a 501. note and a portrait of Lady Carve. He 2. “The early education of both was neglected.” handed them to the auctioneer. The print brought PROF. TOMLINSON has bere the support of Rowe's 251. Was the lady, née Magaret Smitb, of any biograpby and Ben Jonson's “small Latin and less note? The executors gave Dr. Gossett the Diction Greek"; but against them is the preponderating ary, worth seven guineas. C. A. WARD. evidence of Shakespeare's own work. Take 'Venus Chingford Hatch, E.

and Adonis,' “the first heire of my invention "; 'IMITATION OF CHrist.'—Would some reader

'Lucrecre,' the Sonnets, and his earlier dramatic of N. &0.' be good enough to give the full title workgare they the work of bizarre genius. of

some clever sciolist? Surely not! He must have page of an edition of the above, printed in Dublin, between the years 1843 and 1857 ? This edition

accumulated wisely in his adolescent days, or he has a short life of Thomas à Kempis, with practical

could never have scattered so exuberantly in his reflections on the text of each chapter, with short

years of labour. His early works are packed with prayer, pp. xxiv, 488, 8vo.

evidences of refined education, of studied restraint,

S. H. Dublin,

of correct classical information. In bis early man

| hood he evidently moved among men of learning, VERSES BY WHITTIER.-In which of Whittier's for Meres, M.A., tells how sonnets of baffling poems do the lines occur:

subtlety and exquisite beauty were dispersed by A dreary place would be this earth.

him among bis private friends; while the purpose Were there no little people in it?

of 'Love's Labour's Lost'--to ridicule the pedantic And also the lines :

methods of the existing schools of learning and Oh what would the world be to us

the coteries of culture---satisfy tbat his education If the children were no more?

was fully “up to date.” For want of space I

G. C. S. would refer the unconvinced to J. Russell Lowell's AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS Wanted.

brilliant essay, 'Shakespeare Once More.' Even from that day misfortune dire,

3. “Neither of them was happily married.” As if for violated faith,

Molière was married at forty to a girl of eighteen; Pursued bim with relentless step,

Shakespeare was wedded at eighteed to a lady Vindictive still for Hotspur's death.

nine years his senior. Molière was manifestly unThey have been attributed to Scott.

bappy. But was Shakespeare ? There is not a MACROBERT.

tittle of satisfactory evidence to prove that Shake“And marked the conquered Patriot's penisive brow speare's marriage was a failure. The disparity of when Cæsar's triumph thronged the streets of Rome."

ages, the marriage licence, and the "second best L. G.

bed,” prove nothing; while his love of home, his

amazingly beautiful characterization of female Beplies.

character, his attitude towards marital alliance,

as displayed in his works, rather favour a life of SHAKSPEARE AND MOLIÈRE.

connubial satisfaction. J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps (8th S. ii. 42, 190, 294, 332, 389, 469.) remarks on this subject: . Parallelism has been, since the days of Plutarch, “Whether the early alliance was a prudent one in a a favourite device of biographers. Fascinating as wordly point of view may admit of doubt, but that the the practice is, both to the writer and his readers. married pair continued on affectionate terms, until they a captious critic will bave little difficulty in find

| were separated by the poet's death, may be gathered

from the early local tradition that his wife did earnestly ing occasion to challenge the relevancy or truth of desire to be laid in the same grave with him.' The legacy lines or points of resemblance. More especially to her of the second best bed is an evidence which does is this the case with Sbakespeare, where so little is not negative the later testimony.”- Outlines,' fifth definitely known, where so much is purely con

edition, p. 56. jectural. PROF. TOMLINSON has detected fifteen 6. “Each was careless about publishing his “points of resemblance.” Many of these, so far works; or rather, objected to do so, lest they as Shakespeare is concerned, are founded on tra should be acted by rival dramatic companies." In ditions and assumptions which recent investigation the first version of the 1609 edition of Troylus has wholly rejected or dubiously questions. PROF. and Cresseid 'there is this advertisement: “Eternall TOMLINSON's statements are a little too positive; reader, you have heere a new play, never stald they give the impression that they are founded on with the stage, never clapper-claw'd with the irrefragable biographic data, whereas such does not palmes of the vulger.” This is an instance of a exist in a life of the Bard of Avon. I have long I play published before it was produced on the stage. waited for some of the eminent Shakespearian It has been estimated that there were sixty-five contributors of ‘N. & Q.' to touch on these resem. editions of Shakespeare's works published before blances. Molière has, up to this, monopolized his death. The dedication to 'Venus and Adonis' attention. It is time to attract interrogatory and the typographical excellence of the work have notice to the English poet.

