« ElőzőTovább »
harbour; another at Keel, on the sandy beach of Tramore; and a third at Doogort, at the opposite side of the island on a similar sandy beach in Blacksod Bay. About half a mile from Doogort, on the eastern slope of the mountain of Sleive more, stands the missionary colony of the Rev. Mr. Nangle, a clergyman of the Established Church. The Achill mission consists of a row of several substantial slated houses, ing in the midst of about 40 acres of cultivated land, and comprises a church, dispensary, tuck-mill, corn-mill, schools, and a printing establishment.
produce. Orchards and vineyards are numerous; lucerne is sown to a great extent for fattening cattle and for their maintenance during the winter. In summer cattle find excellent pastures on the declivities of the Andes, which however during four or five months are covered with snow. Hemp is also cultivated in some parts of the valleys. Great stand-quantities of apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, figs, walnuts, muscatel grapes, and strawberries are sent to Santiago and Valparaiso. The sugar-cane is cultivated in the valley of La Ligua, but no sugar is made, the green shoots being taken to Santiago for sale.
(Ordnance Survey of Ireland; Parl. Returns; Tour in Connaught.)
ACHIME NES (from a, prefix, and xeîua, winter), a genus of plants belonging to the order Gesneracea. The species of this genus are very numerous, and, although not useful, they are many of them extensively cultivated, on account of the beauty of their flowers. In consequence of their general culture, a great many varieties of the species are becoming known. After flowering, the stems die down; and the tubers should be dug up, and kept free from frost and wet till January, when, by planting them in succession, flowers may be obtained till the summer. They may be planted in a mixture of loam and leaf-mould, with a little silver sand. They can be placed out in the summer, but require shading on hot days.
ACHLYA, a genus of Cryptogamous Plants, belonging to the order Confervacea. It is composed of a single tubiform cell, which expands at the end into a large cell, which is cut off from the lower portion of the tube by the formation of a partition. In this enlarged cell a circulation of granular particles has been observed. In the course of time cells are formed in this enlarged cavity, and fill it up. The parent cell eventually bursts at some spot, and allows of the escape of the enclosed celis; but before this takes place the cells in the interior move about, and, after their escape, exhibit for a considerable time an active movement. They are good examples of the Zoospore. They soon attach themselves to some fitting object, and grow into little plants, like their parent. A similar process goes on in most of the Algo, but is not so easily observed as in this case.
The only species of Achlya which has been described is the A. prolifera, which is found parasitic upon fish and other aquatic animals. This plant is more especially developed on fish and aquatic reptiles kept in confinement. It was first observed on gold fish, but several writers have described it as existing on other animals, as the Stickleback, Water Salamander, Frog, and Newt.
ACIDS, ORGANIC. [CHEMISTRY, S. 2.] ACONCAGUA, a province of Chili, in South America, extends southwards from the river Chuapa between 31° 30' and 33° 20′ S. lat., 70° and 72° W. long. Its length from N. to S. exceeds 120 miles; towards the east the province extends to the crest of the Andes, between which and the Pacific the width is about 100 miles. The area exceeds 12,000 square miles: the population in 1847 was 91,022. In the range of the Andes, which separates this province from the Argentine province of Mendoza, is the volcanic Peak of Aconcagua, which has given its name to the department and to its principal river. The Peak of Aconcagua is the highest of all known volcanoes; it is said to be 23,200 feet above the sea-level. From the Andes many lateral ranges run off westward, which are very high near the Cordilleras; they grow lower in proceeding farther west, but even at a distance of a few miles from the shores of the Pacific their elevation rarely sinks below 2000 feet, and often exceeds 3000 feet. The coast itself is generally bold and high, barren and uninteresting. Between the lateral ranges which traverse the country there are a few cultivated valleys. The most extensive of these valleys, which receive their names from the rivers that drain them, are Quilimari, Logotomo, La Ligua (these open into each other near the shores of the Pacific), and Aconcagua. The three first are of moderate extent, but the valley of the Aconcagua is mostly 2 or 3 miles wide, and expands near its middle to a plain, 15 miles in length and 13 miles wide. Where the plain contracts again, at its western extremity, the valley of the river Putaendo opens into it from the north. This valley, though less wide than that of the Aconcagua, is yet of considerable extent, and both together contain probably two-thirds of the population of the province. Its soil is rather fertile, and the greatest part may be irrigated. The cultivation is extensive. The crops generally raised are wheat, maize, pumpkins, melons, beans, and other garden
The hills and mountains, which inclose the valleys and cover by far the greater portion of the surface of the country, are stony, mostly round-topped, and of gentle slope, except towards the Andes where they are steep. Their soil consists of a hard red clay, which is thinly covered with a few bushes and stunted trees, and many cactuses. The ravines present a few evergreen trees and shrubs. The nature of the soil and the scarcity of rain combine to render these hills nearly useless as pasture ground. In some places however near the coast there are some more fertile tracts, on which wheat is raised without irrigation. They are found on the gentle slopes of the hills, and have mostly a stiff clayey soil and a subsoil moistened by springs so small as never to issue from the surface. These tracts are distinguished in the country by the denomination of La Costa, but the quantity of corn raised is not great.
