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him mark how much better that droop horned Would that we could say in answer to all roan has fed than that straight horned ball- these questions, none, no not one! But then, face,” and govern his next year's purchases accordingly.
unhappily for the credit of our farmers, we In the winter time, when the cattle are in the know there are hundreds of poor creatures yard, I think it is an excellent plan to have good, strong stationary boxes in different parts suffering from these very causes while we are of the yard, each containing a lump of rock writing these words of reproach. At least we salt, if it can be obtained; if not, then use have witnessed these abuses in other winters, coarse salt once a week.
Some use the salt from the fish or beef bar- and have too little reason to believe that an rel; this I think is injurious, and will do more entire reform has been effected in this importgood on the asparagus bed, to which it is al- ant branch of farming—the care of domestic ways taken, by SPIKE HARRow in Germantown Telegraph.
Straw-stacks, in conjunction with judicious feeding, watering and shelter at night and during storms, may be made to answer a good purpose ; but where they are used as the almost sole defence of the animals on the farm - especially of
the horse whose Abuses of the Horse ---No. 3.
more delicate constitution demands the best of There he stands, forlorn and desolate! a care and keeping—they are an abomination poor, half-starved, wretched outcast, weather- and had better even be burnt. ing the pitiless storm, and feeding upon scat The horse subjected to fare, such as we have tered straws and sticks, that his barbarian described above, can hardly fail to come out owner may the more undisturbed lounge at his in the spring-if, indeed, he shall be so fortuease and doze over the warm crackling fire on nate as to come out at all “rack of bones," his hearth. Of how large a number of this with dry, dead, staring hair, a hideous "pot noblest race of domestic animals is the above belly,” and the skin harsh and unyielding, as engraving a faithful illustration ? Nay, to if it had lost all its elasticity and had been come a little nearer home with our question, glued fast to the remnant of flesh that may how many horses are there to-day, in Wiscon- cover his skeleton frame. sin, of whose condition the above is a correct It may be hardly pardonable in us to even picture ? How many are accustomed to be left imply by the above graphic cut and the few during the day to stand around some old straw hasty words subjoined, that any reader of the stack or over an occasional forkful of coarse, FARMER could, by any possibility, be guilty of wiry, brush hay, with never more than the such brutality towards his most trustful, obesight of a sheaf of oats or ear of corn, and dient and faithful servant, the horse ; but often without drink for two or three days at a somehow the spirit moved us to write, and we time, and compelled at night to shiver in the have written. If anybody is hit, let him repent storm of sleet or snow?
Ox Teams and Horse Teams.
horse," he says, “should not haul his load to
town, and then be forced to trot back. It does It is generally agreed that horses travel not injure him as much to do the heavy work faster than oxen, and that on a farm consisting with slow motion, as to do the light jobs at a of plains and destitute of rocks a pair of horses quick gait.” He should also have, as he rewill do more on the plough and harrow than a quires, more time to eat and rest, and his place pair of oxen.
in the stable should not be taken by the colts Horses will wear longer than oxen, that is,
so that he is turned into the yard. The writer farm horses will last to work till 20 years old, further remarks, (and we cannot but condemn but oxen should not be kept half so long, though the abuse, and hope it may become less comsome would work till they are 14. But after mon), that “the last part of a horse's life may admitting so much we may be allowed to say a be more profitable, if rightly used, than the word or two in favor of the practice of keep- first part. There is more comfort and less ing oxen.
danger in working old horses. We understand And first as to the cost of the animals. Ox- them, and they understand us; and we should en of equal weight with horses are bought for be as willing to conform to their nature, as one half the price. Oxen are worth something they are to conform to our wishes. It would after they are worn out in work-horses are be more humane, as well as more profitable, to not.
use them as they should be, as long as it would Oxen are not half so liable to disease as pay, and then take them out and shoot them horses are. An insurer will ask fourfold more down. But the practice of many is to knock for insuring the health of horses than of oxen. them about as much as they will bear, and
The gearing for oxen costs less by half than pay well, and then trade them off to some more that of horses. A wooden yoke lasts longer inhuman wretch than themselves." than leather harness and it is put on and off in half the time.
