is one hour after midnight, and is not one hour cannot be needful. However, every reader of before either midnight or midday. I am prepared N. & Q.' will call to mind the famous example to be told that the figures are not to be read in in the New Testament (Luke v. 10): “And so connexion with the letters. But that is my com- was also James and John, the sons of Zebedee.” plaint.

KILLIGREW. In regard to Lindley Murray; he sleeps in peace, The following cutting from the Birmingham

and if he slept till I thought it desirable to Daily Post (August 27, 1891) gives a very extra

awake him, my dearest foe might enjoy half his ordinary reading of P.m. by one of the unlearned,

revenues for ever. E. COBHAM BREWER. which is worth recording under this beading : LIFE OF LOCKHART (8t: S. ii. 328, 438, 511).

“In the course of the hearing of a case at the North to the biographical articles already mentioned London Police Court, on Tuesday, a witness, who was may be added tbat of William Bates, in his ‘Macdescribed as a commercial traveller in the City, was lise Portrait Gallery' (Chatto & Windus, 1883). asked, Was it night or morning that the affair occurred ? | . Post mortem,' was the ready reply. What do you

To a fairly good outline of Lockbart's career and mean?' said the solicitor. Why, at night, of course,' a sensible estimate of his work, the writer adds In face of this astounding ignorance it is somewhat various important references, which should interest curious to read that at the same court a number of poor the admirers of a man who has not always got his persons were summoned for not sending their children to school,”

due. See also 'Archibald Constable and his I have a correspondent who habitually uses such

Literary Correspondents,' vol. iii. passim. phrases as “I met Mr. -

THOMAS BAYNE. yesterday A.M.,” “any time this P.m."-evidently treating these

Helensburgb, N.B. sigas as equivalent to “morning” and “after CLAUSE IN Old LEASE (766 S. xii. 149, 311).-I

R. Hudson. have since come across another “olla,” also called Lapworth.

“Colman," existing, apparently, rather more than DR. CHANCE says he has often wondered what a century earlier than the one mentioned in the these letters are taken to mean by those who are above reference. It occurs in Mr. T. F. Kirby's ignorant of Latin. Some time ago a Babu gentle. ' Annals of Winchester College,' pp. 160-1, and is man of Calcutta, who was, apparently, not ignorant

described (from the back of a roll for 1412) as of Latin, wrote to an English acquaintance of his "a great brass pot ‘Colman' with ears and feet.” that he purposed coming to see him the following

Other similar instances would be welcome. day at two, post mortem. My friend was relieved

W. C. W. at seeing him appear in the flesh.

MOTTOES (8th S. ii. 507).-Messrs. Kegan Paul W. F. PRIDEAUX.

| & Co. have issued during the past month a book Ben PRICE (8th S. ii. 448).—There was a Ben which I should judge, from a slight acquaintance Price, a centenarian, of Chelsea, whose obituary with it, would well answer MR. ELLIOTT's purpose. may be found in Gent. Magazine. 1776. p. 335. It is called English Folk Rhymes, by t. . In Russell Smith’s ‘Catalogue of Portraits' ap

| Norchall. The published price is 108. 6d. parently what is a copy of the same print as MR.

A. L. HUMPHREYS. CAMERON possesses is catalogued as “ Price (Ben) 187,

187, Piccadilly. of Herefordshire ? Private Plate.”

MR. HORACE ELLIOTT may, perhaps, see what A. L. HUMPHREYS. 187, Piccadilly, W.

he wishes for in J. A. Mair's Handbook of Pro

verbs, English, Scotch, Irisb, American, Shak"AVAILED OF(8th S. ii. 325.417. 498) _The sperian, and Scriptural, and Family Mottoes,' reply of MR. Adams opens up a new question of

Routledge, 8.a., pp. 192, small size (A-N).

