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guarded against at this time more particularly disproved by the fact that it works as actively is to the poplars and maples. About the last on dead limbs of trees, wood piles, fence posts, of June they return to the deep wood to breed, &e., in which there could not possibly be a from which they make daily forays to the orch- drop of sap, and by the invariable absence of ards and gardens, doing more or less damage. either in the crop. The perforations in the After the breeding season is over, the old birds, bark which this bird makes are done while it with their broods, return to the fields, orchards is searching for insects and their larvæ; while and gardens of the farmers and others and go thus engaged it labors with much energy and quietly to work to destroy thousands of valua- activity, frequently spending several minutes ble fruit, shade and ornamental trees. Return- at one spot, rather than suffer the vermin, ing with the new recruits, they attack the which are concealed beneath the bark, to conapple, the pear and the mountain ash with a tinue their work of destruction unmolested. vigor that, unless they are killed at the outset, On such occasions it becomes so intent on its an immense number of valuable trees will be occupation as to allow one to approach quite killed or seriously injured. While in the deep near the scene of its operations, and it may forest he lives on the ironwood and lynn, often be seen drawing out the larvæ from the mainly, as these trees furnish sap and an holes it has made and swallowing them. abundance of cambrium or cambium and liber. The insects both in the larva and perfect Yet they prefer the smooth, thrifty trunks of state

state which it destroys are all greatly injurious fruit tree, as is proved by their daily visits to the orchards.” Dr. H. then repeated his re

to fruit and forest trees; among the former commendation to destroy them on every occa- may be mentioned the apple tree borers of sion.

which two species attack the smaller limbs and The above remarkable statements seem to branches, and one or more the trunk; the peach be uttered in good faith, but they could not and pear tree borers, and multitudes of small certainly result from the personal observation

insects which mine the bark and otherwise of the doctor regarding the habits of this bird, but must rather be a lingering remnant of that

injure the tree. Forest trees are perforated in

various directions by coleopterous larvæ which superstition which farmers have nearly and naturalists antirely done away with. I am per

utterly ruin the wood for anything but fuel.

Such is the immense reproductive power of suaded that if the doctor had but given his

| these insects that unless their numbers were attention for one hour to this bird as it works

diminished greatly by this family of birds, the actively in the orchards and woods, he would

immense forests of this country would be comnever have made the above assertions; but it

| pletely destroyed, at least for timber purposes. is to these careless and inconsiderate opinions

I do not intend in this short, hastily written which men of education promulgate without

paper to enter into details regarding the differregard to facts that the farmer owes his igno

ent insects which are destroyed by the woodrance of nature, and which render so many of

peckers, nor the methods and amounts of his operations unsuccessful. The Hairy Woodpecker, Picus villosus, is called the Sapsucker,

injuries which they do. I wish 'merely to call

'the attention of the farmer to the fact that from the belief that it sucks the sap of trees; but that is a mistake, as an hour's observation of

these birds are his friends instead of his enethe habits of this bird will decide; and if this

mies, (which he can prove with very little is not satisfactory, let the observer kill one of

trouble) and that he should protect them and

encourage them in the work which nature has them and open its crop, and he will find there

designed them for, and which they are willing nothing but insects, their larvæ and eggs: Ito

to perform.

E. A. SAMUELS. that it feeds on the liber and sap of trees is Boston, Mass., Feb. 5th, 1862

EDUCATIONAL. order and time in the exercise of writing as in

any other exercise. Parents, it is for you to know Writing in our Common Schools. that your children are being properly instructed. The value to the world of the art of writing,

It is the business of the teacher to instruct, but

& yours to know that your children are acquiring cannot be estimated. That the rapid progress

a proper education. Do not be put off with now made in civilized nations depends, to an

the idea that writing, under any circumstances, unlimited extent, upon written language, will

should be omitted in the common school. be generally admitted.

0. P. D. It is not neccessary, in this age, to speak or

PALMYRA, Feb. 15, 1862. . write of the importance of this branch of com

Country School-Houses.- No. 1. mon school study, for all must know and feel,

This is not the season for building, to be to a great extent, its necessity. But the ques

sure; but it is pre-eminently the season for tion is, how shall we, how shall our children

considering important questions and laying be instructed in this important branch. It is

plans for future operations. Especially is it expected that the masses in our State will receive

a time for getting correct impressions of the their instruction in the common school, under

| uncomfortableness of the old school-house, the free school law, which provides, without

which ought really, either never to have been qualification, for the instruction of every child

built, or at least to have given place to a better in the State, over four and under twenty years

one years ago. , of age, in all the common English branches.

