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ed by some of the experienced and able writers sery should be like that for the orchard, and of the present day in adjoining and Eastern for the same reasons. The tap root of a tree States, that Wisconsin is not the place to grow should never be cut. The shortening of the tap hardy and healthy fruit trees for successful root is the greatest cause of unhardiness in orchard planting, shows a higher Horticultu- trees. Nature furnished it for the purpose of ral development than your humble servant has going down into the sub-soil, where it would attained.
find perpetual moisture, away from drouth and I am free to admit, I think a fruit tree three frost, and where it would find those substances or four years old, found growing vigorous and that are needful for the healthful growth of strong in a Wisconsin nursery, has as good a the tree, and which are not furnished by the chance for being useful as one brought from surface soil. The cutting off the tap root, 36°, 38° or even 40° of latitude. After settling causes the tree to throw out an undue proporall these queries, let us not again shift from tion of lateral or side roots, which being near our own shoulders the responsibility of help the surface, are exposed to drouth and frost, ing make hardy and productive fruit trees. and take up too great a portion of organic or That obstacles must be met and overcome is | vegetable substances, causing the tree to grow not doubted. In no portion of the world too rapidly. known to the writer, can the delicious pear,
us peat; | The next thing to be considered is the proper the lucious plum, or the invigorating apple, in
age and size of trees for transplanting. The its highest excellence, be enjoyed without
tree should not be more than four years old ceaseless care and attention.
from the seed, nor more than four feet high. Yours, H. A. CONGAR.
If it is older, or larger, it cannot well be WHITEWATER, March 6th, 1862.
moved without too much injuring the roots.
The distance apart the trees should be set, The Way to Have a Good Orchard.
should not be less than thirty feet, and would The first thing to be considered, is the loca- better be forty. When a tree is forty or fifty tion and soil. The location should be the years old, if it has not been dwarfed and highest ground upon the premises, and as a stunted and crowded, its branches and its roots matter of course, the soil would be most likely will each cover an area thirty or forty feet in to be the poorest, that is, it would contain the diameter. Should we confine a large ox to least organic matter; but in regard to richness the space, and allowance of feed, needful for a of the material essential for the healthy growth yearling steer, we would not expect it to thrive of the trees, it would most likely be the richest. or be able to perform much labor. Another reason for selecting the highest ground, When setting out trees, never dig the holes is on account of its being less liable to frosts. much larger than is necessary to admit the
One of the greatest causes of unhardiness roots in their natural position, and never put in fruit trees, is a too .rapid growth while any thing about the roots of the tree, in the young, causing the wood to be porous and spon- hole, except the soil which came out. Do not, gy, and in the young shoots, an insufficient upon any consideration, allow a tree to form a hardiness. If we should take a young calf in "head" below four and a half feet, better a the spring, and feed it all the summer with the foot higher. Do not fail to plant corn in the richest milk, oil-cake, and corn meal, and then orchard the season of setting it, and never sow when winter set in, let it go unfed, and with wheat, oats, barley or timothy, in an orchard. out protection; we would not think it at all Never allow the branches of a tree to “ fork;" strange if we found it dead in the spring cut of small limbs any time of the year ; large
Next in importance is the manner of raising | limbs only in March. the trees. The location and soil for the nur
The Lawton Blackberry Again. too valuable to be occupied in reviewing criti
cisms. The critics and their critiques must, Being duly impressed with the importance of
like our own sayings, be received according to true and safe counsel in all practical matters
their seeming merit. The reader must make we endeavor to give the readers of the FARMER
his own deductions, draw his own conclusions, from time to time the results of careful obser
and act according as circumstances and choice vation and experience.
may dictate. We have never thought of setting ourself up
| The subject of small fruit culture is one of for a “fruit god,” nor do we expect all will
interest to the North-West. These home comagree with our ideas on the subjects of culture,
forts it is the privilege of every farmer and shelter, protection—the quality and value of
the owner of every village lot in Wisconsin various sorts of fruit and other horticultural
to enjoy if they will-home-grown, gathered questions.
fresh for every meal during the months through Our opinion, generally given in the form of
| which the season may be easily prolonged. facts and statements we can ask no more for,
Without perverting our remarks, no one than that they be received, first as veritable
could discover the slightest intent to disparage next as worth considering, and the reliability I the old standby-the strawberry, gooseberry of our advice tested. We trust none will ever and currant. There was no thought of comfind in that “hereafter" (we suppose that parison. Our brief article was intended to means when the time for gathering the fruit convey the idea, that with winter protection, comes) that they have been led far astray. Our the Lawton Blackberry could be added to the own time and the pages of the FARMER are family supply, (other proper culture, we took it for granted, would be given as with any nures his ground and keeps it loose and free fruit).
from weeds; mulches in summer with cornWe have surely used our influence to encour- stalks ; prunes the canes and keeps down the age the abundant growing of all the above in suckers ; in the Fall he lays them all down and their best varieties and in the best manner. covers with earth and litter. Col. Crocker does We would add, not take from, and we would the same, and so must every one who would not that even one such table luxury should be succeed with this fruit, and I may add, with stricken from the list by prejudice or discour- most of the fine raspberries in the North-West. agement of any unsuccessful grower.
