« ElőzőTovább »
wind and frost are harmless, and in summer * Forward, march! Right about face, retreat!" the trunk and ground about it is perpetually FRIEND HOYT:-Eminently suggestive of the mulched by the shade of the low top. above caption, are some of the remarks of In these two vital points of progressive horyour contributors to the Horticultural pages of ticulture, A. G. H. unintentionally, perhaps, last No., and as one standing aside, a silent, has sounded the retreat. but interested reader, we trust your indulgence Earnest workers in this cause are rejoicing in a few remarks on them.
to see the public taste and practice “falling We are glad to see the spirit of criticism in" to the way of triumphant success in this awakening, and hope it will continue to State, which really does possess “ all the natu"speak;" for in the onward march of our ral advantages for successful fruit-growing." loved profession, we wish to pursue only the
J. C. P. right path. Particularly would we commend the remarks
arks/ MECHANICAL & COMMERCIAL. of A. G. H. on the destruction caused by spring pruning for the purpose of “raising the tops;"
Railways in Chili-American Engineers Abroad. but the conclusion of the sentence, “lowering The Railway Times contains the following on them,” is, we think, one step on the retreat. I
the construction of railways in Chili:
The railway between Santiago, the capital, Trimming up, during the first flow of sap, is a and Valparaiso, the seaport of Chili, was probad practice, but in our long experience, we 'Valparaiso in October, 1852. About thirty-two
jected in 1851, and the works commenced at have never seen present or permanent injury miles of the line have been opened to the pubcome from the ordinary cutting back, at the lic for nearly five years. Unforeseen delays
occurred to stop all further progress until last time of planting, and the sooner this cutting month.
18 cuing month, when a contract was entered into by back is done, (after it leaves the nursery row,) the government and the present contractor for the better.
| the works of the Southern Railws.y of Chili.
This contract obliges the contractor, Mr. We are so confident of the necessity of this Henry Meigs, an American, to deliver up the practice, that we strenuously recommend it to railway complete in three years, and the amount
of the contract is $6,000,000. all tree planters, especially if they are so un
The Southern Railway of Chili is the main fortunate as to procure the “high heads,” artery of the country, and it is proposed to which A. G. H. inadvertently recommends.
extend it south from the capital a distance of
170 miles. About 52 miles have been opened The practice of leaving the whole top on the for traffic for three years, and the works of the tree at the time of planting, is one great source extension are being rapidly carried out. The of failure to the amateur, even with the best of
| principal engineering works on this railway
are the bridges, which are numerous and of roots.
considerable extent, to suit the sudden risings We repeat: Shortening in at the time of plant- of the rivers in the floods of the rainy season,
and the floods caused by the melting of the ing is one of the first demands of the tree.
snow in the Cordilleras. The 32 miles of this (Reasons for which we will be happy to give railway were constructed by Mr. Evans, an when space will permit.) Evidence, the prac
American engineer, and all the bridges are on
the trussed system, known as Long's patent, tice of all successful nurgerymen and propaga-l and Bollman's combinations of cast and wrought tors, in all the various planting and transplant- iron. The present engineer-in-chief, Mr. Cross ing of all deciduous stock.
Buchanan, has adopted plate girders for all his
bridges on the division under contract. AlBesides the first gain in “ saving the life of though perhaps not so elegant and light looking, the tree,” we can, with "imagination unim
the girder bridges are not less suitable to the
country, and the difficulty of erecting and finpaired," easily conceive the great advantage ishing them can be overcome by a judicious the low headed tree has, especially if so low
division of each girder into pieces suited to
the mode of transport into the interior. The that a slight earthing up in autumn entirely first large bridge of this kind yet erected in covers the trunk, and hence the winter's sun, Chili was opened for traffic on the eighteenth of September last. It has nine spans of 60 our estimates show that New York loses $57,feet, and was erected and finished in less than 000,000; Philadelphia, $14,000,000; Baltimore, two months after the arrival of the first sec- $6,500,000, and Boston, $2,000,000, making a tions from the coast.
total indebtedness to the dry goods trade of
$97,500,000. From this and other data, we The Failures of Last Year in the Northern States,
estimate the total liabilities of the South to the Southern States, and British Provinces.
| the Northern States at near $300,000,000.