ED. MARSHALL. considerable interest, viz., the right of using elliptical pbrases. The sentence quoted by him, Essex: HIGAWAYS, BYWAYS, AND WATERThere is both a St. Christ and a St. Jesus ways' (g. S. ij. 139, 437, 493). -As I am writing written at full length would, of course, be—“There away from my books, I am unable to answer in is both a St. Christ, and there is also a St. Jesus.” | detail MR. GRIFFINHOOFE's question with regard The word both, italicized by MR. ADAMS, and the to the "strange architectural freak” of the spire repetition of the article in the latter clause, show of All Saints' Church, Maldon. But, unless some the sentence to be elliptical. There could be no one send a better description, this note may objection to a verb plural; but, in my opinion, serve: The tower (I believe of Norman date) 18the verb is better in the singular number, as it triangular, while the spire is hexagonal. As one individualizes the two remarkable saints and is angle of the tower projects into the body of the more emphatic.

church, the remarkable effect produced may be It would not be difficult to fill a column with imagined. I believe this instance is unique. similar locations from our best writers; but this


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PRINTERs' ERRoRs: Double F (8th S. i. 185, 217; ii. 337, 456).-Replying to MR. INGLEBY, I happened to note especially the use of double f in our parish register, which begins at 1561. From that time to about 1627 the use of it is common. Names of persons and places are written with two small fos made large (if I may use the expression), other words with two smaller f's. But the use is by no means invariable. We find all through the period “first,” “fifte,” &c., side by side with “first,” “ffourth,” &c. We also find the two fs in such compounds as “twentie-first.” From 1630 we get the single f only, and the modern form of capital, as “Franke.” R. HUDson.


LEATHER Money (8*S.ii.308,394,517).-There are several leather trade tokens in the Beaufoy Collection at the Guildhall, which have been described by J. H. Burn. The most interesting, perhaps, are two issued from the Chapter Coffee House, Paternoster Row. The larger one appears to have passed as a groat, being marked with the figure 4. They have in the field a mitre. The Chapter House was for generations the resort of eminent literary people, and a place of meeting for London publishers; and here Charlotte and Anne Bronté stayed when they came to town in 1848. A few years afterwards it was turned into a tavern, and has been rebuilt quite recently. The old name still remains on the passage at the side, leading into St. Paul's Churchyard. These leather trade tokens have no date, but were probably issued before the middle of the eighteenth century, for “a leather threepence, Union in Cornhill.” occurs in the sale catalogue of the coins and other articles of virtù, the property of Peter Birkhead, goldsmith and antiquary, deceased, which were sold in January, 1743, at his house, the Queen's Head, in Grafton Street, Soho. The Union was also a coffee-house. PHILIP Norman.

May I mildly protest against the note with this heading at the last reference? Anglesey pennies and halfpennies of 1788 and thereabouts are very common. But I quite fail to see what they have to do with the “leather money.” R. Hudson.

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PortRAITs WANTED (8° S. ii. 468).-There are many portraits of Robert Car, Earl of Somerset. The Duke of Devonshire has a picture which bears this name. Mr. Jeffrey Whitehead lent a miniature of him, by Peter Oliver, to the Burlington Club in 1889. There is a print of him by Simon Pass; another by Wandergucht; a third, by Houbraken, is among the ‘Illustrious Heads,’ but cannot be genuine. Lord Lothian had, or has, a head of him at Newbottle, so says Granger. Mr. G. Digby Wingfield Digby exhibited a Cornelius Jonson of John Digby, first Earl of Bristol, at the National Portrait Exhibition, 1866, and has it still ; likewise a miniature, said to be by Cooper. The Rev. W. B. L. Hawkins has a miniature of the same peer; Mr. Lumsden Propert is equally fortunate. F. G. S.

