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of note, that many of our best apples for Wis- berry. Doesn't it look splendid in cluster ? consin are of Southern origin.
Most magnificent and luscious. Would it might The above named apples are of Northern stimulate every reader of the FARMER who has origin, but their habits of late growth unfit hitherto been living without this most luscious them for the peculiarities of the climate of the fruit, to make a beginning this year. Twenty North-West.
A. G. HANFORD. years without a bed of strawberries! Why COLUMBUS, Ohie.
| it's positively barbarian. But as our friend
has repented and turned from the error of his ways, it will become our Christtan duty to forgive him. Are there any more sinners of this class who ought to confess ?
BUCKWHEAT AND BARK LICE.“I have no bark lice in my orchard,” said a farmer to me, “because I have got rid of them.”
How did you get rid of them ?
"My trees were very lousy. An old Hoosier came along three years ago, discovered the lice, and told me to sow buckwheat on the ground, let it grow, lie on the ground and decay there-let it cover the ground as a mulch.Have done so, and the lice have disappeared.”
The orchard was in grass before, and the plowing and thorough culture which the buckwheat seeding gave it, together with the enriching nature of the mulch, may have been the direct cause. Culture, I believe, will cure orchards of this pest, in most cases. And ashes applied about the base of lousy trees are found to render the tree uncomfortable for the
lice.-Rural New Yorker. Wilson's Albany Strawberry.
To PREVENT BUGS IN PEAs.-E. Horton, MR. EDITOR :-Having lived without strawberries in my Esq., of McFarland, says that planting from garden some twenty years, I now propose to make amends
the 8th to 12th of June will prevent bugs in for my sin the best I can, by planting a large bed of the
peas; the reason given is that the period will best and giving them especially good care. Have formed a high opinion of the Wilson's Albany from the fow I then have passed wit
then have passed within which the pea-weevil have seen and eaten. Are they hardy and prolific ? lays its eggs. There may be something in this Yours, &c.,
J. L. remedy, but it will, of course not insure peas Milwaukee Co., Wis., March 8.
for other than winter use. The Wilson's Albany is at present, and
HOW TO TELL SEEDLINGS THAT WILL PRODUCE justly, we are inclined to think, taking the DOUBLE FLOWERS.-The Journal of the Paris lead, in this State, of all the strawberries. It Horticultural Society states that an experienced is hardy and very prolific. It has large size,
Italian cultivator of florists' flowers, Signor
Rigomonti, has discovered how to distinguish moreover, and is one of the handsomest berries between single and double pinks in the seedin the world. The above cut (published pos- ling state. Those having, as usual, but two
leaves, will be single, while those having three sibly in a former volume) is a fair representa
leaves will produce double flowers. He thinks tion of the size, form and yield of this popular the test infallible.
Mistakes of Troe-Plantors.
mound up in autumn. It is a great mistake to
suppose, that, in planting them, the roots of BY DR. JOHN A. KENNICOTT.
trees must be drenched with cold water; and
after watering are worse yet. More are killed [From a lecture before the Illinois State Horticultural Society, December 1, 1860.]
by too liberal floodings, than the want of waIn the mode of planting there are bad mis
ter. Abundant moisture, so essential to abuntakes. Few prepare their ground properly,
dant vegetation, is the greatest curse of the and most of you hurry the operation, for fear
| tree-planter and fruit-grower; where superaof losing your trees. All wrong. The first
bundant, and long retained about the roots of thing you should do, on receiving trees—either
his trees and plants. And underdrainage, or spring or fall—is to heel them in, nicely, in
surface outlets, his only safety; and the latter
| is but a temporary palliation, and one of unmoist mellow soil-unless frozen-and even then you must heel in, suddenly, and in bulk,
told wastefulness. if not well “ packed.” You are mistaken in
PRUXING. believing that freezing the roots will kill a tree,
Nearly our whole system of pruning is a if thawed properly—and you are oftener mis
mistake-& barbarism. Cutting back, or taken in supposing trees dried in the package
age "shortening in," is often necessary, in shaping must be dead. We occasionally have trees
have trees a tree, and keeping it in good shape, and in months on the way, and quite dry when re
restoring something like a reasonable balance ceived. But they are not always dead. Bury between top and roots. in cases of great de.
struction of the latter, in digging them up. where air, heat and moisture can act upon
The removal of interfering branches may be them gradually, and then cut back severely,
called for, when they cannot be drawn apart plant and shade them, and they may do pretty and preserved-and dead wood, and sometimes well, for all the drying. It is a very bad prac
thick unfruitful spray, may, well enough, fall tice, for all that, to let the roots of trees get
under the saw or the knife. But, as usually dry; and a worse one to let them freeze, while
practiced, better never prune at all. naked, as some of you do, in noving them without packing.
