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THE

LONDON ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

Wotton.

Wotton.

More's Antid. Athm.

Addison on Medals.

And wish the state of th' world were now undone.

A, is the first letter, and first vowel of the al- They go a begging to a bankrupt’s door. Dryden. phabet in all the modern, and in most of the May peace still slumber by these purling fountains' ancient languages. In English, some gramma- Which we may every year nians have given it three sounds, the broad, open, Find, when we come a fishing here.

Now the men fell a rubbing of armour, which a and slender; others have even added to these;

great while had lain oiled. but, in fact, it has regularly only two sounds pe

He will knap the spears a pieces with his teeth. culiar to itself, a short and a long one; all the other sounds being irregular, varying according Another falls a ringing a Pescennius Niger, and to its combination with other letters.

judiciously distinguishes the sound of it to be moThe broad sound, resembling that of the Ger- dern. man a, is found in many of our monosyllables, as dl, wall, malt, salt ; in which a is pronounced

4. A is used in burlesque poetry, to lengthen as au in cause, or aw in law. Many of these words out a syllable, without adding to the sense. were anciently written with au, as fauli, waulk ; For cloves and nutmegs to the line-a which happens to be still retained in fault. And even for oranges to China.

Dryden. A open, not unlike the a of the Italians, is

5. A is sometimes in familiar writings, put by found in father, rather, and more obscurely in fancy, Just, &c.

a barbarous corruption for he ; as, will a come,

for will he come. A, slender, or close, is the peculiar a of the English language, resembling the sound of the the power of the French a in these phrases, a

6. A, in composition, seems to have sometimes French e masculine, or diphthong ai in pais; or perhaps a middle sound between them to this droit, a gauche, &c. and sometimes to be conthe Arabic a is said nearly to approach. Of this tracted from at; as, aside, aslope, afoot, asleep,

athirst, aware. sound we have examples in the words place, face, waste; and all those that terminate in I gin to be a weary of the sun; ation, as relation, nation, generation. A is short, as glass, grass ; or long, as glaze,

Shakspeare's Macbeth. graze : it is marked long, generally by an e final, The sailors ship their oars, and cease to row;

And now a breeze from shore began to blow, plane ; or by an i added, as plain. The short a

Then hoist their yards a-trip, and all their sails is open, the long a close.

Let fall, to court the wind, and catch the gales. 1. A, taken materially, or for itself, is a noun;

Dryden's Ceyx and Alcyone. as, a great A, a little a.

A little house with trees a row, Truly were I great A, before I would be willing to And like its master very low.

Pope, Hor. be so abused, I should wish myself little a, a thou- 7. A is sometimes redundant; as, arise, arouse,

Wallis's Correction of Hobbes. awake ; the same with rise, rouse, wake. 2. A, an article set before nouns of the singu

A, with the addition of the two Latin words lar number; a man, a tree, denoting the number per se, meaning by itself, is used by our elder one ; as a man is coming, that is, no more than writers to denote a nonesuch. It may have been One ; or an indefinite indication, as, a man may adopted from the custom of the child's school,

in come this way, that is, any man. This article which every letter, we may presume, was taught has no plural signification. Before a word be- to be expressed per se. ginning with a vowel, it is written an; as, an ox, AA (Peter Vander), a celebrated bookseller of an egg, of which a is the contraction.

Leyden, flourished in the beginning of the last 3. A is placed before a participle, or participial century, and compiled many useful geographical noun; and is considered by Wallis, as a traction of at, when it is put before a word de- (Galerie Agreable du Monde, 66 vols. folio),

con- works. He published an Atlas of 200 Charts noting some action not yet finished; as, I am a editions of the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Græcowalking. It also seems to be anciently con- rum and of the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Italiæ, tracted from at, when placed before local sur- and a Collection of Travels in Europe, 30 vols. names; as, Thomas a Becket. In other cases, 12mo. &c. it seems to signify to, like the French d.

Aa, a river of Semigalila, Courland, which runs A hunting Chloe went.

Prior. into the Gulf of Riga.

B

sand times.

Vol. I.

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Aa, a river of France, which rises in the de- AANCHE, in music, a name sometimes given partment of Pas de Calais, beyond Rumilly to wind instruments and organ pipes, with reeds le Comte, near Taeroune, runs N. E. through or tongues, as the clarionet, hautboy, &c. Artois, and becomes navigable near St. Omers; AANES, in music, the tones and modes of the whence it passes N. to Gravelines, below which modern Greeks. it falls into the English Channel. At St. Omers, AAR, a small island in the Baltic. the Colme and an inferior branch separate from it. Aar, a river of Germany, falling into the Rhine,

Aa, a river in Westphalia, which rises near near Sintzig.
Munster, waters that city, and falls into the river Aar, a large river of Switzerland, which has
Ems.

its source in a lake, near Mount Schreckhorn, in Aa, a river of Switzerland, which rises in the south of the canton of Berne, and running Underwalden, and empties itself into the Lake N. W. through the whole extent of the lakes of of Lucerne: also a river of Underwalden, which Brientz and Thun to Berne, takes a circuitous falls into the Lake of Waldstadten opposite Ger- course to Soleure; whence it flows E. to Arburg, sau. This is likewise the name of a third river and N. E. to Brugg; below which, being joined of Switzerland, which rises N. W. of Lucerne, by the Reuss and Limmat, it falls into the Rhine, and unites itself with the Aar, three miles S. W. opposite Waldschut. of Brugg; and of a fourth in the canton of Zurich, AARASSUS, in ancient geography, a town of which rises near Gruningen, and empties itself Pisidia, in Asia, supposed to be the Anassus of in the Greiffen.