The sudden reverse our commercial prosperFrom the annual circular of R.G.Dunn & Co., ity received, culminating in April last, with we find that the failures at the North the past the probable continuance of the unhappy outyear have not been so great as is generally be- break, prompted an economy which was very lieved. In the Northern States, in 1857, there generally adopted, and has been so rigidly adwere 4,257 failures, involving the amount of hered to, that we estimate the actual saving $265,818,000, against 5,935 failures during the practiced by families, in articles not of absopast year, with an indebtedness of $178,632,- | lute necessity, at a figure which very nearly 170, showing for the past year an excess of meets the expenses of the war thus far. With 1,678 failures over the number in 1857, with a a population of 21,000,000, we may safely diminished liability of $87,185,830.
count 4,000,000 of families; and, estimating In the Southern States the number of fail the annual economy of each family at $100, ures for the entire year of 1857 was 675, with which is not large under the circumstances, we an indebtedness of $25,932,000; while the par- have a total saving to the country of $400,tial returns for the year 1861 reveal 1,058 fail-000,000. The result, however, that may deures, with liabilities amounting to $28,578,257, velop itself by the withdrawal of so large a although the returns from the seceded States number of producers, now consumers merely, embrace a period of only four months, or up and resting as an expense on the country, reto May 1, when our regular facilities were in- mains to be seen. terrupted. The unusual amount of failures in The North is self-sustaining, and our Westthis section during these four months is to be ern country is now reaching a more sound accounted for mainly on the ground that many condition that it has for years enjoyed. The were intentional, in order to evade obligations prospects for the Spring trade are good. The due at the North. Subsequent State action, great abundance of the products of the soil, annulling all Northern claims, the entire ces particularly at the West, and the immense sation of trade and the impoverished condition disbursements made by the government, will of the South, lead us to regard the entire in- put in circulation large amounts of money, debtedness of that section as swallowed up in and enable the country merchants to buy libercarrying on the war, involving a general mer- ally, and generally on a safe basis. cantile bankruptcy there.
The total failures in the British Provinces, The excess exhibited in the amount of lia- the past year, was 310, with liabilities amountbilities (resulting from the financial pressure ing to $6,471,769.—Hunt's Magazine. of 1857) of the principal cities of the North, over those of the political crisis of 1861, is accounted for by the fact that the larger private
Gutta Percha. banking, importing and commission houses were the heaviest sufferers-while the increase
| In 1845, only 20,000 lbs. of Gutta Percha in the number of failures for 1861, with a di
were imported into England; now the conminished indebtedness, is for the reason that
sumption has increased to millions of pounds the jobbing houses have, in the past year, been
annually. Its manufacture into an endless
variety of articles demands new processes, new the greatest losers. In November, 1860, the fall trade was passed, stocks on hand were
machines, and new tools, in which the steamlight, and the orders for spring goods in abey
engine plays the most important part. The ance. This, also, accounts for the diminished
rough blocks of gum are first cut into slices by liability, and importers and commission mer
a vertical wheel, faced with knives or blades, chants were, by the force of circumstances,
and revolving two hundred times a minute; saved from losses that would otherwise have
the slices are then cleaned from stones and proved more serious.
other impurities, and boiled in waste steam This same circular gives us the following
from the engine. The mass is next put into statement of the probable indebtedness of the
an iron box, or teaser, in which an iron cylin. South to Northern merchants. There is due
der with teeth rapidly revolves, and tears it the four cities of New York, Boston, Philadel
into shreds, throwing it into vats of cold water. phia and Baltimore, about $211,000,000, di
| There the Gutta Percha floats at the top, and vided as follows:
the impurities sink to the bottom. It is then
transferred to tanks of boiling water, and New York,......
thence removed into boxes, and kneaded like Baltimore..........