led commentators almost unanimously to believe

that Shakespeare himself saw this work through,

the press. In the 1598 edition of ‘Love's Labour's Lost’ we find the words, “Newly corrected and augmented,” in the 1604 quarto of ‘Hamlet,” “Newly imprinted and enlarged to almost as much again as it was, according to the true and perfect coppie.” The almost inevitable conclusion is that this studied revision, this laboured overhauling, was done solely with a view to publication. So thought Mr. Swinburne, in his fine “Study of Shakespeare’:— “Scene by scene, line for line, stroke upon stroke, and touch after touch, he went over all the old laboured ground again, and not to ensure success in his own day, and fill his pockets with contemporary pence, but merely and wholly with a purpose to make it worthy of himself and his future students...... Not one single alteration in the whole play (‘Hamlet’) can possibly have been made with a view to stage effect, or to present popularity and profit...... Every change in the text of ‘Hamlet’ has impaired its fitness for the stage, and increased its value for the closet in exact and perfect proportion."— Pp. 163, 164. Mr Theodore Watts also refers to this in his obituary notice of “Lord Tennyson':“That he was not an improvisatore, however, any one can see who will take the trouble to compare the first edition of “Romeo and Juliet' with the received text, the first sketch of “The Merry Wives of Windsor’ with the play as we now have it, and the ‘Hamlet” of 1603 with the ‘Hamlet' of 1604, and with the still further varied version of the play given by Heminge and Condell in the Folio of 1623. If we take into account, moreover, that it is only by the lucky chapter of accidents that we now possess the earlier forms of the three plays mentioned above, and that most likely the other plays were once in a like condition, we shall come to the conclusion that there was no more vigilant worker with Dante's sieve than Shakspeare.” – Athenaeum, 3389, p. 483 10. “Each disliked his profession.” In support of this Prof. ToMLINson proffers three oftquoted lines of Sonnet czi. This is not sufficient. Admitting that Shakespeare referred to himself, it could only be true of the mood, or time, or condition under which it was written. Again and again in the sonnets we stumble across passages which triumphantly prove that Shakespeare knew his work to be immortal and took honest pride in it, “desiring this man's art, and that man's scope” that he might excel :Not marble, nor the gilded monuments Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme. Sonnet ly. Your monument shall be my gentle verse, Which eyes not yet created shall o'erread; And tongues to be, your being shall rehearse, When all the breathers of this world are dead; You still shall live (such virtue hath my pen), Where breath most breathes, even in the mouths of men. Sonnet lxxxi.