One chain answers for two oxen-but two WINTERING SHEEP.-The three great requishorses must have four. Oxen are more patient ites for successfully wintering sheep, are, 1, than horses, and will carry a more even yoke. good and regular water and food ; 20, good, They start a load better than horses, particu- clean shelter ; and 3d, keep them in small larly in a snow path, where the runners stick flocks. The following is the method adopted to the snow.
by Robert J. Swan, of Geneva, N. Y. one of Oxen can be entrusted with hired men at our best farmers: less risk than horses. They are soon taught I consider, for my fattening sheep, the best to draw the plough and to be driven by the mode is to have good, deep sheds, (34 feet), ploughman without any reins.
racks to receive the straw or hay, and troughs We have not a large proportion of farms to feed their meal in, and keep the yards well without rocks and stumps, and where the land littered with straw. We feed to fattening sheep is rocky there is no comparison between oxen two bushels of corn, or two bushels of oil-cake and horses.
meal, to the hundred sheep, with plenty of In regard to cost of keeping there would be good bright wheat straw, three times a day, till but little difference if both were kept on the the 1st of March, at which time we give them same food. But many of our farmers keep hay, in their racks, three times a day, and one oxen through the winter on coarse hay, straw, bushel of corn or oil-meal per day, per hunand husks, which would not keep horses alive. dred. My store sheep, we give plenty of bright
Our own oxen (half blood Devon) never have oat or wheat straw in racks, three times a day, any but cheap hay, husks, &c., through the and one bushel of corn or oil-cake meal per winter, though they labor much of the time. hundred, till the 1st of March, at which time I When April comes they are kept on good hay give them hay and no grain, but always take and thus they learn the difference between good care to see that all my stock yards are cheap and costly living. Oxen of the right well littered with straw. My lambs I feed hay breed are very readily fattened and their beef three times a day, and three pecks of oil is better than that of cows or young cattle, and meal or corn meal to the hundred. All of the brings more in the market.
yards well supplied with water. When farmers quit raising and keeping ox I never lose my sheep in winter, but more in en, people must quit eating beef, and tanning summer, and those the fattest and the bestox hides.
about two per cent. Judging from what I
have noticed on Mr. Johnston's farm, I think ABUSE OF OLD HORSES.-A writer in the the fine wooled sheep less subject to disease Ohio Farmer very justly complains of the too than the coarser breeds. Where small flocks common abuse and neglect of old horses—of of coarse wooled sheep are kept, I think them those which are past their prime. They are healthier than those kept in larger, or in modmade to break the colts, and often work with erate sized flocks. Having been a pupil of Mr. them, thus requiring quicker movements than Johnston, I adopted his course of farming, are natural, or than the old horse is able to both in cultivating my farm, and fattening my give without straining and injury. “The old sheep.-An. Reg. of Rural Afairs.
Interesting Experiment with Shoop. profit comes to be calculated, and the Cheviot
crosses appear to be the greatest consumers. The first stage of a very interesting experi. Next to them the Lincoln's and Shropshirement undertaken by the Parlington Tenants' Downs bared their pastures most, and after Club, to prove the fattening qualities of certain them the pure Leicesters and Cotswolds. The breeds of sheep, has just been brought to a fact that the sheep were not all in the same conclusion, and the results presented to the condition when procured, must also affect the public. From the accounts published else- experiment to some extent, but it is to be comwhere, it will be seen that there were eight mended as a step in the right direction.different kinds of sheep, and that each lot were Scottish Farmer. turned into a two-acre plot of a 16 acre field, each plot being of equal grazing value. The
Cure of a Bone Spavin. lots consisted of, 1st, ten crosses from the Teeswater with the Leicester; 2d, twelve crosses
Levi J. Reynolds, in the New England Farfrom the Cheviot with the Leicester; 3d, ten mer, thus states how he effected a cure of a Lincolns; 4th, ten Southdowns; 5th, ten Shrop- bone spavin: shire-Downs; 6th, twelve Leicesters; 7th, ten
I have a fine mare, which, three years ago, Cotswolds; and 8th, seven odd sheep, one from became very lame from a bone spavin on the each of the above classes-all hoggsts. The inside of the left hind leg. After pretty hard fairness of the trial would thus appear to be driving for several days, she became so lame somewhat vitiated by the difference in the that she was unfit for use. The spavin was numbers. The cross Cheviots and the pure Leicesters would have a sixth less grass than very tender, and she rested the foot constantly
on the toe when she stood. I took her to the five of the other lots, and five-twelfths less blacksmith, and directed him to put on a shoe than the old sheep.
