a 501. note and a portrait of Lady Carve. He 2. “The early education of both was neglected.” handed

them to the auctioneer, The print brought PROF. TOMLINSON has bere the support of Rowe's 251. Was the lady, née Magaret Smith, of any biography and Ben Jonson's “small Latin and less note? The executors gave Dr. Gossett the Diction- Greek”; but against them is the preponderating ary, worth seven guideas. C. A. WARD. evidence of Shakespeare's own work. Take 'Venus Chingford Hatch, E.

and Adonis,” “the first heire of my invention"; 'IMITATION OF CHRIST.'-Would some reader 'Lucrecre,' the Sonnets, and his earlier dramatic of 'N. & Q.' be good enough to give the full title- works--are they the work of bizarre genius, of page of an edition of the above, printed in Dublin, accumulated wisely in his adolescent days, or he

some clever sciolist? Surely not! He must have between the years 1843 and 1857 ? This edition could never have scattered so exuberantly in his has a short life of Thomas à Kempis, with practical reflections on the text of each chapter, with short years of labour. His

early works are packed with

evidences of refined education, of studied restraint, prayer, pp. xxiv, 488, 8vo.

S. H.

of correct classical information. In bis early manDublin,

hood he evidently moved among men of learning, VERSES BY WHITTIER.-In which of Whittier's for Meres, M.A., tells how sonnets of baffling poems do the lines occur:

subtlety and exquisite beauty were dispersed by A dreary place would be this earth

him among his private friends; while the purpose Were there no little people in it?

of Love's Labour's Lost'—to ridicule the pedantic And also the lines :

methods of the existing schools of learning and Oh what would the world be to us

the coteries of culture-satisfy that his education If the children were no more?

was fully "up to date.”

For want of space I G. C. S. would refer the unconvinced to J. Russell Lowell's AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED.

brilliant essay, 'Shakespeare Once More.'

3. “Neither of them was happily married.” Even from that day misfortune dire, As if for violated faith,

Molière was married at forty to a girl of eighteen; Pursued bim with relentless step,

Shakespeare was wedded at eighteen to a lady Vindictive still for Hotspur's death.

nine years his senior. Molière was manifestly unThey have been attributed to Scott.

happy. But was Shakespeare? There is not a MACROBERT.

tittle of satisfactory evidence to prove that Shake“And marked the conquered Patriot's pensive brow speare's marriage was a failure. The disparity of when Cæsar's triumph thronged the streets of Rome."

ages, the marriage licence, and the “second best L. G.

bed,” prove nothing; while his love of home, his

amazingly beautiful characterization of female Beplies.

character, his attitude towards marital alliance,

as displayed in his works, rather favour a life of SHAKSPEARE AND MOLIÈRE,

coppubial satisfaction. J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps (8th S. ii. 42, 190, 294, 332, 389, 469.) remarks on this subject :Parallelism has been, since the days of Plutarch, “Whether the early alliance was a prudent one in a a favourite device of biographers. Fascinating as wordly point of view may admit of doubt, but that the the practice is, both to the writer and his readers, married pair continued on affectionate terms, until they a captious critic will have little difficulty in fiod from the early local tradition that his wife did ournestly

were separated by the poet's death, may be gathered ing occasion to challenge the relevancy or truth of desire to be laid in the same grave with him.' The legacy lines or points of resemblance. More especially to her of the second best bed is an evidence which does is this the case with Sbakespeare, where so little not negative the later testimony." - Outlines,' fifth definitely known, where so much is purely con

edition, p. 56. jectural. PROF. TOMLINSON has detected fifteen 6. “Each was careless about publishing his

points of resemblance.” Many of these, so far works; or rather, objected to do so, lest they as Shakespeare is cono

oncerned, are founded on tra- should be acted by rival dramatic companies." In ditions and assumptions which recent investigation the first version of the 1609 edition of Troylus has wholly rejected or dubiously questions. Prof. and Cresseid 'there is this advertisement:“Eternall Tomlinson's statements are a little too positive; reader, you have beere a new play, never stald they give the impression that they are founded on with the stage, never clapper-claw'd with the irrefragable biographic data, whereas such does not palmes of the vulger.” This is an instance of a exist in a life of the Bard of Avon. I have long play published before it was produced on the stage. waited for some of the eminent Shakespearian it has been estimated that there were sixty-five contributors of ‘N. & Q.' to touch on these resem- editions of Shakespeare's works published before blances. Molière has, up to this, monopolized his death. The dedication to 'Venus and Adonis ' attention. It is time to attract interrogatory and the typographical excellence of the work have notice to the English poet.