MULCHING. But to the operation of planting. Some of Mulch is almost always a good thing, if not you 'do prepare your soil, by deep plowing ; carried to excess; and it is indispensible, in but I fear most of you do not plow deep enough. connection with late spring planting. But All of you dig “holes”—some of them deep some of us overdo the thing. Just mulch enough for fence posts, and not much larger enough, after planting, to prevent rapid evapthan old fashioned post-holes.” Part of you oration from the soil, and sudden changes of put manure in the bottom-a damnable prac- temperature, and it is of great service; while tice-others don't, and are right there. Most too much of it is dangerous, excluding sun and of you crowd the roots into these “holes," air, and, perhaps, other good influences-prehap-hazard, and sink them deep enough, not to venting early maturity, by encouraging late need "staking," and then shovel in the earth
growth-harboring vermin, and all that. Fall -with or without water and “tread down" mulching is another thing, especially where firmly, and the work is done--and the tree your object is to retain the heat of the earth, often «done for." I have just heard of a as long as practicable. thousand or so, planted in this manner, by a
CULTIVATION. man who pretended to know how, and trodden down so as to turn the ends of the roots up-1 Many planters expect a crop of fruit, withwards! and leave a nice dish about the stem out any particular cultivation ; and yet they of every tree to catch the rain!!” I am would laugh at the idea of a corn or potato told that some of them are alive, but they crop, under like circumstances. Be assured of ought not to live.
one fact, I pray you: All our best fruits need Never dig “holes”-never dig deeper in one more liberal culture than corn, especially while place than another-and never deeper where young. Better not plant at all, unless deterthe tree stands than twenty feet from it. I mined to cultivate. And just about as well would have every root I should get, and have cut down your young fruit trees, as "seed them all fresh and good-pare their bruises, down" the orchard, as some of you do, and and then carefully imbed them in fine earth, better cut it down than sow the small grainsspreading and separating them, and planting buckwheat, possibly, excepted-among your just enough deeper than the tree grew in the trees. Some one-perhaps Downing--has said, nursery, to allow for the settling of the soil. that “two crops of rye" would ruin any orchI would dip the roots in a rich puddle, before ard. I think three crops of any other small planting-and before "heeling in,” too-andunhoed cereal about as fatal. It is great mistake my time for the work. In very loose soil take to put any but hoed crops in an orchard ; I would press down, gently over the outer ends and, of those, corn, sorghum, and other tall of the roots—not next the stem--and if neces- plants, are objectionable, on account of shade, sary stake them in the spring--and certainly late in summer, until the trees get high enough to overtop it. Where the soil is very deep and be taken to have it removed. There are few rich, and the trees large, perhaps red clover seeds that require such extreme attention. may be sown, as a check to wood growth. 1 Small seeds, as Petunia, Portulaca. &c., 80W
Many of you plant too deep, and use a spade about $ of an inch in depth; those of larger when a fork would do better, among the roots size, as Mignonette, Sweet Alyssum, &c., about of growing trees. A corn plow, or “culiiva of an inch in depth; still larger, as Balsam, tor," aided by fork and hoe, are the implements | Morning Glory, &c., i of an inch in depth; to use in the orchard and fruit garden. and seeds of the largest size, as Lupine, NasMANURE.
turtium, &c., fully 1 inch in depth. They Who ever knew corn or meadow land too
must be covered with finely pulverized soil, or highly manured! I never did. Who has seen
leaf-mould, slightly pressed down, and should rhubarb or currant bushes too liberally sup
be kept moderately moist by shading or slight plied ! I should like to know. But manure
sprinklings of water, until they make their for such gross feeders may be all right, and
appearance. When about one inch in height often necessary; while, with every fruit tree,
the plants must be thinned out from one to great caution, in its use, or its entire abandon
two inches apart, to prevent crowding. Tall
varieties should be neatly staked to prevent ment, is the safe oourse. As a rule, you give young orchards too much, and your old bear
injury from wind or rain. ing ones too little manure. And in neither
The time for sowing is regulated by latitude case do you discriminate as you should, or
1-April and early in May are the months gengive or with hold manure for a specific reason.