The chief metals are gold and copper. Gold is found in the districts north of the valley of Aconcagua; it is collected chiefly in the mountains surrounding Petorca at La Ligua and La Dormida. Copper ores are met with in most parts of the province, but mines are worked only in the mountains near the sea-coast.
The climate of this country differs considerably in different parts. On the coast, in the northern districts, there is somewhat less rain than in the southern; but even here there are seldom more than fourteen rainy days in the year. In summer the heat is not excessive, as a fresh southern breeze always prevails, by which it is moderated. In the interior, and especially in the wider part of the valley of Aconcagua, which is about 2500 feet above the sea, no rain falls, but in winter (June and July) there are heavy dews, which appear as a hoar-frost. The days at this season are very pleasant. In summer the heat is here excessive, the thermometer frequently rising above 90° in the shade. The southern winds blowing along the coast are interrupted by the intervening mountains, and a dead calm prevails during the day, but no sooner has the sun disappeared than a delightful current of air blows from the westward towards the cordilleras, which renders the evenings and nights very pleasant. Thus the climate of this valley resembles that of the southern parts of Italy. The scarcity of rain renders cultivation impossible without irrigation.
Aconcagua has no ports. The coast has no indentations of any extent in which vessels may be sheltered from the heavy swell which sets in continually from the south-west. The port of Quintero formerly had from one and a half to two fathoms water, but by the earthquake of 1822 its bottom was raised, with the adjacent coast, from four to five feet, so that it is now too shallow for vessels of any size. North of Quintero are the road-steads of Horcon and Papudo, with good landing places; and farther north the cove of Pichidanque, from which much copper is shipped.
The principal towns of the province, like most of those in Chili, are regularly built and on a uniform plan; so much so that a general description of one will suffice for all. In the centre is the Plaza or principal square, one side of which is formed by the cathedral or church and the buildings connected therewith; a second side is formed by the Cabildo, or municipal offices; on the other sides, which in most instances are fronted with piazzas, are the theatre, coffeehouses, and the principal shops. The area of the Plaza serves frequently during the early part of the day as a fruit and vegetable market; in the evening it forms a fashionable promenade; and during all political and religious festivals it is the great centre of attraction. From the Plaza branch off the principal streets, straight, wide, regular, and crossed by others at right angles and at measured intervals. The houses, as is usual in countries subject to earthquakes, are only one story high; they are built of sun-dried bricks, and in the Spanish fashion. Towards the street they present generally a blank wall, pierced only by a wide doorway or gate leading into a patio, or court-yard, on which the prin
cipal apartments open. Beyond this patio there is another, round which the private apartments are built, and beyond this even another quadrangle, containing the kitchen and servants' rooms. The patios are frequently roofed over with trellis-work, along which vines are trained to grow; and when water is abundant there is a pond or a jet-d'eau, or both, in the centre. To go from one part of the house to another the patio must be crossed. When we have added that each house has a garden or vineyard behind it, an idea may be formed of the great extent covered by a town of even a small population. Another distinguishing feature of these towns is the Alameda, or public walk. This consists mostly of shady alleys formed by trees regularly planted near a river, and on such a site as to command a succession of picturesque or sublime views. Near the Alameda is the exercising ground for militia or military parades. The streets seem to foreigners dull and lifeless in general; the Plaza and the Alameda, during the hours when they are frequented, are the chief sources of amusement and gratification, and this they often afford in a high degree; as during the hours of recreation in the evening the whole population, rich and poor, flock thither, with the exception of the very old or very young, who however indemnify themselves by enjoying the fresh air on the flat roofs of the houses. San-Felipe-deAconcagua, the capital of the province, situated on the right bank of the Aconcagua, at a distance of 50 miles due N. from Santiago, the capital of Chili, and the same distance W. by S. from the Peak of Aconcagua, has about 13,000 inhabitants. Santa-Rosa, 20 miles higher up the river, and E.S.E., of San-Felipe, has a population of 6000. Petorca, situated 50 miles N. by W. from San-Felipe, in the richest mining district of the province, is a small place, with hardly
more than 1000 inhabitants.
The road from Santiago to San-Felipe crosses the range of hills called Cuesta-de-Cachabuco at the height of 2896 feet above the sea, and is continued northward through Petorca to La Serena. Another road leads down the valley of the Aconcagua through Quillota to Valparaiso, distant about 60 miles. The communication with the Argentine Provinces is kept up chiefly by the road up the valley of the Aconcagua and across the Andes by the Pass of La Cumbre (12,454 feet above the sea) through Uspallata to Mendoza. Another road, branching off from the northern road at the village of San-Antonio, about 10 miles N. from San-Felipe, and running up the left bank of the Putaendo, crosses the Andes by the Patos Pass, and leads to the Argentine town and province of San-Juan. The road by the Cumbre Pass is open for mules from November to the end of May; for the rest of the year it is closed to all but foot-passengers, and the crossing is then very dangerous. It was by the Patos Pass that General San Martin marched over the Andes into Chili with the army of Buenos Ayres in 1817.