Ptolemy. Aa, a river of Dutch Brabant, rising on the AARCHET, in music, instruments played borders of Guelderland, and running into the with a bow, as the violin and violincello. Dommel, near Bois le Duc. Also, a river of AARGAU, ARGOVIA, or Argou, anciently Overyssel, in Holland, falling into the Lake of one of the 45 districts or divisions of Switzerland, Giter.

receiving its name from the Aar, and composing AABAM, or AABAN, a term used by some the German part of the canton of Berne, with part alchemists to signify lead.

of Solothurn, Lucerne, and Underwalden. It AACH, a river in Suabia, which falls into the now includes only that part of Berne which in Lake of Constance.

1798 was formed into a separate canton, having Aach, a town in the circle of Suabia, situated Arau for its capital; but received in 1803 the near the source of the above river, and almost whole of Baden and the Frickthal, in addition to equidistant from the Danube, and the lake Con- its territory. It is bounded by Zug and Zurich stance. Also another river of Suabia, joining on the N. has the Rhine for its boundary E. the the Iller.

cantons of Solothurn and Basil W. and Zug S. AAHUS, a small district of Germany, in the containing 11 districts, and 48 jurisdictions. circle of Westphalia, and bishopric of Munster, Population 132,763. containing twenty parishes and four towns. AARHUUS, a large diocese in N. Jutland, Aanus, the capital, has a good castle, and lies which extends from that of Wiburg to Categat, N. E. of Coesfeldt.

about 65 miles in length, and 33 in breadth. It AAKIRKE, a town in the island of Bornholm, is intersected by many excellent rivers, and lakes, Denmark, with the rank and privileges of a city. abounding with fish, and adorned with a variety The provincial court and synod are held in it. of large forests. It contains five towns, eight

AALBORG, or AALBOURG, a bishopric of royal bailiwicks, and six counties. Population Denmark, in North Jutland, length and breadth 135,000. about 75 miles. It occupies the whole northern AARHUUS, or Arhusen, the capital of the part of the peninsula, and contains several flou- bishopric of that name, lies between the sea and rishing towns and noble manors. Population a lake, from which water is conveyed by a about 90,000.

broad canal, that divides the town into two unAalborg, the capital of the bishopric of that equal parts. It is large and populous, and has name, lies on the south coast of Lymfurt, on the six gates, two principal churches, two market confines of the bishopric of Wiburg. Next to places, an university, a free school, and a wellCopenhagen and Odensee, it is the richest and endowed hospital. It carries on a good trade in most populous town in Denmark. The name The cathedral, which was begun in 1201, signifies Eel-town, great quantities of eels being is 150 paces in length, 96 in breadth, and nearly caught here. It has an exchange for merchants, 45 German ells in height. a safe and deep harbour, (though the entrance AARON, Heb. a mountaineer, the brother near Hals is somewhat dangerous,) a consider- of Moses, and first high priest of the Israelites, able trade in corn, and herrings, and manufac- was great-grand-son of Levi by the father's side, tories of soap, train oil, guns, pistols, saddles, and grandson by the mother's. His history being and gloves. It was taken by the Swedes, in the fully narrated in the Pentateuch, it needs only to be years 1643 and 1658. Lon. 9. 46. E. lat. 57. N. added here, that he died upon Mount Hor, in the AALEN. See AHLEN.

123d year of his age, being the 40th after the AALTEN, a town of Breedevort, in Dutch departure from Egypt; A. M. 2522, of the Julian Guelderland, near Munster, containing 3500 period, 3262, and before the Christian æra, 1452. inhabitants.

See Moses and MAGICIAN. AAM, or Haam, a liquid measure, used by the AARON,(St.) a British martyr,who suffered along Dutch, containing 128 mingles, (a measure with St. Julius, another native of Britain, under weighing nearly 36 ounces avoirdupois,) or 288 Dioclesian, about the same time with St. Alban, pints English, or 1481 Paris measure.

the British proto-martyr.

corn.

AARON, of Alexandria, a learned presbyter and generally shews that they have some relation to physician of the seventh century, in whose works an abbey, as Abingdon. be small-pox is first mentioned.

ABA, or ABAU, HANIFAH. See HANIFAH. Adros, a market town of France, in the de- ABA, ABAŞ, Abos, or Abus, in ancient geograpartment of Mayenne, having extensive iron phy, a mountain of Greater Armenia; Strabo works.

says, the Euphrates and Araxes both rose in it, AARON HARISCHON. See HARISCHON. the former running eastward and the latter west

AaBox, or HAROUN, AL RASCHID, a celebrated ward. khalif of the Saracen empire, of whom many ABA, or ABÆ, in ancient geography, a town of fabulous legends are told.

