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made to them for public and private purposes, a hundred bushels might be considered a libmake it indispensable to maintain a permanent
eral quantity. clerical force to have them in charge. Confident that such a bureau will assert its claim to The kind of crop which should immediately public preservation, and by its utility prove follow is not important, as the effects of leached the wisdom of the measure, I recommend its immediate formation."
ashes are quite permanent.
Upon grass lands they may be used with
benefit as a top-dressing. Secretary Flint of Value and Uses of Leached Ashes.
the Massachusetts Board of Agaiculture, in his We promised in the last number to give some excellent work on “Grasses and Forage Plants," account of the value of leached ashes and of remarks as follows: their adaptation to certain soils — gravelly!«Grasses are often more benefitted by ashes clay, with sub-soil of clay.
than other crops, since they require a greater For crops which require a large percentage amount of the salts which ashes contain. For of potash and soda, such as beans, peas, pota
all permanent mowing lands, especially on the toes, Indian corn, grapes, &c., the effects of
lighter soils, ashes are among the cheapest of unleached ashes are more marked and imme
manures, where they can be had in sufficient diate. Still, leached ashes contain large pro
quantities. In parts of Flanders and Belgium, portions of the insoluble constituents which,
countries in which the science of agriculture though not so prompt and stimulating in their
has been carried to a high perfection, the great action, are, nevertheless just as really neces- loss of inorganic matters from the soil is consary to the growth of plants, while their influ- stantly restored by ashes or bones. * * ence is more permanent.
According to Liebig, with every one hundred In all parts of the world where anything
and ten pounds of leached ashes of the com
mon beech-tree, spread upon the soil, we furlike a system of agriculture exists—where the
nish as much phosphate as five hundred and farmer is not brim-full of the notion that his
seven pounds of the richest manures could soils are inexhaustible-ashes of all kinds, particularly ashes of wood, even though de
yield. Now phosphates are useful to all kinds
of soil. prived of a greater part of their alkalies by the process of leaching, are esteemed of great
Those who have tried leached ashes have value, and carefully preserved.
been fully satisfied of their superior quality
as a fertilizer. Careful experiments, by pracThe value will of course be determined
tical, conservative men, show that land produsomewhat by the kind of wood from which the
cing one ton to the acre has been so improved ashes are derived.
by this means as to yield three tons to the acre. But then the wood of any plant or vegetable Where thirty bushels were used on three-fourths will yield ashes capable of contributing to the of an acre, in one instance, the crop was ingrowth of any of the crops grown by the creased more than three-fold. Nor are leached farmer.
ashes subject to the objection which are raised Clay lands are most benefitted, but very light by some against the use of lime. They do not sandy soils are largely improved by them- apparently exhaust the soil. Their effect is felt especially if organic manures, (muck, barn- for several years. Many farmers have found, yard manures, &c.,) be also applied. Gravelly by experience, that one bushel of unleached loams would undoubtedly derive advantage hard-wood ashes is nearly equal to two bushels from their application. The quantity per acre of plaster, as a top-dressing for the dried grass will of course be determined by a variety of lands. If this be true what has been said, circumstances, such as character of soil, kind would show that leached ashes are about equal of crop, expense of application, &c. Fifty to to plaster in their effects on such lands."
Cotton and Sorghum.
How to Raise Potatoos. The following extract from a circular from A report in the Springfield (Mass) Republican the Patent Office, shows that the Government of the doings of a Farmers' Club, recently held
at a Chicopee farm house, includes the followintends encouraging the propagation of it in
ing on the subject of potato raising : the Northern States, and an appropriation has One of the party, a large grower of potatoes, been made by Congress for the purchase of
and who has at present about 1,500 bushels in
store, gave his experience, as follows:-Ho secd for distribution. The introduction of the prefers corn ground that has been manured the seed of Sorghum is also being made through year previous. Strong manure, he said, makes
diseased potatoes. After plowing unmanured the medium of the same department:
ground, he marks out the rows, four at a time. CIRCULAR.