erally selected about New York and Philadel
phia, and about Charleston and Savannah In a large proportion of our virgin soil, the
some six weeks earlier. young tree, if well cultivated, is likely to grow fast enough ; and too fast, for safety, if a tender sort. Here, fat manures will do much Practical Observations on Grape Growing. more hurt than good-so far as the tree or plant is concerned. But, by and by, the crops
BY J. C. PLUMB. taken from between the trees, and occasional large vields of fruit will begin to tell on the A Paper read before the Madison Hortticultural Society,
March 18th.] trees, and then vegetable and animal manures may come in, to keep up a healthy growth, and
Of all the small fruits, the grape is most unhelp sustain large crops of fruit. And miner- suited with wet feet, or an inactive cold soil. al matters may be still more useful; for you! The natural habitat of the choice fruit-procan no longer plow deep, to bring them from below. The roots are in the way of the plow. ducing vine, is the rocky hill-side, with just And here I note another mistake. You pile enough soil intermixed, to filter out and retain the manure around and near the bodies of
the rich mineral elements, continually furnishyour trees, when the roots, to feed on it, are no longer there! If your tree is twenty feeted by the perfect æration and decomposition. high, the best feeding roots may be twenty feet At the same time it is true that the grape loves from the tree! perhaps interlocking with roots from neighboring trees. Place your manure
to luxuriate in deep mould, if underlaid by a selfthere; and, in plowing it under," don't plow draining stratum ; as is often found on the rich up the roots of your trees. Barnyard manure river banks of the middle and western states, is not, as some suppose, always the best sort for bearing trees. Leached ashes. powdered where are an abundance of mammoth vines, or dissolved bones, marl, or air-slaked lime, with diminutive worthless fruit. It is therefore may be much more useful; and these should be
evident that to secure success in grape growgiven, whenever their constituents are deficient in the soil-either with or without yard ma-ing, we should combine the alluvial with the nure, or compost-according to the WANTS OF mineral, in such proportions and place, as to YOUR SOIL.
give vigor, health and productivness to the On the Sowing of Flower Seeds. vine, and excellence and beauty to the fruit. [From the Ag. Department of the U. 8. Patent Office.) | Location. The first important consideration
In order to be successful in raising flowers of which is, THOROUGH DRAINAGE. from seed, it will be necessary to bear in mind. The second is, exemption from early and late that the smaller the seed the less deeply should on
"frosts, and cold, damp air generally. it be covered with earth. Some seeds are so small that they require only to be sprinkled The grape requires an even temperature, and over the ground and gently pressed into the above all our common fruits, is sensitive to exsoil, and should the weather prove very dry, a thin layer of damp moss ought to be placed tre
tremes of heat and cold. over them till they germinate, when care must A very large and even amount of heat is desirable, but in our latitude is practicable warm side of a brick or stone building, espeonly under glass—but we design to treat only cially if the basement or cellar wall runs deep of out-door culture—therefore to secure these down, affording drainage; and the usual emdesirable conditions before mentioned, we bankment and rubbish from the cellar and would, when possible, plant upon, or near the wall, form a good combination of soil. crown of the highest hills, in gravelly soils; or The west side is the surest in our climate, if the soil be clay, clay marl, or calcarious, we being less subject to extremes, and less frosty; would deeply trench the whole vineyard, throw- the change is not 80 rapid on those frosty ing in stone, brush, straw, or some other loose mornings followed by bright sunshine. A material, to gradually decompose, affording a southern aspect will bring forward vine and good underdrainage, and a constant source of fruit earliest, and to greater perfection, but circulation, both from above and below. When will require some careful watching and covertrenching the whole vineyard is impracticable, ing with mats, &c., to secure from dews and or only a few vines are to be planted,—as in sunshine, when frost is expected. the case of trellis-culture in the garden, On this subject of aspect, the same remarks then adopt a system of deep spading, or plow- will apply to field culture. A free circulation ing, then ridging.
of air is essential to success. In field culture successive plowing—as we The grape is most particular in its choice of have often recommended in orchard planting- location, yet fortunately, it adapts itself in the sufficient to raise a ridge for each row of vines, different varieties, to almost all kinds of soil ; two or three feet above the bottom of the dead and no one need be deterred from planting, furrow will answer ; in garden culture, this can who has the ordinary resources at hand; for be performed with the spade, or when the soil is the level land can be made a hillock relatively; poor, or very stiff, by carting in good surface the soil full of stagnant water can be drained; soil, with an admixture of gravel or sand, to the stiff clay can be made friable and porous render it porous, elevating the bank or border by trench exposure to the action of frost and air, two feet or more, enough for the entire suste- and when thus served, generally contains the denance of the vine, without expecting or com- sired elements in good proportion. The warm pelling its feeders to go into cold, inactive soil sand and gravel soils only require the yearly for pasture.