led commentators almost unanimously to believe

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that Shakespeare himself saw this work through, genius are ensbrined in these works. I do not the pregg. In the 1598 edition of 'Love's Labour's know whether students bave over romarked the Lost' we find the words, “Newly corrected and innate modesty of the man as displayed in his augmented,” in the 1604 quarto of “Hamlet,' epilogues. He over and over again expresses his

Newly imprinted and enlarged to almost as much desire to please, and his hope that the work may again as it was, according to the true and perfect give satisfaction; he pleads for forbearance and coppie.” The almost inevitable conclusion is that promises improvement. None but a writer deeply this studied revision, this laboured overhauling, was concerned could have written such epilogues. In done solely with a view to publication. So thought 1597 Shakespeare purchased New Place, and in Mr. Swinburne, in his fine 'Study of Shake- 1598 he is written down “William Shakespeare speare':

of Stratford-on-Avon, in the county of Warwick, "Scene by scene, line for line, stroke upon stroke, and gentleman,” and is returned as the holder of ten touch after touch, he went over all the old laboured quarters of corn. Necessity has ever been the ground again, and not to ensure success in his own day, hard law that binds men to obnoxious pursuits; and fill his pockets with contemporary pence, but merely he was now sufficiently independent to have reand wholly with a purpose to make it worthy of himself and his future students...... Not one single alteration in nounced his profession if it was distasteful. Yet the whole play (“Hamlet') can possibly have been it was in these years of comparative affluence that made with a view to stage effect, or to present popularity he produced his noblest works. and profit...... Every change in the text of Hamlet'has

13. “Each preferred the idea or matter, to the impaired its fitness for the stage, and increased its value comparative disregard of the manner.” Ben Jonfor the closet in exact and perfect proportion.”Pp. 163, 164,

son did not think so :Mr Theodore Watts also refers to this in his Shakespeare must enjoy a part. For though the poet's

“ Yet must I not give Nature all, thy art my gentle obituary notice of Lord Tennyson ':

matter, nature be. His art doth give the fashion." “That he was not an improvisatore, however, any And he goes on to point out that Shakespeare's one can see who will take the trouble to compare the first edition of 'Romeo and Juliet' with the received

“mind and manners brightly shine in his welltext, the first sketch of The Merry Wives of Windsor turned and true-filed lines.” When we examine with the play as we now have it, and the 'Hamlet' of the matchless beadroll of proverb and idiom, those 1603 with the “Hamlet' of 1604, and with the still exquisite snatches of song, those“ sugʻred sonnets," further varied version of the play given by Heminge and those glorious specimens of dramatic art, we Condell in the Folio of 1623. If we take into account, find it difficult to decide whether he was more moreover, tbat is only by the lucky chapter of accidents that we now possess the earlier forms of the three plays concerned for the idea or for the form in which mentioned above, and that most likely the other plays he should present it. Shakespeare's art has been were once in a like condition, we shall come to the con- so long the wonder, the admiration of the worldclusion that there was no more vigilant worker with Dante's sieve than Shakspeare.” – Athenæum, 3389, simply amazed when I learned Shakespeare was

so often praised in volumes of eulogy—that I was 10. “Each disliked his profession." In sup

classed with those who disregarded manner. port of this PROF. TOMLINSON proffers three oft

There are one or two points to which I might quoted lines of Sonnet cxi. This is not sufficient. refer, but space compels me to refrain. Prof. Admitting that Shakespeare referred to himself, it will be allow

me to do so? Here at least a striking

TOMLINSON does not carry his survey to the end. could only be true of the mood, or time, or condition under which it was written. Again and contrast presents itself