In these rows he drops single pieces of cut poUNITED States Patent Office, tatoes, eighteen inches apart. “A medium sized AGRICULTURAL DIVISION,
potato is enough for four hills, or about six
bushels of seed to the acre. Large seed potaWASHINGTON, January 15, 1862.
toes give about one-fourth more product at The cultivation of cotton in the milder por- harvest than small ones. Small potatoes have tions of the Free States is beginning to attract about as many eyes as large ones, but the general attention.
sprouts from those eyes are not as large or To prevent failures in its cultivation, it is vigorous. The potatoes are covered about two proper to remark that it is a principle in vege- inches deep. table physiology that tropical plants can never | The potato vegetates slowly, and usually be acclimated North except by a repeated re- weeds start before the potatoes. When the production of new varieties from seed.
potatoes have sprouted so as generally to show The attempt to grow “Sea Island" cotton, themselves above the ground, a hoeing machine such as is now brought from Hilton Head, is introduced, which covers the potatoes some would prove a failure in any portion of the two inches deeper and destroys the weeds like Free States. The only variety capable of suc- a plough. Subsequently the potatoes are hoed cessful cultivation in those sections now seek - twice and receive no further care till digging. ing its introduction is the green seed” cotton, The common yield is about 200 bushels per such as is now being raised extensively in acre. He digs with a hook, and from thirty Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, and portions to sixty bushels per day to a man. Davis' of Kentucky, and which produces the " white Seedlings are his favorites. fibre." Seed should be obtained from these localities. The modification of soil and cli
National Bureau of Agriculture. mate will influence the size of the plant, the length and fineness of the fibre, and the pro
President Lincoln in his late message thus duct of the crop. No reasonable doubt is alludes to the necessity of a National Agriculentertained of the success of the culture in all I tural Bureau : mild portions of the Middle States, and efforts are now making by this Division to procure
“ Agriculture, confessedly the largest inter
r the proper seed for distribution.
e st of the nation, has not a department nor & *
| bureau, but a clerkship only assigned to it in SORGHUM.—The results of the cultivation of the government. While it is fortunate that sorgho the past year settle the question of its this great interest, is so independent in its naentire practical success. The value of its pro-ture as not to have demanded and extorted duct is now counted by millions, and its cul- more from the government, I respectfully ask tivation is becoming a subject of absorbing Congress to consider whether something more interest.
cannot be given voluntarily with general adOne of the difficulties presenting itself is vantage. Annual reports exhibiting the conthe want of pure seed. To meet this want dition of our agriculture, commerce, and manthis Division has ordered seed from France for ufactures would present a fund of information distribution the ensuing spring. It must be of great practical value to the country. While borne in mind, however, that the same causes I make no suggestion as to details, I venture which have produced deterioration here, exist the opinion that an agricultural and statistical there, and well grounded apprehensions are bureau might profitably be organized.” entertained that the seed thus imported may not be free from suspicion.
MAPLE SUGAR.—Hunt's Merchants' Magazine Farmers interested should secure pure seed estimates the crop of maple sugar at 28,000 from among themselves when it is possible, as tons yearly, or 62,700,000 lbs. But & very the season is so far advanced that direct im- much larger amount can be produced, and portations from Africa or China would be doubtless will be, thus relieving the country impracticable. D. P. HOLLOWAY, from foreign indebtedness, and keeping the
Commissioner of Patents. balance of trade in our favor.
Another Neat and Cheap Village or Farm House. I ordinary entrance in the latter case being di
In our last number, we furnished a design rectly into the "living" room. It would be for a pleasant farm house that could be built well in either event to have a door connecting for about $800. We now furnish one of an the living or family room and parlor. And entirely different style, estimated to cost $1000 should the room marked H be used as a family to $1200. It presents a very neat exterior
room, then the closet should be made under and contains eight pleasant apartments.
the stairway so as to admit of a door between rooms H and L.
The second story is divided up into four convenient sleeping apartments with closets. A door between the two front rooms would add to
their convenience. According to the ground plan shown above,
BEET Root SUGAR.-Jno. H. Klippart writes the front rooms are a parlor and a reception
to the Ohio Farmer, that Prof. F. A. Mot, of room or hall, the rear rooms a living room Columbus, has succeeded in the manufacture and kitchen. Should a different arrangement of sugar from the beet. From a computation be preferred, the hall could easily be converted of sugar can be produced per acre, or 6,000
based upon his experiment, six and a half tons into either a sitting room or bed-room-the Ibs. of sugar and 600 gallons of syrup. Rating
the sugar at six cents per fb., and the syrup at The sugar is of dark color, and not well drainforty cents per gallon, the product per acre is ed, the process of draining consisting simply $600.