19,000,000 dough ; and next rolled between heated iron Boston,..........
7,600,000 cylinders into sheets, which are then cooled In the dry-goods interest alone in these cities by passing between steel rollers. The sheets
are cut by a knife-edged machine into bands is a man who sometimes stands in Leicester or strips. For making tubes and pipes, the Square, London, who sells microscopes at a soft mass of kneaded Gutta Percha is passed penny each. They are made of a common through heated iron cylinders, and is drawn pill-box, the bottom taken out and a piece of by the drawing-mill into cylindrical cords, and window-glass substituted. A small eye hole is tubes of various diameters. This, however, is bored in the lid, and thereon is placed the lens, but a glimpse of the complicated machinery the whole apparatus being painted black.and processes by which Gutta Percha is fash- These microscopes are full as effective as much ioned into a legion of articles. Among the more costly instruments sold in the shops. An applications are breast-coating for water- eminent microscopist, who examined some of wheels, galvanic batteries, shuttle-beds for them, found that their magnifying power was looms, packing for steam-engines and pumps, twenty diameters. The cost of a lens made of ericket-balls, noiseless curtain-rings, whips glass, of such a power, would be seventy-five and sticks, policemen's staves, plugs or solid cents or a dollar. On cutting one of them in marges used in buildings, buffers for railway-two, it appeared that the lens was made of carriages, gunpowder canisters, sheet-covering Canada balsam, a transparent gum. The balfor damp walls, lining for ladies' bonnets, jar-sam had been heated, and carefully dropped covers, bobbins for spinning machines, book-into the eye-hole of the pill-box. It then ascovers, molds for stereotype and electrotype, sumed the proper size, shape, transparency coffin-linings, and stopping for hollow teeth. and polish of a very well ground glass lens. These are bat a small number of the myriads of uses to which we have extended the application of the vegetable product which was
Gunpowder. used by the Malays ages since for a few common purposes. - English Paper.
A member of the British Parliament said,
not long since, that the quantity of sulphuric The Atlantic Telegraph Again.
acid, used by a people was a pretty good index
of their degree of civilization. It is somewhat A circular has been issued we see, signed by so with gunpowder. The common supposition Mr. George Saward, as Secretary of the Atlan-is, that, during a war, larger quantities of guntic Telegraph Company in London, proposing powder are used than in times of peace. But renewed efforts tor establishing submarine ihis, we understand, is not the case,-and it correspondence between Europe and America. shows how a state of war disturbs all the arts It is alleged in this circular that, not withstand- of peace, emtering into their minutest ramifiing the failure of several submarine lines, the cations, and affecting them in one way or success of other important water routes en- another. Not a basket or broom, a plow or courages renewed effort on the route between hoe-handle, a steam engine, or a pin, or needIreland and Newfoundland. The successful le are now made without their price being in lines mentioned are that of the Balearic Islands, some way affected by the war in our land. the one between France and Algiers, and that In arts of peace, powder is employed in a between Malta and Alexandria. The last is hundred forms, and the aggregate consumption said to be the best laid-capable of “ working is very large, calling for an amount vastly through without repeaters, at the rate of eight greater than is demanded by all the armies in words per minute-being 1,400 miles in length.” the world. These arts are now affected, many
It is stated in the circular that the internal of them entirely suspended, and the consestructure of the first (Atlantic) cable was all quence is, that less powder is used than when wrong; but that the experiehce of its defects we are in a state of peace. will enable a future effort to be successful on We have recently spoken with two or three that line, as it is alleged to have contributed powder-makers on this subject, whose opinions largely to the success of the lines above nam-are all alike in relation to it. One of them ed." The improved mode of constructing the stated that a single mine in Pennsylvania would cable, it is stated, will be more expensive, consume more powder than all the regiments but this will be commercially compensated by in New England. the fact that, instead of working at the rate of two words per minute,” tre former alleged rate. "a due increase in the size of the con- WAR VERSUS INDUSTRY.It has been reductor will give almost any speed that may be peatedly remarked by those who are conversant desired, even across the Atlantic, if the quan
with the facts that, since the breaking out of tity of insulating material surrounding it be the war, agriculture has been favored with proportioned to it on scientific principles.”—
very few inventions. The genius of the whole Hunt's Magazine.