(Miers, Travels in Chili and La Plata; Meyen's Reise um die Erde; Pöppig's Reise in Chile, Peru und auf dem Amazonenflusse; Parish, Buenos Ayres and the Provinces of La Plata; Surveying Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle.) ACONITINA. [CHEMISTRY, S. 1.]
ACTION AT LAW. The procedure in personal actions has been much simplified by the Common Law Procedure Act, 1852; many of the old rules of pleading having been at the same time abolished. The Common Law Procedure Act of 1854 has conferred powers on the courts of common law to restrain the repetition or continuance of wrongful acts by Writ of Injunction, by a process analogous to the injunction granted by the Court of Chancery. The remedy by Writ of Mandamus to enforce the performance of duties has also been extended by the same statute; both of these writs being now obtainable in and by an ordinary action at law. ADAIR, SIR ROBERT, was the son of Robert Adair, sergeant-surgeon to George III., by a daughter of the second Earl of Albemarle, through whom he became connected with many families of political influence. He was born in London on May 24, 1763, and was educated at Westminster School, whence he proceeded to Göttingen to complete his studies. On his return in 1780 he became acquainted with Mr. Fox, took his side in politics, and wrote a pamphlet or two, one of which, a letter to Mr. Burke, brought on him the ridicule of Canning in the Anti-Jacobin.' But in February, 1806, when Fox succeeded to power, he was sent as minister to Vienna, where he conducted himself ably, and of which mission he published a memoir in 1845; and in 1808, Canning, when in office, though he had ridiculed his appointment to Vienna, selected him for a special mission to the Porte, with Mr. Canning (now Lord Stratford de Redcliffe) and Mr. Morier as assistants, where he negociated the treaty of the Dardanelles, concluded in 1809, and of this mission he has also published an account. On its successful termination he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. In April, 1809, he was appointed ambassador at Constantinople, which office he held till 1811. In July, 1831, he was despatched by Earl Grey on a special mission to Belgium, where Prince Leopold, recently elected to the throne of that kingdom, was besieged in Liege by the Dutch troops under William Prince of Orange. Sir Robert urged Prince Leopold to fly; but he declined, saying, that flight ought not to be the first act of his reign; he was ready to fight, but would allow him to negociate,' and Sir Robert fastening a handkerchief to a ramrod, sought the hostile army, and in an interview with Prince William, succeeded in gaining his connivance for Leopold to withdraw to Malines, whither he accompanied him. In this post he remained till 1835, when he retired with the rank of privy councillor, and a pension of 2000l. per annum. He died on October 3, 1855, after a short illness. Sir Robert had represented Appleby in 1802, and Camelford in 1806 and 1807. In 1805 he had married Angelique Gabrielle, daughter of the Marquis of Hazincourt, but left no issue. Sir Robert possessed a wide range of information, and his views with regard to Russia have since been remarkably confirmed.
ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, the eldest son of John Adams, the second President of the United States, was born in ACORI'NÆ, ACORI DEE, or ACORA CEE, a small Massachusetts, June 11, 1767. Some of his early years were natural order of Endogens, with the following essential cha- spent in Europe, whither he accompanied his father. In racter:-The flowers are hermaphrodite, surrounded with 1801 and 1802 he was minister plenipotentiary from the scales. The spathe is leaf-like, but not rolled up. The United States to Berlin, and during this time he travelled stamens are complete, placed opposite the scales, and have through Silesia, which country, its manufactures, and more two-celled anthers which are turned inwards. The ovaries particularly its educational establishments, were described are distinct. The fruit is baccate, juicy at first, but finally by him in a series of letters addressed to his brother at juiceless. The seeds have the embryo seated in the axis of Philadelphia. These letters, which were originally puba copious albumen. The rootstock is jointed; the leaves lished in a journal called The Portfolio,' were collected in sword-shaped, and embracing each other in the bud. Such a volume and published in 1804. During the presidency of is the character given this order, which was first separated Jefferson, Adams was recalled from his embassy at Berlin. from Aracea by Agardh, and the separation was afterwards Upon his return he became a professor in Harvard College, adopted by Schott, Link, and Lindley. The genera assigned and was subsequently elected a deputy to Congress for Masto this order by Lindley were Acorus, Gymnostachys, Tupi-sachusetts. Having been previously attached to the federalist stra, and Aspidistra. The two last genera are now assigned party, he now allied himself to the democratic party. He by the same author to the order Liliacea. This small group was next charged with a mission to Russia, and in 1814 of plants in its geographical distribution is confined to the joined the Congress at Vienna as plenipotentiary of the eastern hemisphere. None of them have the acrid proper- United States. In 1815 he was ambassador at the Court of ties of some of the Aracea. The Acorus Calamus is a British St. James's. In 1817 he became secretary of state for the plant, and has slightly aromatic properties. interior; and in 1825 he succeeded Mr. Monroe as President of the Union. He was not however re-elected, his place being supplied by General Jackson. In 1830 he was elected deputy to Congress, where he distinguished himself until his death by his advocacy of the abolition of slavery. He died at Washington, February 17, 1848.