in placing the syrup in the mush” state in & Prof. Mot has ordered from France sugar- bag, pressing out the molasses in a common beet root seed to plant ten acres next Spring, portable cider mill. He estimates that about and is preparing machinery to manufacture it. seven-tenths of the syrup turns to sugar. He
Other parties believe the beet root is destin- also states that he can make the sugar at five ed to furnish the North with sugar, and sor- cents per pound, and syrup at twenty-five cents ghum with syrup.
per gallon, and make more profit per aore than
from corn. Mr. S. was kind enough to give Sorghum.
us a detailed account of his mode of cultiva
tion and manufacture, the same as presented From the proceedings of the Executive Board before the body. We give it in full. He says: of the Illinois State Agricultural Society, we The little experience which I have had for make the following extracts :
the last few years in the culture and manufac
ture of syrup and sugar from the Chinese and STATEMENT OF G. J. MAXWELL, LEXINGTON, OH10. | African sugar cane, has been fraught with
Sample of sugar, yield seven pounds of su- much encouragement. The farming community gar per gallon of syrup, two hundred gallons in our district have generally expressed full of syrup to the acre; cane topped when hauled satisfaction on the munificent returns for their to the mill; canes cut in the middle; that from labor. No less than 6,000 barrels of good syrthe butts boiled by itself in Cook's Evaporator. up has been manufactured in Adams County No chemicals--put in warm places and crys- this season. While our implements were of talized in forty-eight hours. That from the the rudest material, and unfit to make good tops put in cellar for table use—but crystalized experiments, yet our success has been beyond when set in a warm kitchen, and becomes a our expectations. perfect mass of sugar. Suckered a part of We have used the Cincinnati Crusher and cane-perceived no difference in the product; Cook's Evaporator, pan No. 8, and a long pan suckers as much good juice as the cane itself. in connection with this, of 22 feet wide and 20 STATEMENT OF SAMUEL HOOKER.
feet long, the bottom being of copper or gal
vanized iron; and these have produced the Mr. Hooker of Schuyler county, sent a jug
: sent a jug best results, making 250 and 375 gallons per of syrup, which was in what might be called day, with one cord of wood. We use the Evapthe mush” state-probably one-half the quan
orator till the juice is thoroughly clarified, and tity had granulated. It is claimed by Mr.
the white, gluoy scum disappears, which is Hooker to be from a cane unlike that generally about 20 to 25° Beaume, then it passes graduplanted, and from his present knowledge, much
ally in the long pan reaching in, boiling down superior to either the common sorghum or im
to about 35 to 37°, B. The gate is then opened phee. He speaks of its habits as follows: Jinto a large. Alat cooler, that will hold the labor
“This cane grows straight and tall, and on lof the day, and from the African Cane you will rich land very thick; has no suckers, each find a complete granulation the next morning. seed producing a single stalk, and does not
The specimens of syrup and sugar now prereadily mix with other seeds. The juice is
sented for your examination have been made by clearer than that of the common sorghum, and the process mentioned, and without the aid of any harder to press out of the stalk. From exper- chemicals, and only by the aid of skimmer and fire. iment, I conclude this stalk contains nearly or quite twice the quantity of juice contained in! Sulphite of lime will extract all the acid common cane."
from the sugar--if a solution of it is mixed Of the sample on exhibition, he says: “I
with the juice while in the process of boiling. manufactured, I suppose, about thirty gallons
The specimen of syrup is from the Chinese of molasses-using a common box (six feet by Cane, and as already mentioned, without the two), bottomed with sheet iron. À little soda use of anything except the skimmer and fire. was added for cleansing. It was my first at
It was my first atal Our climate has proved fully adapted to the tempt at molasses-making. This sample was Chinese and African Canes, and our soil the made by simply stirring and boiling a little very element for its culture. It is a mistake longer than for molasses."
that the richer the soil the larger the produc
tion of this article, (which eventually must REPORT OF J. H. SMITH, OF ADAMS co.
become of the greatest benefit to this State,) Probably more importance attaches to the for the cane grows as well in poorer soil, and report of this gentleman, than to that of any the best on dry, sandy fields. On the rich exhibitor present, from the fact that he has ground the cane grows rank, but is spongy and proved beyond a doubt sugar as well as syrup full of woody fibres, and the yield is by far can be produced from Northern cane, without less than on the weaker lands. The Chinese the use of chemicals. The sample present, Cane is much more desirable for syrup when was from a lot of about one ton, made by Mr. raised on sandy soil, and is much more desiraS., the past season, from the Imphee cane.- ble for syrup than any of the Imphee kinds.