application of good composted manures to the In soils underlaid with gravel, it is not posi- surface to render them superior for the grape. tively necessary to elevate the vine-row or On planting, little need be said; but to urge border, if the gravel can be reached at the the previous preparation of the soil as before depth of two or three feet. There is great mentioned, giving a place for each root and folly in the old mode of digging a grave, and fiber as nearly as possible, covering lightly depositing, deep down, all manner of "dead with soil, but heavily with mulch of straw, things,” filling up with half rotted manure and leaves, saw-dust, or well rotted manure. A soil, on which to set the vine. It is even worse compost heap prepared a year beforehand, is than useless; it usually proves the grave of the most economical manure pile the planter the planter's hopes and efforts.
can invent, as it absorbs all the vegetable rubbish Thorough drainage secures complete æration of the season, is ever ready, both for manure and of the soil; such soils are never cold, and inac- mulch, always safe, the “philosopher's stono" tive; seldom suffer from dryness, or wet, and of the gardener. An annual top dressing of even when done on a small scale, it is productive this compost, or even coarse manure, should of very decided lessening of the extremes of be applied at the time of annual pruning in temperature, both in frosty nights and sultry the fall, as winter mulch and protection ; to days.
be forked in in the spring. Special manures An excellent situation for the grape is the are not necessary, unless it be to renovate old vineyards, that have by neglect, exhausted the lists of varieties to be planted, regardless of the elements of growth; and even then, severe absolute qualities necessary to orchard culture. cutting back of the vine, removing the soil Allow we all made a mistake on sorts, and that around the roots, and replacing with virgin the Siberian winter of '55 and '56 injured fruit soil, followed by the compost top-dressing, will trees generally throughout the entire United be found an excellent mode.
States. PRUNING.-The proper time for all heavy Does our mistake end with the cold of winter! pruning of all plants and trees, is during the I think not. I think that our inexperience in dormant season. The vine, especially, will not the true theory of Horticulture was never more bear pruning during the first flow of sap in the fully demonstrated than in the course that has spring. Autumn or early winter is the best been pursued by almost all tree-growers. It time. Early spring pruning will not be inju- is according to the “books” I believe, that a rious, if followed by several days of cold, tree, in more ways than one, possesses many freezing weather. It can also be safely done of the characteristics of an animal without when the vine is in the leaf, the objection being detailing these functions. It seems to me it the loss of wood for that season.
I would be a peculiarly strange philosophy that Vines, when out of the soil, can be pruned would teach the idea of absolute neglect of a at any time. All light pruning of the vine horse, an ox, or one of the human kind and can be done by pinching during summer.
to refuse even Homeopathic doses of medicine [Concluded in next number.]
and food so necessary in all countries to vegetable
as well as animal life, in order to cure a sick paHardinoss of Fruit Troos.
tient. Was that the way to cure the diseased The time for tree planting is rapidly ap-condition of tender, weakly growing varieties proaching. Thousands of orders for fruit trees of fruit trees? The present appearance of are to be filled within this month, thousands neglected grass grown orchards fully demonof dollars are to be paid for them; years of strates the contrary. Abundant cases are known time in the aggregate are to be devoted to setting to me where a regular system of culture, acout the 500,000 or more trees in Wisconsin this cording to sound common sense principles has spring. Doubtless & majority of this vast been followed out systematically and regularly amount will be tolerably well planted. from year to year, when complete success has
It would seem from observations, in con- crowned high expectations. Will not a carenection with above thoughts, that the com- ful observation convince any one that "hardy mon sentiment generally among the good peo- fruit trees” are not made so altogether by the ple of Wisconsin is, "only give me some nurseryman. The intelligent tree cultivator hardy trees, and I will invest a V or an X as a can likewise do much towards testing varietrial, and if I succeed with these in four or ties. It would be hardly supposed a tree that five years hence, I will put me out an orchard.” I could not be successfully grown in a nursery Will it not be safe to consider on whom the re- with the care and shelter it there has, could be sponsibility of this “trial scheme” depends a good kind for orchard planting. Subject as for success? It is a very easy matter to cipher the majority of trees are to the winds, the out where the fault is if the scheme fails, al- rabbits, the sheep, the hogs, the cattle, and, lowing the past history of Wisconsin as a not by any means the last, to the raking whifprecedent. The climate or the nurserymen fletrees and drag of the husbandman. were the grand cause of all the disasters !-1 Hence, the varieties we plant are to be conWell we are willing to allow that experience is sidered; the way they are planted is another an impressive teacher, that extreme cases are consideration, and cultivation and care crown properly exceptions, and that nurserymen had a the transaction. hand in inducing the extended and countless Allow me to say the idea accidentally advanc