ACRITA (from aкpiros, indistinct), a division of the class Radiata, adopted by Owen, and applied to the Acalephe, the Polypifera, except the Bryozoa, the Polygastrica, and certain forms of Entozoa, in none of which are the indications of a nervous sytem decided, and they constitute the lowest forms of the radiate group of animals.
ADDISON'S DISEASE. [MEDICINE, S. 2.] ADMINISTRATION AND ADMINISTRATOR. The whole jurisdiction of the Ecclesiastical Courts in the grant and withdrawal of administrations, and the superintendence of administrators, has been transferred to the Court of Prohate. (20 & 21 Vict. c. 77. [PROBATE, COURT OF, S. 2.] The customs of London, York, &c., (P. C. vol. i. p. 125) have been abolished, and the distribution of the estates of intestates thus rendered uniform throughout England. (19 & 20 Vict. c. 94; 'Blackstone's Comm.,' Mr. Kerr's ed., vol. ii. p. 554.) ADMIRALTY, COURT OF. The jurisdiction of this Court in matters of wreck and salvage is regulated by the statute 9 & 10 Vict. c. 99. Questions relating to the attack and capture of pirates may now also be determined by this Court or the Vice Admiralty Courts abroad. (13 & 14 Vict. cc. 26, 27.) ADOLPHUS, JOHN, was born in 1770 and died July 17, 1845. Mr. Adolphus was a barrister of high standing in the criminal courts, and at his decease was father of the Old Bailey bar. He was a keen advocate, a fluent speaker, and a good lawyer. His practice, previously very considerable, was highly increased by the manner in which he distinguished himself as leading counsel for Thistlewood and the other prisoners charged with a treasonable conspiracy in 1820, though he was retained on their behalf only a few hours before the trial. As a literary man Mr. Adolphus is best known as the author of the History of England from the Accession of George III.,' originally published in 3 volumes in 1805, but which he subsequently revised and greatly extended. Of this enlarged edition the seventh volume appeared just before his death, but it left the work unfinished, and the conclusion has not been published. It is a work of considerable research and very carefully executed, but it does not exhibit very high historical powers. He was also the author of 'Biographical Memoirs of the French Revolution; Political State of the British Empire,' 4 vols. 1818; 'Memoirs of John Bannister;' and some fugitive pieces and pamphlets.
ADULTERY. The action of damages for criminal conversation, or crim. con., has been abolished by the statute 20 & 21 Vict. c. 85, creating the Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes. The injured husband, in applying to this Court for a divorce or a judicial separation, may claim damages, which however can only be awarded to him by the verdict of a jury, and the Court may then direct in what manner the damages are to be disposed of; for the whole or any part thereof may be settled on the children of the marriage, or as a provision for the maintenance of the wife. [DIVORCE, & 2; SEPARATION, JUDICIAL, S. 2; HUSBAND AND WIFE, S. 2.] EGOPODIUM (from att, a goat, and ódiov, a little foot), a genus of plants belonging to the order Umbelliferæ. One species, E. podagraria, is common throughout the whole of Europe, and grows abundantly in Great Britain. It has a stem one or two feet high, with furrows. The leaves are two or three times ternate; the leaflets unequal at the base and acutely serrate. It has a creeping root, and grows in damp places. Although well known, and having the names of Goat-Weed, Ash-Weed, Herb Gerard, and Wild Masterwort, it seems to possess no medicinal properties. Linnæus says that it is boiled when young, and eaten as greens in Sweden. ÆTHERS, SILICIC. [CHEMISTRY, S. 1.] AFFIRMATION (in Law). Every person who has conscientious objections to taking an oath, may now be permitted to make a solemn affirmation in lieu thereof, the effect of which is the same as if the testimony were given on oath. (Common Law Procedure Act, 1854.)