It is important to have good comfortable It is expressly stated that writing shall be

dwellings for our families, and substantial, taught in every district school in the State ;

secure and capacious barns for our crops and and this is a grand provision of the law, and

stock, but certainly not more important than should be thoroughly executed. But from some

that the place where our children are to spend cause, writing is shamefully neglected in many

so much of their time during the most impresof our schools ; this is not as it should be, for

sible and formative period of life. No, the the masses are dependent upon the common

school-house has a strong claim upon the atschool for all the instruction they will receive

tention, time and money of the farmers of in writing. Some may say that it would be

every rural district wherever it may be; and better to attend a school established expressly

the father who will not to the best of his abilfor the purpose of giving instruction in this

ity and cheerfully meet this demand is—simply particular branch. This, perhaps, would be

a barbarian. the better plan for those who may think them

them! In the construction of a school-house, four gelves able to sustain the extra school; but it questions require to be carefully considered: is no argument in favor of omitting it in the 1. What construction will give the greatest common school, for under such circumstances, security to the health of the occupants ? very mapy, who would otherwise become good 2. What style will be best adapted to the writors, would know but very little of this use

scenery, in the midst of which it is to be ful art. District Boards and parents should

placed, most pleasing to the eye and mind and give sufficient attention to this matter-see that

most conducive to a refined and correct taste ? an opportunity to write in their school is offer

3. What kind of structure will be the most ed to every child who may be old enough to substantial ? learn to write, notwithstanding the opinions of

4. How and of what material can it be built some who think that it may create too much

most economically? disturbance in the school room.

But there is one other question to be considEvery well-regulated school, with a live and ered first, to-wit : What shall be the location of systematic teacher, may have as much system, the school house of this, a few words.

Above the sorrow blows, broad and

With many this question will have but two THE HOME. points worthy of consideration-centrality and cheapness of land. It cannot be denied that

Snow Sculpture. both of these points are worthy of considera

BY GEORGE W. BUNGAY. tion. The matter of centrality in the district

On hills and foreste bare and brown, is particularly so; nor is the cost of ground I see the silent snow come down,

So soft and white unworthy of attention in a new country and Like showers of blossoms winds have blown

From filowers of light. in hard times. But neither one nor both of these

Faster and faster fall the flakes, considerations should decide the question of

On the dím woods and silver lakes, location.

From stormy skies,

Liko soft words on a heart that breaks Of course, it would not be proper that the

When pity sighs. school should be located at a point far removed Yo wailing winds, that sadly sigh

Above the graves where heroes lie, from the center of both district and popula

And build white columns, broad and high, tion-unless there be something in the district's

Of stainless snow. topography, such as a lake, swamp or other

Let pyramide of spotless hue

Point to the bending arch of blue circumstance of that character which must

Without a stain, necessarily preclude the possibility of such And mark the place where sleep the true,

In battle slain. centrality--but it will not unfrequently happen

Ye unseen sculptors in the air, that considerations of heathfulness and pleas Go carve designs in beauty thero,

And 'grave the name antness of locality should be allowed to out Of BAKER deep in letters fair

As wreaths of fame. weigh the mere matter of distance. Children can better afford to walk a little further than

Go where the bending willow weeps

Over the tomb where ELLSWORTI sleeps, to spend the hours and days of school in some

And softly write

The epitaph that history keeps, barren, sun-scorched hill, or on the border of

In letters white. a repulsive disease-producing swamp.

Quarry from clouds a shaft to tower

Above the spot where sleeps the flower If the health of your children be worth any

Of armies true,

Till blossomg rise in sun and shower, thing to them and you; if their happiness

Red, white and blue. during the period of youth, when the days may be joyous and golden or sad and weari