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words which he quotes from one of Sterne's the Revolution, to be used, if occasion served, at letters, “ My Lydia helps to copy for me, and my the execution of General Washington. When the wife knits, and listens as I read her chapters"; but British army retired the irons were left behind. how does ho know what parts Lydia copied, or The evident fact that the outfit was intended for a what chapters Sterne read aloud ?

much smaller man physically than General WashI must confess that I have read chapters from ington does not impress the minds of those who 'Tristram Shandy'to my wife and daughter; but listen to the story. It is probable that this is the I would ask MR. Dixon not to assume, as a matter only set of gallows irons existing in the United of course, that such readings have included “ The States. The punishment of hanging in chains Abbess of Andouillets," or any passages containing does not appear to have been inflicted in this objectionable matter. The question your corre country, at all events not since Independence. spondent puts to me being, in my opinion, based

John E. NORCROSS. on a supposition, I think it unnecessary to reply Brooklyn, U.S. to it.

C. M. P.

ITALIAN IDIOM (8th S. ii. 445, 498).-In my "THE OFFICE OF HOURS OF THE BLESSED opinion DR. CHANCE is bardly justified in raising to VIRGIN' (860 S. ii. 425).--Montalembert must not the dignity of an “idiom”the reprehensible practice be supposed to give the earliest use of the popular of putting the singular form of the verb along devotion ; for, as Mr. Procter observes in his with a plural pronoun. This Tuscan peculiarity is invaluable History of the Book of Common animadverted on by Veneroni in a chapter “On Prayer'—

| Improper and Obsolete Words" ('Italian Master,' “ This was commonly called the Little Office, and

London, 1801). He there writes : before the middle of the sixth century was ordered by “Avoid saying, as the Florentines do, voi dicevi, bethe Popes Gregory III. and Zachary to be sung by cer-cause the termination in vi is never used but with tu in tain orders of monks in addition to the Divine Office. the singular. Read those authors who have written in The observance having gradually fallen away, it was the purity of the Italian language, whom I have quoted at restored, and the office itself raised, by Peter Damian the end of this treatise; and all those that have written (1056)."-P. 23.

since the origin of that language to the present time, EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. and you will see that tbey disapprove of voi avevi, which Hastings.

is a great blunder in the Florentines, and in illiterate

persons. To convince those that say voi amavi instead New Life Or DANIEL DEFOE' (gib s. ü l of voi amavate, I shall only refer them to the remarks 326, 417).-I saw an interesting note in one of

of Giacomo Pergamini, Trattato della lingua Italiana,' your numbers lately concerning the above-named del più deve esser terminata in vaie. E contra questa

p. 173 : •La seconda persona dell'imperfetto nel numero past celebrity, and thought it might serve a useful terminazione ricevuta universalmente da, regolati dicipurpose if I drew the attention of your numerous tori, hanno alcuni moderni usato di scrivere cantavi, readers to the fact that a fine memorial obelisk has

vedevi, il che è manifesto errore.' Ferrante Longobardi, been erected to his memory in that many-stoned

in his book entitled, 'Il torto ed il dritto,' condemns this ground the Bunbill Fields cemetery. Here is the

manner of speaking, voi cantavi, as impertinent." story of the why and wherefore.

It will be seen from this quotation that the soInscription, upper part :

called “Italian idiom” must have got into the

good graces of educated Italians with unusual Daniel De Foe.

rapidity during the century, if it be now—as Born 1661. Died 1731.

stated by Dr. CHANCE's informant-considered Author of

pedantic to employ the tense in its correct form. Robinson Crusoe.'

The occasional use-or misuse-of the present Lower part :

subjunctive for the imperfect subjunctive in This monument is the result of an appeal French is not an analogous case: a nearer French in the Christian World' newspaper

equivalent would be que vous aimasses-an imto the boys and girls of England for funds to place a suitable memorial upon the grave

possibility. Nor does DR. CHANCE's suggestion as of

to the origin of the Italian-or rather Tuscan Daniel De Foe.

error appear to me to be altogether satisfactory, as It represents the united contributions of Veneroni, in the work above quoted, coupsels the seventeen hundred persons.

avoidance of such forms as voi avesti for voi aveste, Sept 1870.