AFFRE, DENIS AUGUSTE, archbishop of Paris, was born at St.-Rome, in the department of Tarn, Sept. 27, 1793. At an early age he evinced a desire to devote himself to the Church, and he became a student at the seminary of St.Sulpice. He was ordained priest in 1818, and discharged a variety of ecclesiastical functions till he became archbishop of Paris in 1840. Although a man of ability and learning, and the author of several treatises (amongst which was one on Egyptian hieroglyphics), he would scarcely have found a place in the history of his times, but for the lamentable circumstance of his death on the 27th June, 1848. Paris was then the scene of a fearful contest between the soldiery and a vast body of insurgents. The archbishop was induced to apply to General Cavaignac, proposing to stand between the contending bodies as a messenger of peace. The general told him that the course was full of danger. My life," he replied, “is of small consequence." Some hours afterwards
the firing of the soldiery having ceased at his desire, the archbishop mounted a barricade erected at the entrance of the Faubourg St. Antoine: he was preceded by M. Albert, a national guard, wearing a workman's dress, carrying in his hand a green branch as an emblem of peace; and he had at his side a faithful servant named Pierre Sellier. The devoted ecclesiastic was not received with the confidence that he expected to inspire. Some indeed of the combatants stretched out their hands, but others remained silent, while others groaned and hooted. The prelate endeavoured to speak a few words; but the insurgents, fancying themselves betrayed, opened a fire upon the Garde Mobile, and the archbishop fell. Then a cry of horror went up from the crowd, and many, even of the insurgents, rushed to his aid. Albert and Sellier were leading him away, when Sellier was also struck by a ball. The insurgents who surrounded the archbishop cried out that the Garde Mobile had inflicted the wound, and that they would avenge him. "No, no, my friends," he replied; "there has been blood enough shed; let mine be the last that is spilt." He was carried to the archiepiscopal palace, and died the same day. The National Assembly issued a decree announcing its profound grief at the event of his death, and his public funeral took place on the 7th of July, amidst the deepest feelings of popular regret. (Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, 1852.)
AFREEDIS, an Afghan clan, sometimes spoken of under the more general name of Kyburees, inhabit the Kyber hills on the confines of Cabul and the Panjab. They command the passes in these hills, for a safe conduct through which their Maliks, or chiefs, consider themselves entitled to demand a toll. The toll for the celebrated Kyber Pass was formerly paid by the rulers of Cabul, and the nonpayment of it after the restoration of Shah Soojah to the throne excited the furious hostility of the Afreedis against the British and their auxiliaries. They resisted the march of Colonel Wade and the Sikh auxiliaries through the pass in July, 1839, but were compelled to evacuate the fort, AliMusjid, the key of the pass, which, with other posts between Peshawur and Jellalabad, was garrisoned by small detached parties. At a subsequent period of the Afghan war, January 19, 1842, they defeated two Sepoy regiments advancing under Brigadier Wild from Peshawur to the relief of two other Sepoy regiments under Colonel Moseley in Ali-Musjid, which had seized that fort some days before, and had been robbed of their provisions on their way. Cut off from all communication with the brigadier, and short of provision, Moseley evacuated the fort on the 24th, which was immediately seized by the Afreedis. On General Pollock's advance from Peshawur to the relief of Jellalabad, in the spring of 1842, the Afreedi chiefs offered to clear the pass from Jumrood to Dhaka for 50,000 rupees; but Pollock chose to force his way, sweeping the heights on each side of the defile with his light troops, whilst the main body advanced through the pass, having demolished the barrier raised by the enemy across the entrance. Before Pollock reached Ali-Musjid the Afreedis had evacuated it; it was then held by a strong force till the final withdrawal of the British troops from Afghanistan, when it was blown up. We next hear of the Afreedis in connection with another pass on the road from Peshawur to Kohat, leading to the Salt Range. On February 2, 1850, about 1000 Afreedis plundered the camp of a party of British Sappers employed in making a road through this pass, about 18 miles south from Peshawur, and killed several of the men. To avenge this massacre a strong force, under Colonel Bradshaw, scoured the hills in the neighbourhood, destroying six villages and a great number of the enemy, who however made some resistance on the return of the troops through the passes.
To the west of the Kyber hills, on the Cabul side, the Momund clan dwells along the banks of the Cabul River. Their chief place, Lalpoorah, the residence of the Malik, is opposite Dakha.
AFRICA. At the period when the article AFRICA in the Penny Cyclopædia' was written, the descent of the Quorra, or Niger, had recently been accomplished by the brothers Richard and John Lander. In a subsequent article, QUORRA, additional details are given respecting the river and the countries through which it flows; and the discoveries brought down to the year 1840. At that time an expedition was in preparation by the British government, the object of which was to check and supersede the foreign trade in slaves by the establishment of a commerce along the banks of the Quorra, which should be more beneficial to the native chiefs
than the cruel traffic in slaves. This expedition, consisting of three steam-vessels, began the ascent of the river in 1841, but a fatal sickness unhappily seized the greater part of the crews and officers, and they were unable to ascend the river so far even as had been previously reached by the disastrous expedition of 1832. The failure of these two expeditions, attended as they both were by a fearful loss of life, prevented any renewal of the attempts to ascend the Quorra till the year 1854, when Dr. Baikie made his successful ascent of the river and its great eastern tributary, the Tchadda or Benuè. This ascent was made in Mr. McGregor Laird's screw-steamer the Pleiad, flat-bottomed and of a peculiar construction suitable for ascending a shallow river against a powerful current. In the first instance Lieutenant Lyons M'Leod, R.N., was to have had the command, his project of exploring the countries between the Quorra and the Gambia having been abandoned; but afterwards Mr. Becroft, already well acquainted with the Quorra, was appointed the chief. Mr. Becroft, however, died before the Pleiad had reached the mouth of the river, and the command was then assumed by Dr. Baikie, surgeon, R.N. The expedition occupied about four months, from July 12 to November 7, and ascended 250 miles of the course of the Tchadda above Dagbeh, which was the farthest point reached by Allen and Oldfield in 1832, and is about 100 miles from the confluence of the Tchadda and Quorra. The point reached by Dr. Baikie was only fifty-five miles from the place where Dr. Barth afterwards crossed the Benuè, thus proving that the Benuè of Central Africa is the same river as the Tchadda. Dr. Baikie is now (January 1858) engaged in another similar expedition, in which he hopes to ascend the Tchadda to a still higher point. He had ascended the Quorra to some distance above Rabba, when his steamer was wrecked by striking on a sunken rock in the bed of the river. All the persons, however, were saved, and they had everywhere entered into friendly relations with the natives. A new steam-vessel, suitable for navigating the Tchadda, has been sent out to replace the one which has been lost.