. Poor Molière ! how pitiful again in the sonnets we stumble across passages « His means of death, his obscure burial — no noble

is the last page of his “strange eventful history.” which triumphantly prove that Shakespeare knew his work to be immortal and took honest pride in rite, nor formal ostentation,” huddled when the

with "night was darkest into a begrudged grave, it, “ desiring this man's art, and that man's scope" | maimed rites and a small fureral cortège. We that he might excel :

turn to Shakespeare's demise. Buried honourably Not marble, nor the gilded monuments Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme.

in the chancel of his own country church, attended Sonnet ly.

by friends and mourned for by his family, his Your monument sball be my gentle verse,

affairs in order, with faith expressed in his 'Pilot,' Which eyes not yet created shall o'erread;

when be bad crossed the Bar," while those who And tongues to be, your being shall rehearse, When all the breathers of this world are dead;

knew felt that a prince and a great man had fallen You still shall live (such virtue hath my pen),

in Britain. This is gratifying, and redounds to the Where breath most breathes, even in the mouths of men, credit of our own beloved country. Sonnet lxxxi.

W. A. HENDERSON. Shakespeare's profession was dramatist. Now I

Dublin. bold he could not have produced the works he did In regard to the earliest collected editions of bad he disliked his calling. He who reads may note Molière's works, I have a volume of the 1682 that the whole soul and head and energy of a edition which contains the “Privilege du Roy,"

P. 483.

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granted by Louis XIV. to Denis Thierry, "Mar. George Cruikshank, G. M. Greig, Andrew Geddes, chand Libraire Imprimeur," for an extension of R.A., Sir John Gilbert, R. Herdman, D. O. Hill, the nine years granted to Molière, on March 18, R.S.A., Sir George Harvey, P.R.S. A., William 1671, in which he was to have the sole right of Kidd, R.S.A., Sir Edwin Landseer, R. A., Thomas printing, “toutes les Pièces de Théâtre, com- Landseer, W. H. Lizars, E. H. Miller (New posées pour nostre divertissement” by him. Denis York), R. C. Lucas, W. 6. Paton, David Scott, Thierry humbly represents that by the terms of R.S.A., John Moyr Smith, J. S. Storer, Thomas the original “permission,” as only one edition of Stothard, R.A., Rev. M. W. Peters, R.A., John the works had been published, finished in 1675, Thurston, J. McWhirter, J. M. Wright. This the “ Privilege ” did not expire until 1684. This, last artist must not be confounded with another however, seems to have been disputed by other Wright (“Scotus”) of the same initials. The " Libraires et Imprimeurs," and in consequence, illustrator of Cunningham's quarto, born in London, on Feb. 15, 1680,

was a pupil of Stothard, and these very beautiful “En consideration des grandes sommes qu'il a payées, transcripts have, I think, never been excelled as pour achepter la Cession dudit Privilege, et des frais et subject illustrations to Burns's poems, and I am dépences qu'il luy a convenu faire pour ladite impres- glad to find, from MR. VIRTUE's reply, that they sion,”

are still intact and in safe custody. The picture Denis Thierry was permitted,

of 'Tam O'Shanter,' by Abraham Cooper, R. A., d'imprimer, vendre et debiter les Pièces de Théâtre engraved in the same edition, was originally et autres (Euvres dudit de Molière, durant le temps et exhibited at the British Institution in 1814. espace de six années ; à compter du jour que ledit Burns was himself a landscape painter—in words. Privilege par nous accordé audit de Molière, en datte du His poems, when describing the scenery of his 18 Mars 1671, sera expiré." I

much-loved country, are pictures ; and to the late that the extended “Privilege " would suppose

David Octavius Hill must be awarded the laurels end in 1690.