where evidently there is no difference in the Horner. Scul Bournemouth.

length of the word to offer in extenuation of the D. HARRISON.

blunder. And even as regards facility of pro

nunciation, there is no perceptible advantage in GEMMACE (8th S. ii, 69, 138, 252, 370).- In the substituting for eravate ? the exasperating form old Moyamensing prison at Philadelphia the keeper eri voi ? which, by the way, bas its counterpart in used to show a set of irons whicb, he assured his the English “was you ?. hearers, had been sent to that city in the days of Some not very flattering remarks regarding

other irregularities of Tuscan speech are to be common conversation, it “ can never pass for corfound in a grammar prefixed to the second volume rect in elegant prose.” of Baretti's ‘Italian Dictionary.'

In Italian books my attention has frequently MR. INGLEBY is mistaken with regard to the been directed to this idiom, as by Buommattei Italian use of voi when addressing royalty. His ('Della Ling. Tosc.,' Milan, 1807, ii. 285, 314); remarks will doubtless receive attention elsewhere; the author of a 'Vocabolario...... per agevolare la but perhaps I may be allowed to add a line or lettura degli Autori'(Paris, 1768, s.v. "Preteriti'); two respecting some peculiarities of construction an anonymous 'Gramatica' (Parma, 1771, p. 114); observed in other idioms in regal and official Soave ('Gramatica,' Milan, 1816, p. 58); Mastrostyle. In Spanisb, for instance, nos and vos are fini (Dizionario...... de' Verbi,' Milan, 1830, i. 67, used for nosotros and vosotros, instead of the 76, et passim); Corticelli ('Regole...... della Lina singular, as: “Nos Don N., Obispo de Toledo, gua Tosc.,' Turin, 1846, pp. 81, 85). It is used os mandamos." The second person plural is used by Machiavelli not only in verse, but in prose in Portuguese also in addressing royalty ; both (Arte della Guerra,' lib. vii., in Opere, Milan, Spanish and Portuguese differ, however, from 1798, viii. 289), Agnolo Firenzuola ('La Trinuzia, Italian in that the adjectives and participles do III. i.; 'I Lucidi,' I. ii.), and Benvenuto Cellini, not agree with the attribute, but with the gender whose editor, Carpani (Milan, 1821, ii. 203), has of the person. Therefore, " Vostra Maestà è stata the following note to voi avevi :ingannata” is rendered in Spanish “Vuestra "I Fiorentini adoperano ordinariamente negli imper. Magestad ha sido engañado," when addressing a fetti de' verbi la seconda persona del singolare anche per king, and “engañada” in the case of a princess. la seconda del plurale; così voi eri, voi fosti, voi saresti, The so-called “plural of majesty" occurs often

e simili si leggono spesso negli Scrittori i più autorevoli in Shakespeare: e. g., “We ourself will follow in

| in lingua italiana.” the main battle” (“Rich. III.'); “In our remove be

Here is the conjugation of the imperfect indicathou at full ourself” ( Meas. for Meas.'). A phrase, tive of essere and avere as given by the Florentine repeatedly used not long ago by the present Pre- | Lorenzo Franciosini in his “Vocabolario Italiano mier in addressing the Queen, attracted some atten. Spagnolo' (Rome, 1620, pp. 10, 19): Io ero, tu tion, and was at the time burlesqued by Punch: eri, quello era, noi eramo, voi eri, quello erano. “Mr. Gladstone presents his humble duty to your lo bavevo, tu

| Io havevo, tu bavevi, quello haveva, noi havevamo, Majesty." This is exactly in accordance with the voi havevi, quelli bavevano. All the verbs are Spanish formula: “El Señor G. puesto a los conjugated in accordance with this paradigm, and reales piés de Vuestra Magestad, humildemente the assimilation of plural to singular in the second le ofrece sus respetos," where the same apparent person takes place also in the perfect definite inincongruity of persons is reproduced.