We now proceed to notice the discoveries made in the southern, central, and eastern parts of the continent since the publication of the article AFRICA, in the 'Penny Cyclopædia.'
In the years 1835 and 1836 Dr. Andrew Smith made a journey in South Africa, during which he visited the sources of the rivers Caledon and Maputa, ascended the mountains of Caffraria, and advanced in the tracks of the traders as far north as the Tropic of Capricorn. He was unsuccessful, however, in the principal object of his journey, which was to reach a large lake in the interior, the lake Ngami, since discovered by Messrs. Livingstone, Oswell, and Murray. In 1836 and 1837 Captain J. E. Alexander explored the countries inhabited by the Namaquas, Bushmen, (Bosjesmans), and Hill Damaras, extending on the western side of Africa from about 30° to 23° S. lat.
At the end of May, 1849, while the Rev. Dr. Livingstone was residing as a missionary at a station named Kolobeng, he was visited by Mr. Oswell and Mr. Murray, two gentlemen who had come from the East Indies, partly for the purpose of hunting and partly of making geographical discoveries. They agreed to accompany him in a journey which he was desirous of making in search of a large lake, the position of which had long been known from the reports of the natives. Mr. Oswell undertook to defray the expenses of the journey, which was long, and rendered difficult by the Kalahari Desert lying between Kolobeng and the lake. This large district, however, is not absolutely a desert, but is without running water. On the 1st of June, 1849, the party commenced their journey, and managed to obtain water by digging, till, on the 4th of July, they reached a fine river named the Zouga. There they met with some friendly natives, who informed them that the river flowed out of the Lake Ngami, and that by tracing it upwards they would reach the lake. On the 1st of August they arrived at the north-east end of the lake, whence the river flows, and beheld a fine expanse of water. They could form no idea of its extent except from the reports of the natives, who professed to go round it in three days, whence they estimated the circuit to be from 70 to 90 miles. Mr. Macabe, who afterwards travelled round it, estimates the circuit at 90 or 100 miles. The lake is shallow, and the banks are flat. When full, the water is quite fresh, but brackish when low, and it is then difficult to reach through the boggy and reedy banks. The elevation above the sea
was estimated at a little over 2000 feet and they had descended about 2000 feet in travelling to it from Kolobeng. The latitude of the upper end of the lake is 20° 20' S., and the longitude probably between 22° and 23° E. The lake receives the Teoughe, a large river, at the northwestern end, and discharges itself by the Zouga at the north-eastern end. The Zouga, soon after leaving the lake, receives the Tamunakle, which, as well as the Teoughe, flows from the north. The Zouga continues for a consider able distance to be a fine river, broad and deep, with beautifully wooded banks, but receiving no more affluents, becomes gradually narrower in its descent of about 200 miles in a winding south-easterly direction. It then flows into Lake Kumadau, which is about 12 miles in length, and 3 or 4 broad, and the water is there dissipated, gradually becoming more and more salt as evaporation proceeds. In September Lake Ngami becomes very low, and the rivers are dried up. The water begins to flow again in April, but makes little progress in filling Lake Kumadau till the end of June. The Bataoana tribe of natives live at the eastern end of the lake, where they have their principal village. After a short stay there, the party returned, and arrived at Kolobeng, October 10. There are prodigious numbers of the elephant, rhinoceros, and other large animals, in the vicinity of the lake and its rivers. The name Ngami is pronounced Ingámi, the first syllable very short. Dr. Livingstone paid another short visit to Lake Ngami in 1850, accompanied by his wife and three children.
In June, 1851, Dr. Livingstone, accompanied by Mr. Oswell, again started for the north. This time their route was in a more easterly direction, and they succeeded in pushing their researches northward to 17° 25′ S. lat., and between 24° 30′ and 26° 50′ E. long., traversing a considerable tract watered by deep and constantly flowing streams, which they believe to be feeders of the river Zambesi. They passed over a large salt incrustation of about 100 miles in length and 15 miles in width, and saw many others lying to the north of the spot where the Zouga terminates. Considerably to the north of these great natural salt-pans, in the country watered by the supposed tributaries of the Zambesi, the inhabitants are more intelligent than most of
the native tribes of South Africa.