Shakespeare's profession was dramatist. Now I hold he could not have produced the works he did had he disliked his calling. He who reads may note "at the whole soul and head and energy of a George Cruikshank, G. M. Greig, Andrew Geddes, R.A., Sir John Gilbert, R. Herdman, D. O. Hill, R.S.A., Sir George Harvey, P.R.S.A., William Kidd, R.S.A., Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A., Thomas Landseer, W. H. Lizars, E. H. Miller (New York), R. C. Lucas, W. H. Paton, David Scott, R.S.A., John Moyr Smith, J. S. Storer, Thomas Stothard, R.A., Rev. M. W. Peters, R.A., John Thurston, J. McWhirter, J. M. Wright. This last artist must not be confounded with another Wright (“Scotus”) of the same initials. The illustrator of Cunningham's quarto, born in London, was a pupil of Stothard, and these very beautiful transcripts have, I think, never been excelled as subject illustrations to Burns's poems, and I am glad to find, from MR. VIRTUE's reply, that they are still intact and in safe custody. The picture of ‘Tam O'Shanter,’ by Abraham Cooper, R.A., engraved in the same edition, was originally exhibited at the British Institution in 1814. Burns was himself a landscape painter—in words. His poems, when describing the scenery of his much-loved country, are pictures; and to the late David Octavius Hill must be awarded the laurels for perpetuating with his pencil these word pictures on canvas. Sixty beautiful landscapes, each and all painted on the spots suggested by the references in the poems, worthily illustrate the “land of Burns,” under which title they were collectively engraved. The original paintings were publicly exhibited at Edinburgh in 1841, and an octavo catalogue of the collection was printed. I have lately seen a series of oil pictures by Thomas Stothard, R.A., illustrative of Burns s poems; but as my reply is already too long and discursive, I will defer further reference to them until a future occasion. Edward BARRINGTON NASH. Chelsea, S.W. Permit me to refer your correspondent to some excellent engravings from paintings by well-known Scotch artists, published for the members of the Royal Association for the Promotion of Fine Arts in Scotland, illustrative of Burns's poems. Three of them are in my possession (1) “The Soldier's Return,’ 1857; (2) “Auld Lang Syne,’ 1859; (3) “Illustrated Songs of Robert Burns,’ 1861, each of them containing half a dozen well-executed engravings, and procurable, no doubt, for a small sum. The original pictures from which they were taken are probably in private collections in Scot

genius are enshrined in these works. I do not know whether students have ever remarked the innate modesty of the man as displayed in his epilogues. He over and over again expresses his desire to please, and his hope that the work may give satisfaction; he pleads for forbearance and promises improvement. None but a writer deeply concerned could have written such epilogues. In 1597 Shakespeare purchased New Place, and in 1598 he is written down “William Shakespeare of Stratford-on-Avon, in the county of Warwick, gentleman,” and is returned as the holder of ten quarters of corn. Necessity has ever been the hard law that binds men to obnoxious pursuits; he was now sufficiently independent to have renounced his profession if it was distasteful. Yet it was in these years of comparative affluence that he produced his noblest works. 13. “Each preferred the idea or matter, to the comparative disregard of the manner.” Ben Jonson did not think so :— “Yet must I not give Nature all, thy art my gentle Shakespeare must enjoy a part. For {{..., the poet's matter, nature be. His art doth give the fashion.” And he goes on to point out that Shakespeare's “mind and manners brightly shine in his wellturned and true-filed lines.” When we examine the matchless beadroll of proverb and idiom, those exquisite snatches of song, those “sug’red sonnets,” those glorious specimens of dramatic art, we find it difficult to decide whether he was more concerned for the idea or for the form in which he should present it. Shakespeare's art has been so long the wonder, the admiration of the world— so often praised in volumes of eulogy—that I was simply amazed when I learned Shakespeare was classed with those who disregarded manner. There are one or two points to which I might refer, but space compels me to refrain. ProF. ToMLINson does not carry his survey to the end. Will he allow me to do so? Here at least a striking contrast presents itself. Poor Molière! how pitiful is the last page of his “strange eventful history.” “His means of death, his obscure burial—no noble rite, nor formal ostentation,” huddled when the night was darkest into a begrudged grave, with maimed rites and a small funeral cortège. We turn to Shakespeare's demise. Buried honourably in the chancel of his own country church, attended by friends and mourned for by his family, his affairs in order, with faith expressed in his ‘Pilot,’ “when he had crossed the Bar,” while those who knew felt that a prince and a great man had fallen in Britain. This is gratifying, and redounds to the credit of our own beloved country. W. A. HeNDERson. Dublin. In regard to the earliest collected editions of Molière's works, I have a volume of the 1682 edition which contains the “Privilege du Roy,”