of the different kinds of African Cane, we made some practical experiments, and demonfound the following best adapted to our soil: strated that nearly half the time may be saved
Neeaza-na, Boomwaa-na, and Oom-se-a-na. in germinating the seed by the use of chloride These three kinds will ripen in ninety days, of lime. and our yield from them has been twelve hun- Not satisfied with the success of last year, dred pounds of sugar and one hundred to one he is again experimenting. In his offico he hundred and twenty-five gallons of syrup to has four boxes ; in the first is corn planted the acre. Had I been permitted to present as without soaking, and the seed not germinated ; a specimen some of the sugar, after having in the second the seed was soaked in warm gone through a refining process—such a one water which has just commenced to germinate, as used by Belcher in St. Louis—I have the in the third is a seed soaked in a solution of full conviction, that from the specimen pre- lime, and green blades are just peeping from sented, sugar like Belcher's best crushed sugar the ground; in the fourth is a seed soaked in would have been the result.
a solution of chloride of lime and copperas, in Dry seasons are a great advantage to its equal parts, and the blades are now nearly growth, and it can be grown even on a flat three inches above the ground. All the seeds meadow, and it improves the land.
were planted at the same time, in the same It should be planted as early as possible, the quality of soil, and taken from the same ear. seed being soaked for about twelve hours in a The boxes have all had an equal share of heat solution of chloride of lime, (about one ounce and light, neither allowed the advantage over to a pint of seed.) It should not be covered the other. very deep, as it is then liable to rot.
This experiment should attract the attention When ready to manufacture, strip your leaf, of farmers, We conclude from four to six cut your cane, and press your cane all on the weeks may be saved by the use of chloride of same day if possible, as it presents the souring lime and copperas, which is a matter of no oror fermenting of the juice, and which latter dinary moment when we reflect that a delay of destroys the flavor of the syrup. The plant germination of the seed of two weeks frequenthas a natural acid which is easily removed, ly places the crop within reach of the frost in and has been by most people when tasted in the fall. Another fact of some importance the syrup, called scorched; but the fermented may also be mentioned. The copperas used in plants, or the juice expressed from the latter, soaking will prevent the birds, squirrels, cannot be freed from the acid, or at leat our worms, etc., from eating the seed. experiments have failed.
Dr. Chamberlin assures us that one pound of Beyond doubt our sugar has as good a body chloride of lime and one pound of copperas in and as firm a crystalization as any of the sugars water, will soak enough seed for twenty acres. from our Southern countries, and our sugar, The cost will be but twenty-five cents. — when refined, will compare with the best now Every farmer could afford to make the experiin market.
ment, even if he should fail to derive any The sugar I have presented for your exami- benefit from it.”—N. Y. Tribune. nation has been strained through common cloth, and was rather a forced process, and I have no doubt, with improved machinery, I shall be
Dwarf Broom Corn. able to present at the next Fair all that can be
[Some time since a new variety of Broom desired of this plant. All of which I respectfully submit.-J. H. Smith, in Rural Register.
Corn attracted considerable attention and was
noticed extensively by the agricultural press. Seed Corn-How to Produce Early Germination. We had seen none of the corn, until this winIf you did not, as you have so often been
ter, when a specimen was brought to the Agriadvised to do, save your seed corn by selecting cultural Rooms by Hon. M. K. Young, of the the best ears in the field, don't loose another Senate. It gives promise of being a good thing, day but go at one to your corn crib and pick out the handsomest ears that you can find, and
and as Mr. Young has generously proposed to store them up in some dry loft, no matter if it give us a quantity of the seed for gratuitous is a very smoky one, and as hot as July sun, it distribution, we shall hope to have it thoroughly won't hurt the vitality of the seed.
It is of the highest importance that your seed tested the coming season. The following comshould germinate immediately after you plant munication, written at our request, will give it. That is of more importance than early planting. Germination can undoubtedly be
the reader an idea of the particulars wherein hastened by artifieial means. Dr. Chamberlin it differs from the Broom Corn now in cultiof Bureau Co., Ill., has made some important | vation :) discoveries in this direction. The Republican
ED. FARMER:-Pursuant to your request, I says:
“ Last year Dr. Chamberlin of this place submit such considerations relative to the