Phocis in Greece, near Helicon, famous for an AARSENS, (Francis,) Lord of Someldyck and oracle of Apollo, older than that at Delphi; as Spyck, was one of the greatest statesmen the United well as for a rich temple, plundered and burnt Provinces ever produced. Having been some years by the Persians. See ABANTIS. under M. Mornay, at the court of William I. prince ABABDE, in geography, a tribe of the Beof Orange, Barneveldt sent him, as agent for the douin Arabs, inhabiting, according to M. BurckStates, to Paris, where he acquired for himself hardt, that part of the west shore of the Arabian great reputation under Henry IV. Villeroi, &c. Gulf, which is south of the Kosseir, and in about Being soon after invested with the character of the latitude of Derr. The country is mountainous, ambassador, Henry gave him precedence next and the people faithless and barbarous. to the Venetian minister. He resided at the ABABILO, or Ababil, in mythology, a fabucourt of France 15 years, and was created a lous bird mentioned in the Koran, who, according knight and a baron by the king; wəs after- to the Mahometan doctors, has a foot like that of wards ambassador at Venice; and to several a dog. princes in Germany and Italy: and in 1620, was ABACA, in botany, an Indian plant, a native appointed the first of three extraordinary ambas- of the Philippine Islands. There are two spesadors to England, where, in 1641, he settled the cies, the white and the grey. The former promarriage between the princess Mary and prince duces lint, of which very fine linen is made; the William, the father of our William III. He died latter hemp, which is used for nothing but corat a very advanced age.

dage. AARSENS, (Peter,) a painter, called Long Peter, ABACÆNUM, or ABACENE, in ancient geoon account of his stature, born at Amsterdam in graphy, a town of Sicily, whose ruins are supposed 1319. He was eminent in altar and kitchen to be those still lying near Trippi, a citadel on a pieces. A lady of Alckmaer offered 200 crowns high mountain, near Messina. to preserve one of his altar pieces, that was ABACAY, in natural history, a species of pardestroyed in the insurrection, in 1566.

rot in the Philippine Islands, called also CalanAARTGEN, or Aertgens, a painter of-merit,

gay, the son of a wool-comber of Leyden, born in ABACH, or WELTENBURG, a market town in 1498. He studied painting under Engelbrechtz, Lower Bavaria, seated on the Danube ; nine but was devoted to the bottle, and was drowned miles from Ratisbon. It is defended by a citadel,

and is remarkable for Roman antiquities, as well AASAR, in ancient geography, a town of Ju- as for its mineral waters, which are celebrated for dæa, in the tribe of Judah, between Azotus and curing various diseases. Lon. 11. 56. E. lat. 48. Ascalon. In St. Jerome's time it was a hamlet.

AAVORA, in natural history, the fruit of a ABACINARE, in archæology, Ital. from large species of the palm tree, that grows in bacino, a basin, or bacio, a dark place, a punAfrica and the West Indies. It is of the size of a ishment, described by writers of the middle age, hen's egg, and several are included in one shell. wherein the criminal was blinded, by holding a

AB, in the Hebrew calendar, the 11th month red hot basin, or hot irons before his eyes. of the civil year and the 5th of the ecclesiastical.

ABACISCUS, in ancient architecture, the It answers to the moon, which begins in July square compartments of Mosaic pavements. and ends in August, and consists of 30 days. The ABACISTA, 0. L. an arithmetician. Jews fast on the 1st of this month in memory of ABACK', on back, backwards. Aaron's death; on the 9th, because on that day, so that the white was aboue, as the folk y seye, both the first and second temples were burnt; And drof the rede al abak out of the put ney and on the 18th, because the sacred lamp in the The rede, as for sorinesse, by turnede hym atten ende, sanctuary was that night extinguished, in the And asailede the wyte, and made hym abac wende. reign of Ahaz. The 9th of this month was also

R. Gloucester, p. 131, Temarkable for the publication of Adrian's edict, But when they came where thou thy skill didst show, which prohibited that unfortunate people, not They drew abacke, as half with shame confound. only from continuing in Judæa, but even from

Spenser's Pastorals, June. looking back to Jerusalem to lament its desola

A noble heart ought not the sooner yield, tion.

Not shrink abacke for any weal or woe. AB, in the Syriac Calendar, is the last of the

Mir. for Mag. p. 359. summer months. The eastern Christians called Yet Albert new resources still prepares, the first day of this month Suum Miriam, the Conceals his grief, and doubles all his cares ; fast of Mary, and fasted from that to the 15th, “ Away there! lower the mizen-yard on deck,”. which they called Fathr-Miriam, the cessation of He calls, “ and brace the foremost-yards aback!the fast of the Virgin.

Falconer's Shipwreck. AB, at the beginning of the names of places, ABack, of ABAKE, in sea-language signifies

in 1564.

53. N.

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