nation seems to be turned to the furtherance of
the war, new common hand arms, gunboats, The MICROSCOPE.-An obscure Englishman &c., being almost the only things applying for has anticipated Yankee genius in cheapening patents. The truth is, Peace and War, like that beautiful and useful instrument, the mi- good and evil, are incompatible. If one would croscope, for the benefit of the million. There l advance the other must stand still.
SCIENCE. ART. STATISTICS. this splendid treatise could never have appeared
so fully and beautifully illustrated. The out“Insects Injurious to Vegetation"-a Now and lay for the preparation of such a work, the Magnificent Edition of a most Valuable Book. cost of making collections, drawings, engrav
The Legislature of Massachusetts, in 1859, ings, &c., by the best naturalists and the first placed ten thousand dollars at the disposal of artists in the world is too enormous to be inCharles L. Flint, Secretary of the State Board curred by any publisher with great risk of of Agriculture, and directed him to prepare a small sales to which most scientific works are new, enlarged and improved edition of Harris' liable. The price at which the work is now well known treatise on Insects Injurious to furnished is far below what its cost would have Vegetation; with suitable additions and illus- been, if the original investment had been made trations.
by any publisher. The first edition had appeared in 1841, the Mr. Flint called to his aid the highest scienresult of one of a series of scientific surveys
tific talent in the country and laid the most instituted by the State Legislature. The report
distinguished entomologists under contribuwas found to be so interesting and of so great
tion for notes on the orders of insects which practical and scientific value, that the State
they had made a special study of. Among ordered a second edition in 1851. This ap
them are Dr. John L. Leconte of Philadelphia, peared very much enlarged, including most of
the highest authority on the Coleoptera, or the species of injurious insects of the country,
Vi beetles. Baron R. Osten Sacken of the Russian in 1852. Both these editions were printed at
Legation at Washington, the highest authority the expense of the State, but neither of them
on the Diptera, or the flies and other two was illustrated. The work was eagerly sought
winged insects. Dr. Morris of Baltimore and for, not only in Massachusetts, where works of
Philip R. Uhler, Esq., of the same city, and that character are highly appreciated, but in
many others, while the drawings were subjected other States, and it took rank among the very
to the close examination and comparison with best of its class in the country. The value
the original specimens of Prof. Agassiz. Sonand practical utility were so generally appre
rel, the first living artist in the world for ciated, that the Legislature determined to add
objects of natural history, a resident of Masto its value by a liberal appropriation for il
sachusetts, made most of the drawings. To lustrations, and the volume before us is a proof
say of the engravings on wood, of which there of the complete success which has attended
are very nearly three hundred, that they meet the enterprise.
the entire approbation, and even excited the The edition ordered by the State, was wholly
astonishment of Prof. Agassiz, is praise enough. distributed by law, so that it was placed be
They are unquestionably, taken as a whole, the yond the reach of very many who desired
most splendid triumph ever achieved in that very much to obtain it; but the Legislature
art, as they appear on the rich paper of the has provided for this difficulty by authorizing
splendid edition now ready. They may not the editor to use the steel plates prepared for
print so well on cheaper paper, but they have the illustration of the edition for the Common
the merit of scientific accuracy and extreme wealth, in the publication of one or more edi
beauty. tions designed for a wider circulation than that for the State could be expected to have. The The steel plates contain nearly a hundred work thus goes forth for the benefit of the objects, all colored from life by hand. whole country, and every farmer, every gar- The reputation of this work is already well dener and every student of natural history established and has long been widely known. can avail himself of the generous liberality of It is eminently practical as well as scientific. Massachusetts, since without her public spirit, | Most works of this kind are too abstruse, too
hard to understand, and of course of little
A Telographic Experiment. value to any but a naturalist, but the descrip
1 It is a matter of curiosity as to how quick tions in Harris' are marked by clearness, sim- communication may be made by means of the plicity and beauty, and these, added to the full telegraph. Experience has shown that it is an
instantaneous process. A short time since, an illustrations, make the book the most useful,
experiment was tried to illustrate the point. take it all in all, that has ever appeared in this It was agreed that a telegrapher at New York or any other country.