J. F. MANSERGA. Liverpool.

for perpetuating with his pencil these word pic

tures on canvas. Sixty beautiful landscapes, each When, as DR. BREWER reminds us, François de and all painted on the spots suggested by the Harlay de Chanvallon, that gay archbishop, refused references in the poems, worthily illustrate the Molière the rites of sepulture, Chapelle, an Abbé “ land of Burns," under which title they were as gay but not as bigoted, put about the follow- collectively engraved. The original paintings ing :

were publicly exhibited at Edinburgh in 1841, and Puisqu'à Paris en dénie

an octavo catalogue of the collection was printed. La terre après le trépas A ceux qui, pendant la vie,

I bave lately seen a series of oil pictures by Ont joué de la comédie,

Thomas Stothard, R.A., illustrative of Burns s Pourquoi ne jette-t-on pas

poems; but as my reply is already too long and Les bigots dans la voirie ?

discursive, I will defer further reference to them Ils sont dans le même cas !

until a future occasion. W. F. WALLER.


Chelsea, S.W. BURNS IN Art (8th S. ii. 428, 451, 472).-Your Permit me to refer your correspondent to somo correspondent's surprise at the few exhibited pic- excellent engravings from paintings by well-known tures during recent years deriving inspiration Scotch artists, published for the members of the from the verse of Scotia's bard applies equally, I Royal Association for the Promotion of Fine Arts think, to other poets. Apparently very material in Scotland, illustrative of Burns's poems. Three subjects at the present time attract the bawbees of them are in my possession (1) The Soldier's in preference to the super-mundane breathings of a Return,' 1857 ; (2) Auld Lang Syne,' 1859 ; (3) poet's soul. Still, from the time of David Allan Illustrated Songs of Robert Burns,' 1861, each of down to Charles Martin Hardie a large number of them containing half a dozen well-executed ominent artists have devoted their pencils to depict- engravings, and procurable, no doubt, for a small ing both people and places immortalized by the sum. The original pictures from which they were verse of Burns. My Burnsiana notes yield the taken are probably in private collections in Scotfollowing list, which may be of some assistance to land. MR. SHELLEY ; but it is far from being complete.

I can remember to have seen many years ago As many of the paintings and drawings have been one of them from No. 3, “Last May a braw engraved as illustrations to the poems, I shall be wooer,” painted by Erskine Nicol, R.S.A., in pleased to supply the references should your corre- which the figures were remarkably well executed, spondent require them: David Allan, Sir William at “the tryst o' Dalgarnock.” The “ braw wooer Allan, P.R.S.A., T. Allom, W. H. Bartlett, J. was looking at Jean, who is also casting a sly glance Burnet, A. Carse, Sam Bougb, Abraham Cooper, at him over her left shoulder. She was dressed in R.A., F. A. Chapman (New York), John Faed, the homely attire of bed - gown, short fustian

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petticoat, and apron; near ber was cousin Bess, heat. Any scribbler can be caustic. It seems a in a similar attire, turning ber back upon them in pity that when the writer of the " rare pamphlet” disgust.

Joan PICKFORD, M.A. took the trouble to print it she did not at the Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

same time supply her readers with something

original about Strap. Mistress Agnes Baird St. CITHA (8th S. ii. 309, 412). —I have a

thought that Strap was no less a person than coloured engraving of an ancient piece of stained Mr. Duncan Niven." Why? Because her father glass which is said to be in existence in a window told her so, and “it was well known” that the in the north aisle of the choir of Winchester

Glasgow barber“

was reputed to be Strap.” This Cathedral. It represents St. Sitha standing in ais mere hearsay. The lady repeats her father's sort of canopied niche. Her robe is white, with a

statement without citing his authority for it, and narrow yellow border, and with wide sleeves. The she treats the local gossip in a similar fashion. By under garment appears to be red. She has long repeating what was told to her she no more proves golden hair, and round the head is a halo. In the her case in favour of her friend Niven than have right hand she holds a book closed and clasped, the advocates who advance the claims of Hewson, and in the left hand a bunch of keys. On a scroll the hairdresser at St. Martin's ; Hutchinson, a beneath are the words, " Sca. Sitha.”

barber of Dunbar; or Lewis, the bookbinder of CARUS VALE COLLIER. Davington Priory, Faversham.

Chelsea, to be considered the original of Strap.