Parental Influence. some, according to their surroundings, bé

IIow gtrong is the instinct of parental love. worthy of a little sacrifice; if you would make Parents suffer no such agony in their own perfor them sunny memories and better lives in sons as they can suffer through the person of a

child. Parents can bear the palpitating heart, the maturer years of manhood and womanhood,

the convulsed muscle, the throbbing pulse in then we entreat you, be not unmindful of where themselves; but when the tender organs of a you plant them to-day. If there be one spot

loved child are torn with these agonies, it be

comes intolerable. In the aggregate, parents in your district, which is naturally more beau

suffer more through the profligacies and crimitiful or more easily susceptible of such improve- nalities of children than through their own.ment as would make it a charming and attract

harming and attract. They may repent of their own and allay the

suffering, but when a child's wickedness runs. ive spot, and that spot be not so far away from on to ruin and death, then, while life lasts, its the centre of present or prospective population, torturing fires continue to burn in the parental

| breast. As a general rule-I do not deny that that to occupy it would prove too great an incon

there are not exceptions, but as a general rulevenience to the children most remote, by all children turn out as they might be expected to means, buy it-even though at an extravagant turn out from the treatment received from papriee--and there build the school-house. rents. What untold agonies, not only in the

The additional cost of such a location will open day and in the thronged market-place, but be but a trifle for the long years through which in solitude and at midnight, do parents suffer ; the benefits of its occupation will extend; and what soreness of heart, even such that the tenyou could device no plan, for the execution of derest sympathy tortures it like fire, does the which, your children will so bless your memo- mother feel for a profligate son, while he, as if ry in after life.

| urged along by some demon, rushes on to darker shame and a deadlier perdition. Yet the Wool is a non-conductor, and will thus have time was when that child's heart was as soft as the effect to render changes of temperature less wax, when his feelings, like an aspen leaf, could have been moved by a breath. Then the moth- sudden. er could have supplied the very moral nutri- If exposure to intense cold for a considerament that should have been embodied in the

ble time be necessary, there is nothing of greatgrowth of its soul, just as the milk from her own breast became a part of its body. Then er importance than a thorough protection of she sat upon a throne, and weal and woe were the vital parts a warm covering for the chest ministers ready to do her bidding. Then she was, like a goddess, decreeing the future, orig

and the back between the shoulders. inating predestination, telling fate himself in the spring, colds often arise from a sudwhat he should do. But, for some vanity orden check of perspiration. The weather seems frivolity of the hour, she forfeited her queenly prerogatives; she was an idiot in casualty, so mild that less danger is apprehended from and a lost child and a broken heart are her re- laying off the coat, made uncomfortable by exward.Horace Mann.

ercise, or sitting down to rest without additionMORAL Beauty.-What is the beauty of naal covering. Farmers are especially liable to ture but a beauty clothed with moral associa- colds from this cause. tions ? What is the highest beauty of litera- The human body is a wonderfully delicate ture, poetry or fiction and the fine arts, but a moral beauty genius has bodied forth for the organization. If carefully treated it is neveradmiration of the world? And what are those theless capable of performing its various funcqualities of the character which are treasured time up in the memory and heart of nations-the

tions perfectly, for a great many years; while, objects of universal reverence and exultation, on the other hand, a single abuse as simple as the themes of celebration, of idols of admira- the simplest above-named, may entail upin the tion, and of love? Are they not patriotism, heroism, philanthropy, disinterestedness, mag

violater of physiological law, serious disease nanimity, martyrdom ?

and premature death.

HEALTH AND DISEASE.

Remedy for Cold Feet.

It is impossible to have vigorous health if How to Avoid Colds.

the feet are habitually cold; no amount of ex

ternal covering can keep them warm. WearKeep the feet dry and warm, the head cool, I ing pepper and other irritants in the stockings, the body just sufficiently protected as to be is generally inefficient, is always hurtful in its comfortable.

tendencies, and never accomplishes & perma

nent radical good. One of the most uniformly Let the transitions from cold to warm, and efficient means of keeping the feet warm is to from warm to cold be gradual. And to this wash them in water at least as cold as the at

nhors mosphere of the room, night and morning ;

| let it be done within a minute in very cold to the warm air of a room, after the first few weather, then wipe and rub thern rapidly and moments, lay off all superfluous garments- thoroughly with a very coarse towel, dress, and hat, over-coat, muffler, over-shoes--and thus the fire, rubbing them well with the hands.

when practicable, take a walk, or dry them by prevent that excessive relaxation of the tissues, In addition, let half an inch of curled hair which is virtually an opening of innumerable be basted to a piece of cloth and slipped in the

stocking, the hair touching the soles of the feet doors, and inviting the enemy of bealth toto titillate the skin, and thus aid in drawing come in. But this is only half the precaution the blood thither to warm them, The hair connecessary. When you again go out into the

ducts the moisture from the feet to the woolen

cloth and thug keeps them dry. These haircold, even though for a short time, put on as soles should be placed before the fire at night, much clothing as may be necessary to prevent so as to be thoroughly dried by the morning.