dicative and both past tenses of the subjunctive. German Court phraseology also presents some Franciosini acknowledges no other conjugation. ' singular divergences from ordinary rule : “Seine | DR. CHANCE says that voi with the singular Majestät, der König, haben befohlen”: “ Ihre verb-form is used in addressing a single individual; Majestät, die Königin, sind ausgefahren"; "wenn but there is no question of numerical restriction Ihre Majestät befehlen,” and such like.

in the authorities I have cited. Mastrofini affirms, A Portuguese anomaly is the substitution of unconditionally (i. 68): “In Firenze non si dice the Spanish article el for the Portuguese o when altro mai che voi avevi, ed avevate sarebbe affettareferring to their king, who is styled el-rei; any zione"; and Nannucci, in his ' Analisi de' Verbi' other king is termed o rei; d'el-rei and do rei differ (Florence, 1843, pp. 144, 145), quotes two verses in that the former refers to the King of Portugal from the younger Buonarotti's 'La Tancia,' in and the latter to the king of another country. which plurality is unquestionable :

J. Young.

E come v'eri prima amiche siate.-II. i. Glasgow.

O che badavi voi, dismemorati?-V. v. Dr. Antonio Montucci, in his edition of 'Gali- | DR. CHANCE's explanation seems to me unexgnani's Grammar' (Lond., 1823), observes at p. ceptionable save in one point, viz., his assumption 131:

-the assumption upon which Carpapi's note is. “ The colecism voi avevi is now in universal use based - that in voi avevi the singular is used for throughout Italy, and cannot be avoided in conversation the plural. The use of singular verb-persons for without incurring the charge of [being] an affected plural by old writers, even Tuscan, is of frequent pedant. Let this be applied to the same person and tense of all otber verbs.”

occurrence, says the editor of the 'Leggenda di

san Petronio,' commenting on quilli tene written At p. 139 he tells us that, although the academicians Della Crusca sanction the use of voi eri* in

where a modern would write quegli tengono; and

in verge of the thirteenth century I have met with * Matched, though only in appearance, by the English

sai for sapete and fai for fate (real plural) and fanno. vulgarism you was. You is, however, is as unknown as | But the example we are considering appears to be poi sei.

simply an Italian corruption of Latin habebatis

not a borrowed singular, but a dialectal plural form. AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (8th S. ii. Prof. Nannucci, at the place already cited, ex- | 489). — bibits the etymological changes in the instance of

Those white souls voi amavi as follows: from amabatis to amabati,

Who give themselves for others all their years then with elimination of t to amavai (cf. Spanish

In trivial tasks of Pity.

Lewis Morris, ' Epic of Hades,' ed. 12, amabais), and finally, with syncope of a for facility

1881, p. 264. of pronunciation, to amavi. For avevi the process

W. C. B. would be habebatis, habebati, havevai, havevi. As to the singular tu amavi, Nannucci observes that

Miscellaneous. whereas its true form was amava (Latin amabas)

NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. the change to -1 was determined by the person

The Attis of Caius Valerius Catullus. Translated into ending of the present (tu ami). The idiom appears

| English Verse, with Dissertation, &c., by Grant to have passed into familiar Tuscan speech from Allen, B.A. (Nutt.) the Florentine, where, as I have shown, it was in To his “ Bibliothèque de Carabas” Mr. Nutt bas added high literary honour ; but Nannucci says it was the text of the 'Attis,' a translation by Mr. Grant Allen,

with an introduction and dissertations on “ The Myth of not wholly confined to the Florentines, and quotes

