can be depended upon. Would prefer that from State. Weathersfield, Conn., as it has been proven to be good. Il The Eagle Works Manufacturing Company, Chicago, also wish a small quantity of Imphee seed. Where can manufacture some of the best machinery for agricultural, I obtain them? What will be the cost, and how much milling, sugar-making and other purposes that can be should I plant to the acre?

Joux Johnson. found in this or any other country. Seo advertisement. LONE Rock, Wis.

| Mr. Powers talks to the public again, in our advertis


J. W. HOYT, : : : : : : : : : : EDITOR.


MADISON, MAY 1, 1862.

No. 5.

Work for May.

little difference whether whole or cut. Plant

in drills so as to dig with potato digger. The May is the month of sunshine, of green grass Carter, the Pinkeye and the Meshannock are and springing flowers--the poet's month. But

favorite varieties. The Prince Albert ranks it is also the farmer's month-the season of la

No. 1, wherever known, and is sure of a wide bor. If its days are not filled full of the work

popularity, when more generally introduced. of preparation-of plowing, seed-sowing and

Beans will be in great demand, at least so planting, but little may be expected in the

long as the war lasts. Brain-recruiting and golden autumn but bitter disappointment.

muscle-forming are superior diet for persons The preparation of the soil for crops of every whose nervous force is subject to severe tax. kind should be thorough ; no work on the farm

They can be grown on a poor quality of land pays so good an interest in the investment. A

and pay well. third more labor expended in plowing, harrow- Horses. It is inevitable that they should be ing and rolling, will often double the yield of in greater demand than for years before the the crop.

war. Immense numbers will be killed, cripManures--Don't be sparing of them in gar- I pled and used up, while the uses to which they den or field. Let some of the precious foods

have been accustomed to be put will be, in no they offer to the plant vanish in them and

respect, diminished. It would be well to breed escape to neighboring fields--that is unless you extensively-and from horses of the best blood. exceed the measure of Scripture benevolence

The policy which prompts so many of our and love your brother farmers better than

farmer's better than farmers to employ cheap “stock horses" is of yourselves.

the same class with that which would recomCorn has proven a good crop, better than all mend an inferior quality of seed because of a wheat. Don't fail to give it its just proportion less price. It costs no more to raise a fine of area and labor. In many localities the animal than a mean and worthless scrub. Dent succeeds perfectly; others, the Webster, Other stock. The same course of reasoning King Philip and kindred varieties do better. is applicable to stock of all other kinds. Now Read article in last number in relation to has- is the time to think of it, and now is the time tening germination and preventing destruction to act upon our suggestions. of the seed by gophers. All things considered, Trees--Evergreen, Fruit and Shade-Now is check-rowing or planting in hills is better than the time to plant them. Don't omit it. Secure drilling. It allows the sun to do its work more the best and plant in the best manner. effectually and admits of more thorough culti-! The Garden.--Who is not fond of the vegevation, without which it would be better not to tables and fruits which are properly grown in plant at all.

the garden--the lettuce, the radishes, fresh and Give the potato crop your waste ashes. It earthy, the asparagus, the spinach, the beets will pay you well for the trouble. Our experi- and onions, the summer squashes, cucumbers ence favors the use of the best for seed-but and melons, the early green peas, potatoes and

sweet-corn, gooseberries and all the rest of the be continued until the soil was quite muddy, luscious, wholesome berries? And yet how

and yet no disadvantage has resulted; on the

contrary, the plant has proved firmer on the few farmers are well provided with them. portion sown wet than upon any other part.Words like these we have said again and again, This, which may be safe upon one soil, will until some of our readers have doubtless wea

often be very injurious upon another apparently

of the same character. Soils which have a ried of them. Well we are equally tired of your sufficient portion of sand or grit intermixed unpardonable procrastination and neglect.

with them are thus preserved from that adhe

sion of the soil which would take place in When you stop sinning we shall stop preaching

stronger land, so that, in their case, the gerrepentance—not before.

mination of the seed is but little delayed, whilst

the treading of the land when wet gives it a The Mechanical Condition of the Soil Favorable greater degree of firmness, and this is favorafor the Growth of Agriculturo. ble to the stability of the plant.

“The rules which regulate the quantity of The last Journal of the Royal Agricultural seed wheat to be sown to the acre are simply Society contains a Prize Essay on this subject, these :--the early sowings require less seed,

whilst for the later sowings the quantity should from Professor Tanner, of Queen's College, be gradually increased; and, again, as the soil Birmingham. We give some extracts below: and climate become more favorable to the

The conditions which control the growth of growth of wheat, less seed becomes necessary. seeds are, the presence of air, moisture and “The depth most desirable for the germinawarmth; and, to produce healthy germination, tion of seed wheat depends upon the closeness all are required in definite proportions.

or adhesive character of the soil. The seed In regard to the preparation of land for should be placed in that position which will wheat, Prof. Tanner thinks that on heavy clay secure to it such a supply of moisture, warmth soils the bare fallow is best. He is not in fa- and air, as will most rapidly promote healthy vor of making the land too fine. It should be germination. It is clear that these conditions left “ tolerably rough.” These clods of soil, can not be secured in soils of a different texhe says, “ will afford good shelter in the win-ture at one uniform depth. ter months, and by return of spring will have “Upon loamy soils of medium character we mellowed down into a nice mould, valuable to find the depth of about 1 inch superior to any the young plant when the important operation other, but as the soil becomes lighter and more of spring rolling is carried out."

sandy in its nature, the depth may be advan"The great advantages of clover-ley for tageously increased to 11 or 2 inches. In a wheat consists in the firm furrow which can dry season, a less depth than 1 inch can selbe turned over when it is plowed, to promote dom be looked upon as sufficient to secure to which object our best plows effect the inver- the seed a necessary degree of moisture; and sion of the furrow without materially breaking a greater depth than two inches is not desirait. Upon clay soils, and even upon strong ble, because the plant has then generally to loamy soils, a careful plowing of the clover-ley raise itself in the soil so that its roots may is found to produce a sufficiently firm seed bed commence their duties within a moderate disfor the wheat, especially when it is allowed to tance of the surface. The mode of plowing in lie for some time to get settled, so that the seed seed-wheat with a 3) or 4-inch furrow is clearly may be sown upon a stale furrow. The use of wrong, for the wheat will not establish its roots & share or skim coulter with the plow, as it in the soil at this depth, and the germination assists in burying the turf more completely, is must necessarily be delayed in consequence of generally desirable, otherwise the clover is apt this increased depth. If I may make any difto spring up between the furrow-slices, which ference in the depth of seed upon soils of this is very objectionable.

character, I let the carly sown wheat be depossi As the land gets lighter in its character, ited rather deeper than that which may be the well known land-presser comes in as a val- sown later, and my reason is because the early uable help. These implements are generally sowings have plenty of time for making their made with two pressers, which, following im- growth, and, therefore, full depth insures a mediately after two plows, very completely firmer root, whereas with late sowings this compress the two furrow-slices turned over, delay cannot be allowed, for the young wheat and give the land the required solidity. will then gain more by appearing more quickly

“As the soils get lighter there is less objec- above the ground; but even these variations tion to working them when wet; in some cases, in depth should not range more than half an indeed, this becomes necessary in order to give inch either way. The lighter the soil becomes, them the required firmness. It is not often in the more important it is to sow at a considerathe south of England that a wet time is select- ble depth, as this favorg the stability of the ed for sowing; but, when rain comes on after plant, and the stronger the land, the greater the work has commenced, I have known it to the necessity of keeping near to the surface.

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