In 1851 Mr. Francis Galton left England with the intention of following up Dr. Livingtone's discoveries, but for certain reasons this project was abandoned, and, instead, he proceeded to Walfisch Bay on the western coast of Africa, north of the Tropic of Capricorn. He was accompanied by Mr. Andersson, a native of Sweden, and they explored the region between the bay on the south, and Ondonga, in 17° 58′ S. lat., near the river Nourse on the north, and as far inland as 21° E. long. Through this journey we obtain a description of the Damara people, who, though a race of fine stature, are in a low moral state, and likely to be extinguished by their more centralised, powerful, and intelligent neighbours on the north, the Ovampo. The high table-land, which was traversed to reach the Ovampo, is cut through by deep ravines, the chief of which serve as escapes for the periodical flood of the rivers. In delineating the moral character, as well as the physical conformation of the different tribes of South Africa, it is interesting to observe, from the observations of Mr. Galton, how their differences are connected with the form, subsoil, and vegetation of their respective lands. Thus, the arid inland plateaus, covered only with thick jungle and short brushwood, hold the dwarfed and sinewy Bushmen; the more open, hilly, and undulating pasture-lands, the Damaras; whilst the rich corn-lands on the north are occupied by the race which is the most civilised and advanced, the Ovampo. Ondonga, the capital of this people, is estimated to be about 70 or 80 miles to the south of the great river Amorongo Achilunda, the Nourse of our maps. The table-land inhabited by the Damaras rises in some points to 5000 and 6000 feet above the sea. Mr. Galton afterwards, in September and October, 1851, proceeded as far eastward as Tounobis, a distance of 500 miles from the coast, on the road to Lake Ngami, distant about 180 miles. Mr. Galton did not reach Lake Ngami, having made an engagement to embark at Walfisch Bay in a vessel which was expected, and the specified time not allowing him to remain longer. Mr. Andersson however afterwards proceeded again to Tounobis, and thence to Lake Ngami, from which he ascended some distance the river Teoughe, the principal affluent of Lake Ngami. Mr. Andersson reached the Lake at the end of July, 1853. Mr. Galton and Mr.
Andersson have each published a volume giving an account of their travels.
We shall now give an account of the missionary explorations from the eastern coast, and of the expedition to Central Africa.
The zealous and enterprising missionaries, Krapf and Rebmann, stationed at Rabbai 'Mpia, near Mombas, in about 4 S. lat., began their journeys into the interior of the continent in 1847. In that year Mr. Rebmann penetrated westward to Teita, a country whose mountains rise to such a height out of the vast surrounding plains, that on some eminences near Rabbai 'Mpia they are to be seen at a distance of 90 miles ;" and in the April following (1848), the same missionary performed a journey farther into the interior, to the still more elevated country of Djagga, where, at a distance of rather more than 200 geographical miles from the coast, in a direction about W.N.W. from Mombas, he made the remarkable discovery of a lofty mountain, named Kilimandjáro, of which the summit is covered with perpetual snow. The existence of snow on Kilimandjáro has been disputed in Europe, though it is difficult to say on what reasonable ground. However, on subsequent journeys, both Mr. Rebmann and his colleague Dr. Krapf satisfied themselves of the fact; and unless it be intended absolutely to impugn their veracity, their evidence cannot be rejected. In April, 1849, he again set out on his way into the interior, but was unable to proceed beyond Djagga. In November and December of the same year Dr. Krapf successfully penetrated as far as Ukambáni, a country situated northward of Djagga. Of the geographical results of this journey, one of the most important is the discovery of another snowy mountain, named Kénia, of larger size if not greater elevation than Kilimandjáro. Kénia, is thus described by Dr. Krapf:"The sky being clear, I got a full sight of the snow mountain... It appeared to be like a gigantic wall, on whose summit I observed two immense towers, or horns as you may call them. These horns or towers, which are at a short distance from each other, give the mountain a grand and majestic appearance, which raised in my mind overwhelming feelings. Kilimandjáro in Djagga has a dome-like summit; but Kénia has the form of a gigantic roof, over which its two horns rise like two mighty pillars, which I have no doubt are seen by the inhabitants of the countries bordering on the northern latitudes of the equator. Still less do I doubt that the volume of water which Kénia issues to the north runs towards the basin of the White, Nile." In Rebmann's map ('Church Missionary Intelligencer') Kénia is placed in 1° S. lat., 35° 10′ E. long., at a distance of 320 geographical miles north and 55 west from Mombas. This position, however, can only be considered as a rough approximation. In the last journey of Dr. Krapf he again visited the country of Ukambáni and the river Dana, as the upper course of the Ozi is called. On this journey the enterprising traveller was subjected to the greatest hardships and sufferings, and indeed barely escaped with his life. No fresh discoveries were made in this journey, but some further information was collected respecting the river which fows from the Kénia (Ndukenia or Kirenia) northward, and forms most probably one of the head-waters of the Nile.