granted by Louis XIV. to Denis Thierry, “Mar. chand Libraire Imprimeur,” for an extension of the nine years granted to Molière, on March 18, 1671, in which he was to have the sole right of printing, “toutes les Pièces de Théâtre, composées pour nostre divertissement” by him. Denis Thierry humbly represents that by the terms of the original “permission,” as only one edition of the works had been published, finished in 1675, the “Privilege” did not expire until 1684. This, however, seems to have been disputed by other “Libraires et Imprimeurs,” and in consequence, on Feb. 15, 1680,– “En consideration des grandes sommes qu'il a payées, pour achepter la Cession dudit Privilege, et des frais et dépences qu'il luy a convenu faire pour ladite impresston, Denis Thierry was permitted,— “d'imprimer, vendre et debiter les Pièces de Théâtre et autres (Euvres dudit de Molière, durant le temps et espace de six années; a compter du jour que ledit Privilege par nous accordé audit de Molière, en datte du 18 Mars 1671, sera expiré.” I suppose that the extended “Privilege” would end in 1690. J. F. MANSERGH. Liverpool.

When, as DR. BREWER reminds us, François de Harlay de Chanvallon, that gay archbishop, refused Molière the rites of sepulture, Chapelle, an Abbé as gay but not as bigoted, put about the followIng:— Puisqu'à Paris en dénie La terre après le trépas A ceux qui, pendant la vie, Ont joué de la comédie, Pourquoi me jette-t-on pas Les bigots dans la voirie 7 Ils sont dans le même cas |


BURNs IN ART (8th S. ii. 428,451, 472).-Your correspondent's surprise at the few exhibited pictures during recent years deriving inspiration from the verse of Scotia's bard applies equally, I think, to other poets. Apparently very material subjects at the present time attract the bawbees in preference to the super-mundane breathings of a poet's soul. Still, from the time of David Allan down to Charles Martin Hardie a large number of eminentartists have devoted their pencils to depicting both people and places immortalized by the verse of Burns. My Burnsiana notes yield the following list, which may be of some assistance to MR. SHELLEY ; but it is far from being complete. As many of the paintings and drawings have been engraved as illustrations to the poems, I shall be pleased to supply the references should your correspondent require them: David Allan, Sir William Allan, P.R.S.A., T. Allom, W. H. Bartlett, J. Burnet. A. Carse, Sam Bough, Abraham Cooper, B.A., F. A. Chapman (New York), John Faed,

I can remember to have seen many years ago one of them from No. 3, “Last May a braw wooer,” painted by Erskine Nicol, R.S.A., in which the figures were remarkably well executed, at “the tryst o' Dalgarnock.” The “braw wooer” was looking at Jean, who is also casting a sly glance at him over her left shoulder. She was dressed in the homely attire of bed-gown, short fustian

petticoat, and apron; near her was “cousin Bess," heat. Any scribbler can be caustic. It seems a in a similar attire, turning her back upon them in pity that when the writer of the “rare pamphlet” disgust.

John PICKFORD, M.A. took tbe trouble to print it she did not at the Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

same time supply her readers with something

original about Strap. Mistress Agnes Baird St. CITHA (8th S. ii. 309, 412). -I have a lohought “ that Strap was no less a person than coloured engraving of an ancient piece of stained

Mr. Duncan Niven." Why? Because her father glass which is said to be in existence in a window

told her so, and “it was well known" that the in the north aisle of the choir of Winchester

Glasgow barber " was reputed to be Strap.” This Cathedral. It represents St. Sitha standing in a

is mere hearsay. The lady repeats her father's sort of canopied niche. Her robe is white, with a

statement without citing his authority for it, and narrow yellow border, and with wide sleeves. The

she treats the local gossip in a similar fashion. By under garment appears to be red. She has long

8 repeating what was told to her she no more proves golden hair, and round the head is a halo. In the

her case in favour of her friend Niven than bave right hand she holds a book closed and clasped, the advocates who advance the claims of Hewson, and in the left hand a bunch of keys. On a scroll

|tbe hairdresser at St. Martin's ; Hutchinson, a beneath are the words,“ Sca. Sitha.”

barber of Dunbar; or Lewis, the bookbinder of Carus VALE COLLIER. Davington Priory, Faversham.

Chelsea, to be considered the original of Strap.