without any toe corks, thus relieving the conThe lots were all turned into grass on the tracted cord of the strain to which it had been 23d May. A fortnight after this, they were
constantly subjected. In a short time the inweighed. The weight of the Teeswater crosses tamation and tenderness subsided. The swelwere 106 stone, 3 lbs.; of the Cheviot crosses, ling abated; she traveled very well. She wore 124 stone, 13 lbs.; of the Lincolns, 125 stone, off the inside cork faster than the outside one, 9 ibs.; of the Southdowns, 97 stone, 10 lbs.; | when she began to be lame again. I then had Shropshire-Downs, 101 stone, 6 lbs.; odd sheep, the shoe re-set and the corks made of the same 69 stone, 7 tbs.; Leicesters, 116 stone, 3 pos; length, and she soon became well. After a few and Cotswolds, 90 stone, 9 lbs. Between this weeks I had the corks shortened a little, and date and the 4th of October, the sheep were the next time she was shod, a little more, but weighed four times. The results of each still have her wear heel corks an inch or more weighing will be found tabulated in another in length. There is a slight enlargement of column ; we will here therefore, only allude to the bone where the spavin is seated, but she the last. After four months' grazing, supple- performs hard service and is not at all laine.mented by 3 lbs. of linseed cake per day, from Several of my neighbors have applied the same the 17th of June, to the 1st of August, and remedy, with equally good results, and I think thence-forward with 6 lbs. per day of the same
that a little thought and observation will materials, it was found that the Teeswater satisfy any one that this is the appropriate crosses had added 18 stone, 1 Ib., or nearly remedy. The cords attached to the part where one-sixth, to their original weight; that the the enlargement is seated, become intamed and Cheviot crosses had added 18 stone, 9. lbs., or a contracted, and raise up the heel from the little more than one-seventh; the Lincolns, 6
ground. When the horse brings the heel to stone, 7 lbs., or about one-twentieth ; the the ground the cords are strained, and become Southdowns, 13 stone, 2 lbs.. or less thyn one- irritated and intiamed. The long corks keep seventh; the Shropshire Downs, 20 stone, 8 the heel raised permanently, and thus prevent ibs., or about one-fifth; the odd sheep, 11 stone, the cords from being strained, and allow the 10 lbs., or about one-sixth; the Leicesters, 21 inflamation to get well. Some enlargement and stone, 7 lbs., or nearly one-fourth; and the
a slight degree of stiffness may remain, but Cotswolds, 19 stone, 6 ibs., or more than one- seldom enough to affect the gait. fifth of their original weight. The advantage is thus in favor of the pure Leicesters and Cotswolds. The Cheviot crosses, however, do CATTLE RACK8.--A western farmer who not seem to have had enough of grass, having feeds 150 head of cattle, estimates that the decreased, instead of gaining in weight during construction of good feeding racks saves him the last month.
at least five tons of hay yearly--more than One sheep of each class was tried on grass, enough to pay annually for the racks. Judgwithout any artificial food. Under these condi- ing from the amount of hay we have often seen tions, the Cheviot and Leicester crosses greatly trodden in the mud, or used as litter by the surpassed all the rest, making three stones in cattle, as many tons would be yearly saved by four months.
some who have not 50 head.--An. Reg. of RuThe grass eaten, is, of course, an item when ral Affairs.
The Wool Trade.
Influenza in Horses.