The expedition to Northern and Central Africa, conducted by Mr. Richardson, accompanied by Drs. Barth and Overweg, is one of great importance. This expedition originated with Mr. Richardson, who, after having returned from his travels in the northern portion of the Sahara in 1845 and 1846, induced the English government to send him out for the purpose of concluding commercial treaties with the chiefs of the desert-regions between Tripoli and Lake Tchad. Through the lively interest taken in it by Chevalier Bunsen, Baron Humboldt, and Professor Ritter, it was arranged that Dr. Barth and Dr. Overweg, two Germans, should accompany Mr. Richardson for the purpose of making scientific observations. Lord Palmerston sanctioned this proposal, and afforded the two travellers pecuniary assistance, in addition to their own private means and to grants from the Geographical Society in Berlin and the King of Prussia.
The three travellers departed from this country at the latter end of 1849, and arrived in Tripoli in the beginning of the following year. Previously to starting from that place, the mountainous region to the south was thoroughly explored and surveyed by the two Germans within a radius of 60 to 80 miles from the town. [TRIPOLI.] An unexpected degree of cold was experienced in these excursions. On one day the thermometer, before sunrise, stood as low as 26° Fahrenheit,
and on the 2nd and 3rd of February, the snow obliged the travellers to remain in their tents. After their return to Tripoli, several weeks were required for their preparations; and the transport of a boat for navigating Lake Tchad caused considerable difficulty. For this purpose a beautiful wherry had been constructed by the direction of the admiral at Malta, broad in the beam, and very light on water; but it was necessary to take it to pieces, and several camels were requisite to convey it across the burning sands of the Sahara. The travellers started at last on the 24th of March, 1850, the great caravan having departed before them; but the party formed a small caravan of itself, having about 40 camels laden with their effects and merchandise. Every possible assistance was rendered by her Majesty's consuls in Tripoli and Murzuk to the undertaking, so that the expedition started under the most favourable circumstances.
The direction of the route to Murzuk was almost due south from Tripoli, beyond the Gharian defile, the country consisting of a continuous table-land, of an average elevation of 2000 feet. As far as the well of Taboniyah, many deep wâdis intersect this table-land, and the ruins of several Roman monuments and columns were discovered by the travellers. Southward of that place is a table-land, or Hamadah, an immense desert of considerably greater elevation, and extending for about 110 geographical miles in the same direction. As far as the eye can reach, neither trees nor indications of wells are visible, and the scanty vegetation which occurs is only found scattered in the trifling irregularities of the surface. The ground is covered with small stones, pyramids of which, erected with great labour, serve as roadmarks to the intrepid camel-drivers by day, while the polar star and Antares are their guides by night. After a journey of six days the expedition reached the southern edge of this table-land, which descends in perpendicular walls to the Wâdi el Hessi. Following the descent for about 60 geographical miles, the travellers came to the Wâdi Shi'ati, over another plateau of equally dismal aspect. It is composed of a black sandstone, the disintegration of which forms a dark yellow sand, covering the inequalities of the stony surface, from which stands out prominently the black rock, in high cones of the most fantastic forms, strikingly resembling basaltic rocks. They reached Murzuk on the 6th of May, and remained there till the 13th of June, collecting much important information respecting the countries and nations to the south. Murzuk is very unhealthy and dangerous for Europeans, but happily none of the party suffered during their stay.
On the 13th of June they set off for Ghat, which they reached on the 18th of July. The most interesting result of this journey was the discovery of several curious sculptures on the rocks of the Wâdi Felisjareh. One of them consists of two human figures with the heads of birds, and a bull, armed with spears, shields, and arrows, and fighting for a child; the other is a fine herd of oxen going to a wateringplace, most skilfully grouped and executed. In the opinion of the travellers the two works bear a striking and unmistakeable resemblance to the sculptures of Egypt. They are evidently of much higher antiquity than many other sculptured tablets found by the travellers, on which camels formed generally the principal objects.
The party started from Ghat, after a stay of some days, for the kingdom of Aïr or Asben. They had to cross a vast desert, totally uninhabited, for about 250 geographical miles, and succeeded in reaching Taghajit, the first inhabited place in Aïr, on the 22nd of August.
The route from Ghat to Aïr is described by Dr. Overweg as a mountain-path leading over ridges, table-lands, and deepcut rocky valleys. Wherever the wâdis become broader, and through the agency of rain are covered with disintegrated rocks and sand, they show a scanty vegetation of grass and trees. The geognostical character of the country is here of much greater interest. From Murzuk to Ghat, and farther to the south, the prevailing formation consists of sandstone of various colours, with throughout the same petrographical aspect of the rocks, the same slopes of the mountains and intersections of the valleys, and the same horizontal strata. At Aggeri, about 70 miles to the south of Ghat, the entire scene suddenly changes. The mountains are now rounded, and strata forming projecting terraces are no longer seen. The travellers found themselves all at once in the regions of granite, the whole country between Aggeri and Aïr consisting of crystalline primitive rocks, with mica-slate and enormous masses of granite in great diversity of mountain