city, in communication with Chicago, Illinois,
should write the letter S, which is done by A very superb edition is now on sale at $6,00, making three dots, and that a Chicago teleand it is extremely cheap at that price. This grapher should instantly, on hearing the dots,
respond by making the same signs. The plan editon is very small in number and will be ex
was carried out successfully, and the paper of hausted before most people become aware of the register at New York showed that the dots its value. This superior edition cannot be re
made by both operators stood so nearly to
gether, that it was impossible to write a single produced. It is printed from the original cuts, dot between the characters representing the and on paper that cost a quarter of a dollar a two SS. The response from Chicago was repound. A cheaper edition with colored plates
corded as quickly after the signal from New
York as it was possible for the Chicago telewill be ready by the 10th of April, at $3,50, grapher to make it.-N. Y. Com. Advertiser. and a still cheaper one, at the same time, plates uncolored, at $2,50.
EDUCATIONAL. The book contains over 650 pages, and is elegantly bound in antique style. It is for
Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania---1862. sale by booksellers generally. Population of the World.
The last annual catalogue of this Institution
has just been sent us by the President, with The population of the world is increasing, the request that we should call the attention of and if we give to the term Christian the widest our readers to its contents. It is well known latitude, it is by no means certain that the that for sveral years past there has been much number of pagans in the world is not now as talk about the necessity of agricultural colleges great as it ever was. Twenty years ago our and industrial schools in this county, more or highest estimate of the population of the less similar to corresponding institutions in globe was about 800,000,000. It is now ad- Europe, and numerous attempts have been mitted by all to bo not less than ten, and by made by State Legislatures and by public-spirthose who are the best informed, to be at least ited men to found such institutions. Almost twelve hundred million. This change of figures all these attempts have been, thus far, singuis due in part to a more accurate knowledge of larly unsuccessful. Nearly all the Middle and the geograpy of the world; but there has been Western States have attempted to found Agria great increase in many countries, and no cultural Colleges, and have been laboring for doubt, in the aggregate, a decided advance in the last six or eight years to get up suitable the population of the globe. From the best buildings, and yet not one of them has thus and latest sources of information we derive far succeeded in getting their college buildings the following estimate:
completed; several of them have attempted to commence operations and go on with partially
completed buildings, but have gone down beAmerica, .....
fore graduating a single class.
115,000,000 An attempt of this kind closed in this manAsia,...............
700,000,000 ner about a month ago, in this State, at Ovid. Japan........
Similar attempts have met with like success in
Michigan, Iowa, Illinois, and other Western 1,200,000,000 States. From the catalogue and circular be
fore us, it would appear that Pennsylvania is Protestants, ....
86,000,000 likely to be more successful in her attempt to
68.000.000 found an Agricultural College. Through the 7,000,000 influence of Judge Watts, H. N. McAllister,
and other influential gentlemen of the Penn
340,000,000 Jews, ........
8.000.000 sylvania State Agricultural Society, the State Mahomedans,
• 144,000,000 Legislature of 1855 incorporated the instituPagang ...
710,000,000 tion. In 1857, after a site had been selected, 1,200,000,000 and about $50,000 subscribed to the institution,
POPULATION OF THE WORLD.