1 1 3 2
The week past has been characterized by H. N. L. asks the following question: What more dullness than for several weeks, and is the best preventive or cure for " distemper” there is no certainty of an immediate rally. in horses ? The excitement consequent upon so large a de Remarks.--It is quite rare that horses are mand for ordinary goods for army purposes, seriously affected with this disease when they has, in a measure died away, as the supplies run at large. It is most frequent in the spring come from the fabricator and from abroad. No season, and most serious in those stables in matter what course the events of the day may which ventilation and cleanliness have little or take, or even what may be done or left undone, no attention. The inference is, that horses, by the 600,000 soldiers now in the field, no ne- by breathing the foul and debilitating atmoscessity can occur for such large and such phere of an unventilated stable through the immediate supplies as during the past four winter, are in a proper condition to take this months.
disease when the exciting cause—a peculiar The first year requires more goods for sold- or infected condition of the atmosphere--apiers than the subsequent two or three years, pears. the following being the Government allowance The preventive, of course, suggests itself.of clothing each year, for five years, by the After the disease has once been engendered, United States army regulations :
the proper course is, to remove the causes,
when the animal will usually recover with lit1st year. 20.
4th. 5th. Hate,
i tle treatment. Let the stable be kept warm. Cape,..
1 Secure this by exposure to the rays of the sun.
Cover the horse with a blanket and give warm 4 prs4
4 drinks to induce perspiration. Move the bowPants,
3 els by green food, or bran mashes, rather than Jackets Overcoats, 1 in five years.
by physic. Boots and shoes, 4 prs, per year.
If the case is severe, make a nose bag about Blankets, 1 pr. each other year.
two feet long, of wire, leather, or slats of wood, These goods, of the first year, would require with a strap to secure it by passing over the to each soldier about 40 pounds merchantable head. Let the bottom contain holes for surplus wool, and for 600,000 men, no less than 21,00%),
water to pass off. Fill it half full of finely 000 pounds wool in the aggregate, which we cut, clean rye straw, which has been saturated suppose now is supplied from abroad in part, with vinegar. Pour on this a pailfull of boiland the balance from the low, medium and me
ing water, and then place it to the horse's dium fine produced at home.
The next year,
nose, and secure it over the head for steaming
the nostrils. this demand will be reduced to 13,200.00) pounds, for the same purpose; and on the third
Repeat twice a day for a few days, if neyear, the same number of men would be allow- cessary. Be careful that the surplus water ed additional blankets, and swell the demand passes off, and that the heat emitted is not so
Renew the wato 18,000,000, or only three-quarters of the great as to burn the nostrils. present year's supply. These several amounts
ter in twenty minutes, and continue the ope
When the bag is are in some measure additional to the regular
ration for forty minutes. demand of the country, and its consumption in removed, wash the nostrils and face with water times of peace, and the great and unusual de- and wipe dry. Should there be swelling under mand having exhausted to a great degree our
the chops, poultice with corn meal or flax seed coarse wools, a large and immediate declension poultices. Do not physic or bleed.—Ohio in those wools need not be expected.
Farmer. It is a fact, that sales for the last ten days HOLD UP your WIP in Driving OXEN.- The are not so easily brought about, at the extreme Ohio Farmer says there is more in the moveprices of the 20th to the 31st of October, andments of the driver of an ox team, and in the our own wools, of certain kinds. having already carrying of the whip, than most farmers think. gone unusually early to manufacturers and Osen, however quick in their movements or been manufactured, the supply, always short, upright their walk in the yoke, soon become even now being nearly exhausted, any necessi- dull, and get the practice of “ shoving” or ty for such goods must, until next shearing, be “hauling," in consequence of the driver lagmet from abroad, and consequently tend to ging along, or, as is often the practice, going reduce the price in the spring and summer en- ahead of the team, and from time to timo suing. Nevertheless, coarse wools are now, stepping back and whipping them. A driver and will, without doubt, continue to be in de- of an ox team should walk directly opposite mand at figures above the average of the past to the yoke, walk straight, and carry his whip years. No movement has taken place in fine, as upright as a soldier would his gun. Use a nor do we expect, for the present at least, that whip stock with a short lash, and touch the the same prices can be obtained as in years cattle only with the lash, and never strike them gone bye.
on the nose or over the eyes.