Cork-soles absorb moisture from the shoe and a sudden penetration of cold, and contraction

the feet also, and require several days to be of the tissues of the body.

thoroughly dried. India-rubbers confine the The wearing of woolen garments next the dampness about the feet, hence they should be

promptly removed as soon as the wearer ceases skin is, for the reasons suggested, considered walking, por should they be used except in by the best authorities a wholesome precaution. muddy, slushy weather. --Journal of Health.

112

112

THE WISCONSIN FARMER.

THE W1800N81N Farmer.

Dipthoria.

- What maintains one vice will bring up two This prevalent disease, which has carried

children and—pay for half a dozen newspapers.

L -i Plow deep while sluggards sleep, and off so many little ones the past season, is spo- you will have corn to sell and to keep." ken of by the New York Examiner as follows: 1 - It is said that some mothers are grown so

Diptheria, in its early stages, may be re- affectionate, that they give their children chlocognized by any person of ordinary capacity, roform previous to whipping them. by two marked symptoms; the sensation of a _What's in a dress ?” asks a popular wribone or hard substance in the throat, render-ter. That depends on who the wearer is. ing swallowing difficult and painful, and a marked fætor, or unpleasant smell of the

- From using glasses on the nose, you see an breath, the result of its putrefactive tendency. object single ;, from using them under the no On the appearance of these symptoms, if the you see it double. patient is old enough to do so, give a piece of - Water is not a fashionable beverage for gum camphor, of the size of a marrowfat pea, drinking to your friend's health, but it is a capand let it be retained in the mouth, swallow-ital one for drinking to your own. . ing slowly the saliva charged with it until it

- Old Grimwig says that tears at a wedding is all gone. In an hour or so give another, I are only the commencement of the pickle that and at the end of another hour a third ; a fourth will not usually be required, but if the

young folks are getting into. pain and unpleasant breath are not relieved, it

1 - Although the Rebels deny that they are may be used two or three times more, at a lit-assisted by the Indians, it is certain that their tle longer interval, say two hours.

Potomac boats rely for safety on the Creeks. "If the child is young, powder the camphor, - The Norfolk Day Book speaks of Yankees which can easily be done by adding a drop or having India-rubber consciences. We do not two of spirits of alcohol to it, and mix it with doubt that many of the Virginians would be an equal quantity of powdered loaf sugar, or, glad of India-rubber or even leather soles. better, powdered rock candy, and blow it through a quill or tube into its throat, depressing the tongue with the haft of a spoon.-

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. Two or three applications will relieve. Some recommend powdered aloes or pellitory with The way Eggs Spoiled and the way they will koop. the camphor, but observance and experience have satisfied us that the camphor is sufficient EDITOR W18. FARMER :-Last August I read alone. It acts probably by its virtue as diffu-l in the Wisconsin Farmer-taken from the Gensible stimulant and antiseptic qualities.”

esee Farmer—a method of keeping eggs a year, WIT AND WISDOM.

by laying them in ashes. About two months

ago I laid down six dozen as the notice direct- Cold in the head isn't half so common as cold in the heart; but it is a great deal oftener

ed, and put them in the cellar; and upon going complained of.

to them a short time since, I found every one - Give to grief a little time, and it softens spoiled; they seemed like boiled eggs, and tastto regret, and grows beautiful at last, and we ed of lye. So much for that recipe. cherish it as we do some old dim picture of the dead.

I believe the best method of keeping eggs is - Half the secrets in the world are disclosed to stand them up, small end down, in bran, in order that those who possess them may let saw-dust or anything that will keep them uptheir friends know that they hold them.

just as well without anything if you can make - The greatest friend of Truth is time, her

them stand, and they will keep through the greatest enemy is prejudice, and her constant companion is humility.

Winter, if you commence in the Fall to lay - A jolly farmer, returning home in his wag-them down. . Yours, Respectfully, on after delivering his load of corn, is a much

MRS. R. Gibson. more certain sign of national prosperity than

LIND, Waupacca Co., Jan. 3d, 1862. a nobleman riding in his chariot to the opera or play-house

How to Cure Hams and Sides. -- The mother's heart is the child's school

I trim the hams and shoulders in the usual room.

way, except I cut the leg off close up to the - Bow to destiny. One of these days he

ham and shoulder, to have them pack close, and may be polite and return the bow.

as being worthless smoked; then sprinkle a — Hunger never saw bad bread.

| little fine galt on the bottom of a sweet cask,

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