But our critic has been East and there seeWe do not " mark well our doings,” because ing the Lawton in perfection "voted” it was in we imagine ourselves on a pinacle with the the right "soil and climate"-he has been at "gods,” looked up to as a model of infallible Waukegan and found it equally successfulcorrectness, but because it is only by careful. "voted” there, again, was the right "soil and ness, truthfulness and impartiality that we can climate;" he might have added he found it in a hope to secure the end for which we write and garden sheltered (as we would have every fruit advise. We meant exactly what we said-all garden in the West) by evergreens and other with little trouble may add the Blackberry to trees, and he might have informed us that those the family supply of small fruits; not because very Lawton Blackberries also enjoyed a covMr. Merritt of Battle Creek, Mich., on his ering of straw and litter at approach of wingravelly sandy loam raised 100 bushels on a ter! He has been a few miles back of Waulittle less than an acre, (we said sixty bush- kegan and found the Lawton considered a els; Mr. Merritt sold sixty bushels in Chicago; humbug—"voted” it there out of its proper his crop was estimated at over 100 bushels) “soil and climate"—thereat he draws an imor Col. Crocker, on the strong clayey soil of aginary line which we may call “the BlackMilwaukee grew—I cannot exactly state at berry belt”-along the lake border. Had he what rate per acre, certainly twice the above further continued his investigations instead of yield, but because we have yet to learn of the being so eager to “vote down” that which he first solitary instance where the Lawton has had once “voted up" (not being in the Blacknot proved and justified all our assertions, berry belt how came he to vote it up ?) he where the right care is bestowed; and as an would have found about the same distance indispensible requisite to that care in Wisconsin, West of Racine at Dr. Jas. Ozanne's, the Law laying down and covering the canes must not ton again in perfection, and in prairie soil, and be omitted.
would have to draw another line and give Though we know of many instances of very another
another “vote." satisfactory success with this treatment, not Dr. Ozanne is a well known enthusiastic and one to the contrary has yet come to our knowl-successful amateur. What is his experience edge, notwitstanding the ipse dixit of one as- in growing the Lawton 7 or 8 years ! For suming the power to “to vote it up” or “ vote several years he did not protect in winter, his it down again" at pleasure.
canes bore only a little inferior fruit-now In a garden only a few rods from that of they are carefully covered, and the yield last Col. Crocker, the Lawton and Dorchester Black season was three quarts per hill, or at the rate berries have grown side by side for six or eight of about one hundred and fifty bushels per years without yielding in all that time as many acre. quarts of fruit. Why? Simply because they This discussion has really given the Lawton are treated as too many treat their currants, a prominence, more than we expected in our raspberries and strawberries, neglect them, let first simple remarks. It may serve to guide them care for themselves. Mr. Merritt ma- some discouraged ones to ultimate success, at
least teach them that what they undertake, if ever saw made its head so near the ground worth doing at all, is worth doing well.
that a person can without difficulty step into
the lower branches, and these branches spread A, G. HANFORD.
so low that the fruit can be gathered without Columbus, Ohio, March 12, '62.
difficulty by a person standing on the ground.
They are long branches, and the top of the tree forms a symmetrical hemisphere. Neither the axe nor the saw has been acoessory to forming that tree-head. The hand and the pruning-knife directed the first starting of these branches, and here they stopped, unless two combatant branches so interfered with each other's rights that one of them must be removed. This tree-top is so dense and so wide, that the hot midsummer sun can I not send his fiery rays to scorch the unprotected part of the tree. They fall upon its leafy head, and the warm atmosphere is diffused along the trunk and among the branches. No insects have ever disturbed the tree, unless it were some straggling worm that go far forgot the rules of propriety and honor as to commence
its web among its branches. CIDER.—Resembles the St. Lawrence tree, And what is far better, it has never failed of a but more vigorous, great bearer, very hardy crop since it commenced bearing.” and productive; fruit, large, oval, medium / The editor of the Horticulturist remarks that sized, red striped ; stem slender, in a very nar
non | low-headed trees also come into bearing earlier. row, deep cavity; calyx, small, closed, slight The Farmer, Sotting out Fruit-Troos, Mulch. basin, core medium; seeds many, small; flesh,
ing, &c., &c.