BEES IN GENERAL.
Lampass in Horses.
or frosty, than in warm and damp weather.
Hence, if the same amount by weight is given Having read an article in your columns at every feeding, they will not have enough about the lampas in horses, and the writer when the weather is cold, and will be surfeited wishing for further information, I thought I when it is warm and damp. Both of these would give him all that I could.
evils must be avoided, while a little attention The disease consists in swelling of the roof and observation will enable the farmer to do of the mouth, near the front teeth, and is it.-An. Reg. of Rural Affairs. sometimes higher than the teeth. It happens generally between the third and fifth year, and Gypsum.-If you can procure gypsum is supposed to prevent a colt from gathering plaster of Paris-sprinkle a small quantity his food with ease, so that on that account he every morning over your cattle stalls. It is a falls off in feeding, and consequently in flesh good absorbent of ammonia, and consequently or condition. The usual remedy is to sear the tends not only to economize a most valuable parts next the teeth, with a piece of iron made element of vegetable nutrition, but to sweeten for the purpose, or cut the parts until they and purify the air. The generation of ammobleed freely.
nia in stables, and other confined situations, These remedies are still generally practiced, is not unfrequently the cause of disease, and nor is it possible, I believe, for vertinary sur- should be prevented. Copperas water sprinkled geons to prevent its being done. The lampas, over the floors and surface of cattle-yards, has as it is called, however, is not the cause of the
a still more sanitary effect. It is a powerful colt's ceasing to feed well, and falling off in deodorizer, and should be liberally used about flesh; it depends upon his cutting the grinding out-buildings, especially in hot weather. ---Now teeth at the proper time; and if, instead of England Farmer. burning and cutting the lampas, as they term it, they would keep them entirely on bran mashes for a week, he would be able to eat his
THE BEE KEEPER. hay and corn with a vidity; for the stomach, which always sympathizes with the mouth in the painful periods of detention, is quickly re Random Thoughts Upon the Beo---No. 3. stored, when the power of mastication returns.
We often find, when the lampas is present, that the membrane of the mouth just within I shall waive a description of the different the corners of the lips, is so swollen as to get species of bees disseminated throughout the between the grinders, thus preventing the animal from feeding. When this is the case, it is natural world by the Great Author of Nature, commonly called bags or washes, and may be and confine my remarks solely to the common removed by swabbing the mouth with a weak solution of the sulphite of iron. This disease bee, or honey fly, particularly, as the most sois often occasioned by the bearing rein being cial, sagacious, interesting and useful, of all too tight.-B., in Germantown Telegraph. the instinctive tribes of animals.
Abbe Rosier, one of the best informed of the REGULARITY IN FEEDING.—Every good far- French agriculturists, particularizes four spemer knows that any domestic animal is a good cies of the domestic bee. The first species are clock-that it knows almost to a minute, when the regular feeding time has arrived. If it has very long and brown; the second are less, and been accustomed to be fed with accuracy at the almost black; the third are still less, and of a appointed period, it will not fret until that
period arrives; after which it becomes very rest- gray color ; the fourth are still less, and of a less and uneasy until the food comes. If it has bright yellow, shining and polished, and known been fed irregularly, it will begin to fret when only in Flanders. the earliest period arrives. Hence this fretting
The bee rises with the dawn, and rests only may be entirely avoided, by strict punctuality; but it cannot be otherwise. The very moment at the shades of evening, and continues her the animal begins to worry, that moment it be- industry throughout the year, in all countries gins to lose flesh ; but the rate of this loss has never been ascertained—it is certainly worthy where the frosts of winter do not impede her of investigation-and can only be determined labors. The bee is the only insect whose saby trying the two modes, punctuality and irregularity, side by side, under similar circum- gacity has taught us that honey constitutes the stances, and with the same amount of food, essence of the blossoms of plants, and by her for some weeks or months together.
industry has imparted to man the luscious There is one precaution to be observed in connection with regular feeding, where some
boon. The whole vegetable world is the garjudgment is needed. Animals eat more in sharp den of the bee, and her cell her store-houge.