The absence of any notice of the rival claimants May I add to what has been advanced that the for the honour raises a suspicion that Mistress late Dr. Husenbeth, in his ‘Emblems of Saints,' Baird never had heard of them, for it is hardly third edition, Norwich, 1882, identifies St. Sitha conceivable that, had she known of their existence, with St. Osyth? He states that sbe was queen, she would not bave used every effort to demolish virgin, abbess, and martyr, and flourisbed circa their pretensions and have brought forward some 170, and that she is shown (1) with a crown or a better proof than “a twice-told tale." table before her, (2) carrying her head cut off, (3) Mr. David Herbert, in his short 'Life of with a stag near her.

JAMES HOOPER. Smollett,' says that :Norwich,

"Strap has been the pride and the boast of four

claimants. It is not in this case greatness thrust on AT” FOLLOWING“ SMELL” AND “FEEL" (8th unwilling victims; it is greatness urged in claim, and S. ii. 347, 452).- An old friend, who brought us utilized to a bargain in business." flowers from time to time, would say, when present. I think this is not correct respectivg Lewis. In ing them, “Here is something for you to smell to." Nichol's Literary Anecdotes' (vol. iii. p. 465), His father came from Yorkshire to settle in the which is quoted by Roscoe in his 'Life of Smollett' neighbourhood of London.

DOSSETOR. (1848, p. xl—the edition of the · Works 'illustrated Tunbridge Wells.

by George Cruikshank), occurs :To "smell at” is quite common in Ireland, and “Mrs. Lewis often assured the writer of this article is hardly provincial. A good instance of the use

that her husband denied the assertions of many people,

as often as it was mentioned to him ; but there is every occurs in Hall Caine's 'Deemster,'" Smelling to the

reason to suppose," &c. peonies, and never a whiff of a smell at the breed of them” (p. 44, ed. 1883).

Mr. Herbert adds that Dr. Chambers gives the It is a common form

details (of the claims)“ in a note" and to it refers in the Isle of Man. Ben Jonson has “smell to" twice in his works. “Smelling to the oats" occurs

the curious. Dr. Chambers's work, as is the case in New Inn,' III. i.

with many another, is not among my books, otherThe other instance is in · The Case is Altered' (circa 1598), but in a

wise the exact reference should be furnished, and stage direction, “ Takes up some of the gold and

I could judge better about Lewis. But a sballow smells to it” (IV. iv.).

purse, like a shallow wit, has to answer for much H. O. HART.

l at times. Both are detestable always. SMOLLETT's 'RodeRICK RANDOM' (8th S. ii.


34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 463).-The quotation given under the above heading irresistibly reminds me of the ways of a GOLDEN BULLETS (8th S. ii. 487). — The followhen-a vigorous peck when she discovers anything ing extract will, I think, supply a sufficient answer that does not please her, and much cackling over to COL. FISHWICK's inquiry : any small grain wbich meets with ber approval "Another time, having read in Dr. Gerhard the ad whilst she is engaged in her scratching. The mirable effects of swallowing of a gold bullet upon his faults in Cleland's book may be “thick as own father, in a case like mine, I got a gold bullet and autumnal leaves that strow the brooks in Vallom

swallowed it (between 20 s. and 30 B. weight); and, hav, brosa," but I doubt whether it was worth the

ing taken it, I knew not how to be delivered of it again : labour of raking them

I took clysters and purges for about three weeks, but together and trying to nothing stirred it; and a gentleman having done the annihilate the doctor at the expense of so much like, the bullet never came from it (bim?] until he died,

and it was cut out : But at last my neighhours set a day have been the habit of glancing at modern times apart to fast and pray for me, and I was freed from my I and modern combinations. When we are reading danger, in the beginning of that day.”-- Reliquiæ of the old days we do not want our thoughts to be Baxterianæ,' part i. p. 81.

sent off in the direction of the House of Commons.