Editor Wis. FARMER:-Enclosed you will white, tender, brisk, sub-acid ; excellent cooking and eating. September to January. It
find $1 00 for the Wis. Farmer for one year. promises to become one of the few completely
Though the times are hard, I am not willing successful in the rich soils of the West. Has
to dispense with so valuable a paper as yours,
I find in it much valuable information in the been cultivated by the writer for the last seventeen years; supposed to be some old variety
many departments that interest the farmer. In by some, but has not yet been identified. We
the matter of logs and gain I think the farmer introduce it as a new Seedling, giving it tem
is much the gainer by the knowledge he may
acquire by a candid perusal and thorough
J. C. P. porarily the above name.
practice of the teachings of the FARMER. I Low Headed Troos,
have derived much information from it myself. William Bacon, of Mass., furnishes an able So send it along, it is our own paper adapted article for the Horticulturist on “Low Trees to our peculiar wants in this State and none versus High ones.” He is much in favor of other will answer our purpose go well. the former. They are less exposed to severe Allow me in writing, to mention one thing winds, have less wood, and can elaborate more learned from experience, that I have never sap for the fruit, and are less affected by dis- seen in any of the agricultural papers, and eases, insects, moss, etc. He says:
that is in relation to setting out young fruit “ The best specimen of an apple-tree we trees.
When I set out my first orchard, being inex-l “Now Mr. Editor, we are somewhat” sanperienced, I was advised to mulch them as the guine in most “branches of fruit-growing," spring was dry. I did so, and left it to remain and it grieves us to see such a communication through the summer. The event was, as the as this on the Lawton; “it does more hurt than manure became rotten, the white grub became good," especially in this early period of its inso numerous that they ate the bark off around troduction, and when so few careful experithe roots and killed many of the trees. On ments have been made to demonstrate the inquiry, I found that others had suffered in conditions of success which it requires. To the same way, without knowing the cause, but say “our soil and climate are not the thing," became convinced, after a close search, that is presuming too much against its success, the cause was as above stated. I think trees when it is well known that the wild blackberry that are mulched should be mulched with un- is completely successful in the timbered regions rotted straw, which as soon as it begins to and groves of the interior, remote from large ferment, should be taken away from them so bodies of water. the grub cannot have a chance to work. I Strawberry culture has been attempted the keep my orchard tilled and well manured, and last fifty years, but it is only quite recently, and do my pruning in the summer. I take pains since the sexual fertilization theory has been to keep my trees free from worms, and have understood, that complete success has crowned the most thrifty and best bearing trees, accord- the effort, and the strawberry become a berry ing to age, of any in my neighborhood. I for the million. have a poplar and locust wind-breaker on the Again, the wild blackberry when cultivated West and South, which I think is indispensi- in the rich garden soil and left without winter ble on the prairie. I am satisfied that if we protection, is as tender as the Lawton and fails observe this rule—that is make a good wind to fruit. breaker on East, West and South-get the har- It blooms and sets its fruit at a time when dy kinds of fruit, and when one tree is lost, hot, dry weather often prevails, and probably replace it with another, and take good care to requires moisture in the soil and atmosphere keep the trees clean from its enemies—every beyond that of open field culture; and tho' a farmer can have plenty of good fruit, oven on lake side atmosphere may be very desirable, the prairies.
| its place will be supplied by some simple sysLA PRAIRIZ, Feb. 14, 1862.
tem of culture, mulching and shade, which That Blackberry Talk.
will adapt it to the rich prairies of the West.
If the nurserymen is looked upon as a "fruit What is in it, that friend 0. S. W. should
god," then by all the Divine attributes he raise three exclamations(!!!) and correspond
should not condemn one of his deliciously good ing interrogatories! Is it because sixty bush
children to the regions of “humbugs,” but els per acre, or twelve quarts per square rod,
teach the million how to adapt it to their wants. is a remarkable crop even for the wild berry,
The spirit of the age demands no crab progresor in fact any other fruit ?
sion, and no "retreat," no loping off the varieIs it because that at some points on the lake
ties of small fruits, especially this one, which shore, it has succeeded finely, and that reason
nature in the wild variety, supplies so univering from analogy A. G. H. argues that “with
sally in the Northern States. J. C. P. very little trouble all might add this delicious variety to their fruits ?”
| Heart We earnestly hope that the war and the Or is it, that after having himself voted it hard times will not deter the farmers of Wisdown, “our mutual friend” should have the consin from doing a good business this spring temerity to slightly commend it, and advise in the way of setting out a good lot of fruit how it can be saved, to contribute to the lux trees, black and raspberry roots, currant cutury of the dessert.
tings, strawberry plants, &c.