Attis," on “The Origin of Tree Worship," and on The the following verses —

Galliambic Metre,” by the same eloquent, erudite, and Sospira il core quando mi sovvene

assiduous ex-Postmaster of Merton College. Like the Che voi m'amavi, ed ora non m'amate

previous volumes of the series, it is a treasure to the from Fra Guittone, the Aretine poet commemorated

bibliophile, a book on which the hand lingers caress

ingly. It is, moreover, a valuable addition to by Dante in the 'Purgatorio, Dante himself

scholarship and an important contribution to folk-lore. never uses this idiom, and it is worth noting that Into all he has to say upon the galliambic metre there he blames Guittone" et quosdam alios” as non is no strong temptation to follow a writer who is always quam in vocabulis atque constructione desuetos ingenious and always modest, if not always thoroughly plebescere" ("De Vulg. Eloq.,'i. 13).

convincing. In respect to the myth of Attis and the

origin of tree worship, all that Mr. Allen bas to say is of My objection to DR. CHANCE'S explanation,

deepest interest and significance. Starting from the however, does not affect his theory; for the popu point of view of Mr. Herbert Spencer in deriving polylace do not talk etymology, and doubtless use theism from ghost worship and ancestor worship, and avevi instead of avevate for the reason he assigns. accepting the theory of Mr. Frazer, in The Golden It is the sound of the longer word that is disliked

lized Bough,' that Attis was originally a tree spirit, Mr. Allen

carries out his argument as to the close relationship by people so addicted to word-clipping. Noi

between ancestor worship, stone worship, tree worship, éramo is in use for the same reason. Any one and the cult of the corn spirit in his various forms as saying eravamo “sarebbe da tutti forse burlato" man or animal, pine tree or cedar.” To explain in a few (Buommattei, ii, 314). Oddly enough, the people

sentences the manner in which Mr. Allen arrives at this

conclusion is obviously impossible. There are few readers fail here to be more accurate than the grammarians

who follow his argument, luminously expressed, without only by reason of their throwing back of the

yielding to his reasoning. With admirable lucidity accent under the influence of the third person he traces to their source the various forms of sacrifice érano. The poets, with whom eramo is in collected in Mr. Tylor's ' Primitive Culture,' and lately general use, always keep the accent in the right

he accent in the right dealt with briefly by us in reviewing Mr. Baring Gould's position, 2. e., on the penultimate. F. ADAMS.

Curious Survivals,' and he establishes his position that

to understand the origin of tree worship “we must 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E.

directly affiliate it upon primitive ancestor or ghost “Yele” (gth S. i. 294, 341, 442, 462; ii. 177,1

worship, of which it is an aberrant and highly specialized

offshoot.” Most warmly do we commend to our readers 414, 476). -The last communication under this

a noble and far-reaching book. head requires that I sbould say that the replies to my query have been instructive. While tbank.

English Writers.-An Attempt towards a History of

English Literature. By Henry Morley, LL.D. Vol. IX. ing those who were good enough to give them, I

1. Spenser and his Time. (Cassell & Co.) may say that there was no intention of discourtesy | We are glad to welcome another instalment of Prof. when I wrote in May last.

F. J. Morley's magnum opus. The book opens with a curious

slip. “ Edmund Spenser," Prof. Morley tells us, in the SiR GEORGE DOWNING (8th S. ii. 464). — Pepys first sentence, “ was born in Lancashire." A few pages has several entries, all more or less prejudiced. further on he assures us that he was certainly born in Sir George was a trimmer. January 28, 1659/60, London. Though Spenser appears to have belonged to

a family of that name which had long been resident in he was to sail for Holland, salary 1,8001. per

North-east Lancashire, his parentage is more or less annum. He was knighted in Holland, May 21,

conjectural, and no record of his birth has been dis1660. He arrests three regicides on March 12, covered. Spenser himself names London as the place of 1611/2,“ like a perfidious rogue." As some com his birth in the Prothalamion,' while tradition fixes tho pensation we find, May 27, 1667, that he was spot at East Smithfield, near the Tower. The book is

full of interesting matter, and should be widely read. * active and a man of business, and values him

Besides Spenser, who is the principal figure in these self upon having of things do well under his band."

pages, wo make the acquaintance of Sir Walter Raleigh, A. Hall. Sir Philip Sidney, William Camden, Richard Hakluyt,

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