The absence of any notice of the rival claimants May I add to what has been advanced that the for the honour raises a suspicion that Mistress late Dr. Husenbeth, in his ' Emblems of Saints,' Baird never had heard of them, for it is hardly third edition, Norwich, 1882, identifies St. Sitha conceivable that, had she known of their existence, with St. Osyth ? He states that she was queen, she would not have used every effort to demolish virgin, abbess, and martyr, and flourished circá their pretensions and have brought forward some 170, and that she is shown (1) with a crown or a better proof than “a twice-told tale." table before her, (2) carrying her head cut off, (3) Mr. David Herbert, in his short 'Life of with a stag near ber. JAMES HOOPER. Smollett,' says

that : Norwich,

“Strap has been the pride and the boast of four

claimants. It is not in this case greatness thrust on “AT" FOLLOWING

SMELL" “ FEEL” (8th unwilling victims; it is greatness urged in claim, and S. ii. 347, 452).—An old friend, who brought us utilized to a bargain in business." flowers from time to time, would say,


present- I think this is not correct respectivg Lewis. In ing them, "Here is something for you to smell to." Nichol's 'Literary Anecdotes' (vol. iii. p. 465), His father came from Yorkshire to settle in the which is quoted by Roscoe in his · Life of Smollett neighbourhood of London.


(1848, p. xl—the edition of the Works'illustrated Tunbridge Wells.

by George Cruikshank), occurs :To “smell at” is quite common in Ireland, and that her husband denied the assertions of many people,

“ Mrs. Lewis often assured the writer of this article is hardly provincial. A good instance of the use

as often as it was mentioned to him; but there is every occurs in Hall Caine's' Deemster,"“Smelling to the

reason to suppose," &c. peonies, and never a whiff of a smell at the breed

Mr. Herbert adds that Dr. Chambers gives the of them” (p. 44, ed. 1883). It is a common form, details (of the claims)“ in a note" and to it refers in the Isle of Man. Ben Jonson has "smell to the curious. Dr. Chambers's work, as is the case twice in his works. “Smelling to the oats in New Inn,' III. i. The other instance is in wise the exact reference should be furnished, and

with many another, is not among my books, other• The Case is Altered' (circa 1698), but in a I could judge better about Lewis. But a shallow stage direction, “ Takes up some of the gold and smells to it" (IV. iv.).

like a shallow wit, bas to answer for much H. O. HART.

at times. Both are detestable always.


34, St. Petersburg Place, W. 463).-The quotation given under the above heading irresistibly reminds me of the ways of a GOLDEN BULLETS (8th S. ii. 487). — The followhen—a vigorous peck when she discovers anything ing extract will, I think, supply a sufficient answer that does not please her, and much cackling over to Col. Fishwick's inquiry :-any small grain which meets with ber approval “ Another time, having read in Dr. Gerhard the ad whilst she is engaged in her scratching. The mirable effects of swallowing of a gold bullet upon big faults in Cleland's book may be

own father, in a case like mine, I got a gold bullet and autumpal leaves that strow the brooks in Vallom swallowed it (between 20 s. and 30 B. weight); and, hap. brosa,” but I doubt whether it was worth the ing taken it, I knew not how to be delivered of it again : labour of raking them together and trying to nothing stirred it; and a gentleman having done the

I took clysters and purges for about three weeks, but annihilate the doctor at the expense of so much like, the bullet never came from it [him?] until he died,



" thick as


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and it was cut out : But at last my neighhours set a day have been the habit of glancing at modern times apart to fast and pray for me, and I was freed from my and modern combinations. When we are reading danger, in the beginning of that day.”— Reliquiæ of the old days we do not want our thoughts to be Baxterianæ,' part i. p. 81.

sent off in the direction of the House of Commons.

EDWARD PEACOCK. “Durch NIGHTINGALES” (8th S. ii. 208, 316, 352). -At the last reference C. O. B. remarks

MR. BOUCHER will probably find something to that the “Lincolnshire bagpipes," mentioned in interest him in Dr. Mahaffy's . Problems in Greek * 1 Henry IV.,' I. ii., have reference to the pre- History, the first chapter of which deals with the valence of frogs in this fenny country.”