EDWARD PEACOCK. “DUTCH NIGHTINGALES” (8th S. ü. 208, 316, 352).-At the last reference C. O. B. remarks

MR. BOUCHIER will probably find something to that the “Lincolnshire bagpipes," mentioned in interest him in D 1 Henry IV.,'I. ii., have reference “ to the pre

History,' the first chapter of which deals with the valence of frogs in this fenny country." I cannot

English historians of Greece in the present century. help thinking that he has hit upon a wrong inter

The Atheneum of Oct. 1 (p. 446) says: “ The pretation of the words. Surely the allusion is to

comparison between Tbirlwall and Grote will strike veritable bagpipes. This view of the case seems every one who is familiar with their famous histo be proved by the following passage from Robert tories of Greece as subming up their respective Armin's Nest of Ninnies,' 1608, p. 9, reprint of merits in most excellent style." the Shakespeare Society, 1842:

JOHN RANDALL. " Amongst all the pleasures prouided, a noyse of min City COMPANIES (8th S. ii. 427).-All City strells and a Lincolnshire bagpipe was prepared-the companies now surviving have records which are minstrels for the great chamber, the bagpipe for the hall-the minstrells to serve vp the knight's meate, and

kept in custody of their clerks, who are authorized the bagpipe for the common dauncing.”

to demand a fee for every search. Such records In a note on this passage the editor remarks :

contain entries of apprenticeship and admission to “Shakespeare does not speak very favourably of

the freedom, the former giving each youth's “the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe'; but, from

parentage and place of birth. They are seldom various authorities, it appears that it was an

indexed, so any applicant should be provided instrument then in much request."

with a proximate date. Some companies lost their F. C. BIRKBECK Terry.

books at the Great Fire of 1666, as the Vintners

and, I am informed, tbe Glovers. A counterpart TOPEHALL (8th S. ii. 407).-Macaulay, whose of each entry should be found in the Chambermemory was as tenacious as it was reproductive, lain's Office at Guildhall, but imperfectly indexed. no doubt took this name from Roderick Random'

A. Hall. -in which story Orson Topehall, the brother of 13, Paternoster Row, E.C. Narcissa, is represented as a hard-drinking squire --and then gave it to the class of convivial squire

Your correspondent cannot do better than con

sult the . History of the Twelve Livery Companies archy of the days of Sir Robert Walpole. Joan PICKFORD, M.A.

of London,' by William Herbert, late Librarian to Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

the Corporation of London, published in 1836, in

which he will find the names of the members ; but WESLEY AND THE Microscope (gth S. ii. 448), neither in this nor in any other publication with - From his sermon on the Imperfection of which I am acquainted is the lineage or origin Human Knowledge,' Works,' ix. 314 (edition in given.

EVERARD HỌME COLEMAN. sixteen volumes, 1811) :

71, Brecknock Road. “With regard to Animals. Are Microscopic Animals, MARKS AND LETTERS ON SHIPS (8th S. ii. 449). 80 called, real Animals, or not? If they are, are they not essentially different from all other Animals in the

1-To explain the use of the supplementary lines

1 universe, as not requiring any food, not generating or which are to be found on many vessels alongside being generated ? Are they no Animals at all, but of the Plimsoll mark, it may be as well to state merely inanimate particles of matter, in a state of fer. the meapiog of those which may probably be mentation? How totally ignorant are the most sagacious

painted on a steamer trading, say, to the East, of men, touching the whole affair of generation ! Even the generation of Men."

and sometimes across the Atlantic. The highest GEO. West.

supplementary line, higher than Plimsoll's, is The Field, Swinfleet, Goole.

marked with the letters F.W. = Fresh Water.

The boat can be put down to this line when GROTE's 'HISTORY OF GREECE' (8th S. ii. 448). loading in a fresb-water dock or river, because -MR. BOUCHIER's questions, to be answered when she gets into salt water she will "lift," as fully and as they deserve, would occupy far more it is called, on account of the greater density of space than ‘N. & Q.' can afford to give, and it the salt water. Alongside of tbis, and very may well be that on such a matter the opinions of slightly lower, there may be a line with the initials those capable of judging would be found divided. I.S.= India Summer, which marks the point to I think Grote superior to Thirlwall, but that bis which she may be loaded in the Indian seas. in is by no means all that a history of Greece should summer. Below the latter appears a line S., be. One great defect of Grote seems to me to which is the steamer's summer draught in the

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