I cannot English historians of Greece in the present century. help thinking that he has hit upon a wrong inter- The Athenæum of Oct. 1 (p. 446) says: “The pretation of the words. Surely the allusion is to comparison between Tbirlwall and Grote will strike veritable bagpipes. This view of the case seems every one who is familiar with their famous histo be proved by the following passage from Robert tories of Greece as summing up their respective Armin's 'Nest of Ninnies,' 1608, p. 9, reprint of merits in most excellent style." the Shakespeare Society, 1842:

John RANDALL. “ Amongst all the pleasures prouided, a noyse of min- City COMPANIES (8th S. ii. 427).—All City strells and a Lincolnshire bagpipe was prepared--the companies now surviving have records wbich are minstrels for the great chamber, the bagpipe for the hall--the minstrolls to serve up the knight's meate, and kept in custody of their clerks, who are authorized the bagpipe for the common dauncing.”

to demand a fee for every search. Such records In a note on this passage the editor remarks : contain entries of apprenticeship and admission to " Shakespeare does not speak very favourably of the freedom, the former giving each youth's

the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe '; but, from parentage and place of birth. They are seldom various authorities, it appears that it was

indexed, so any applicant should be provided instrument then in much request.”

with a proximate date. Some companies lost their F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

books at the Great Fire of 1666, as the Vintners

and, I am informed, the Glovers. A counterpart TOPEHALL (8th S. ii. 407).—Macaulay, whose of each entry should be found in the Chambermemory was as tenacious as it was reproductive, lain's Office at Guildhall, but imperfectly indexed. no doubt took this name from Roderick Random

A. Hall. -in which story Orson Topeball, the brother of 13, Paternoster Row, E.C. Narcissa, is represented as a hard-drinking squire --and then gave it to the class of convivial squire-sult the History of the Twelve Livery Companies

Your correspondent cannot do better than conarchy of the days of Sir Robert Walpole. Joan PICKFORD, M.A.

of London,' by William Herbert, late Librarian to Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

the Corporation of London, published in 1836, in

which he will find the names of the members ; but WESLEY AND THE Microscope (gen S. ii. 448). neither in this nor in any other publication with - From his sermon

on the 'Imperfection of which I am acquainted is the lineage or origin Human Knowledge,' Works,' ix. 314 (edition in given.

EVERARD HỌME COLEMAN. sixteen volumes, 1811):-

71, Brecknock Road. “With regard to Animals. Are Microscopic Animals, so called, real Animals, or not? If they are, are they - To explain the use of the supplementary lines

MARKS AND LETTERS ON Ships (8th S. ii. 449). not essentially different from all other Animals in the which are to be found on many vessels alongside universe, as not requiring any food, not generating or being generated ? Are they no Animals at all, but of the Plimsoll mark, it may be as well to state merely inanimate particles of matter, in a state of fer. the meaning of those which may probably be mentation? How totally ignorant are the most sagacious painted on a steamer trading, say, to the East, of men, touching the whole affair of generation ! Even and sometimes across the Atlantic. The highest the generation of Men."


supplementary line, higher than Plimsoll's, is The Field, Swinfleet, Goole.

marked with the letters F.W. Fresh Water.

The boat can be put down to this line when Grote's ' HISTORY OF GREECE' (gth S. ii. 448). loading in a fresb-water dock or river, because -MR. BOUchier's questions, to be answered when she gets into salt water she will "lift,” as fully and as they deserve, would occupy far more it is called, on account of the greater density of space than 'N. & Q.' can afford to give, and it the salt water. Alongside of this, and very may well be that on such a matter the opinions of slightly lower, there may be a line with the initials those capable of judging would be found divided. 1. S. = India Summer, which marks the point to I think Grote superior to Thirlwall, but that his which she may be loaded in the Indian seas. in is by no means all that a history of Greece should summer. Below the latter appears a line S., be. One great defect of Grote seems to me to which is the steamer's summer draught in the

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