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fortunately without that force of character which was necessary to bear such a political shock. His benevolence will incline candour to apologise ; and we believe few men could at any time be found, who would exchange the rich bishopric of Durham for a state of poverty.
The description of the life-boat, the valuable invention of Mr. Greathead, a ship-carpenter of South-Shields, we shall transcribe.
Its form is that of a long spheroid, thirty feet in length by twelve feet over; either end pointed, and thus calculated to row both ways, an oar serving the purpose of the helm.' About eighteen inches below the gunwale a strong lining of cork covers the whole of the inside, which gives the boat such a buoyancy as enables it to live in any water. The crew usually consists of about twenty men, and the capacity of the boat enables it to receive about ten more. On the 30th of January, 1790, the life-boat of South-Shields first put to sea in a horrible gale of wind, for the glorious purpose of rescuing some unfortunate mariners who were the sport of the tempest in the offing ; a number of cork jackets being provided for the crew, in case their vessel disappointed the expectations of the inventor, and failed in its purpose. But the precaution was unnecessary : foating like a feather upon the water, it rode triumphantly over every raging surge, and smiled at the horrors of the storm. The wreck was approached in spite of the elements; and the wretched crew, equally affected with astonishment and ecstasy, beheld the glorious life-boatnever was a name more happily imagined, nor more appropriately bestowed-along-side of their shattered vessel, and offering refuge from the tremendous abyss that was opening to swallow them up for ever. Restored to hope and life, they were removed into the friendly boat, and brought to land, to the unspeakable joy of the benevolent projectors of the plan, who had thus the double gratification of see. ing that the vessel was calculated to answer its intention in the completest manner, and of rescuing at the same time several fellow. creatiires from inevitable destruction. Since this first trial, repeated desperate voyages have been made for similar purposes, and with the like success, to the salvation of many hundred distressed sailors; and So confident are the seamen of the safety of the boat, and the impossibility of its being liable to casualty, that it is now become a matter of satisfaction to be employed in this service of saving the shipwrecked--a service that well deserves the civic crown. The inventor, naturally enough supposing that an object of such importance to the state a's saving its citizens from perishing would be encouraged by government, submitted his plan, and offered his service to the ministry a few years since for the construction and establishment of lifeboats all along the coasts of the kingdom ; but the attention of the public was then unfortunately directed to other objects than the economising of human existence, and his offers were unattended to. In the true spirit of philanthropy, however, Mr. Henry Greathead, waving the idea of exclusive profit, instead of taking out a patent for the admirable invention, and thus confining its advantages to himself, generously offered to communicate to others every information in his
power on the subject of the construction of the life-boat, and to diffuse by these means as much as possible the blessings resulting from its adoption. In consequence of this, another person has built vessels of the same kind, and their number has thus been multiplied in the nianner before-mentioned. The pecuniary remuneration which the crew of the life-boat receive,'is what the generosity of the affluent, saved by their exertions, may bestow upon them ; the “ blessing of him that was ready to perish,” is the only but rich reward when the poor mariner is rescued from destruction by their means.' Vol. ii. P. 29.
Some of the names are wrong spelled. In p. 52-53, for Bronscolumn read Branxholm ; for reuse read Euse; and for Lanholm read Langholm. We begin to suspect our author's knowledge of Latin; this castra,' p. 65, should be castrum. But the rapid succession of Mr. Warner's books is a sufficient proof of hasty composition.
The description of Hawkston Park, the residence of sir Richard Hill, in Shropshire, is the best in the present volume; but we have not room to transcribe it. The features are new and striking. The character of Ann of Denmark, wife of James the First, p. 240, seems to show that our author's knowledge of English history is confined to Hume. He should have read Sully's Memoirs, and other books of that period. The monument, p. 264, erected by the earl of Warwick to' the memory of a faithful servant, is an excellent example; and, if such instances were multiplied by masters, the number of good servants would be increased. We must transcribe a passage, p. 284, &c. as it may be of general utility. The situation is Stow-011the-Wold.
? The want of water also is now obviated by the ingenuity of a common mechanic, who has found means to supply the town with a sufficient quantity of the element upon reasonable terms, by the simplest machine imaginable. The structure which contains the apparatus consists of two divisions; a circular stone-work apartment, twenty feet high and thirty-six feet diameter at its base, and a wood. en frame-work upon it of rather greater height, but gradually decreasing in diameter as it ascends. This is composed of perpendi. cular shutters, that open or close by a very simple contrivance, and thus admit the wind from any point, which acts upon a vertical flywheel made of upright planks, of a breadth nearly equal to the dia meter of the frame-work. This fly-wheel gives motion to three levers, out of which works a pump, whose compounded powers raise the water about one hundred and thirty feet into a large reservoir, from whence it is carried through a series of pipes into the town. A good brisk wind will throw up about sixty-three hogsheads in two hours. When this powerful agent is wanting, a horse is fastened to an arm at the bottom of the fly-wheel, who will raise about sixteen hogsheads in the same time. The expense attending the construction of the machine and its covering was about 300l.; that of laying the pipes, 700h additional. The receipts, however, are not answer able to the risque and charges; as only riol, is received from the water-rents of the houses to which the element is conducted, and out of this about 751. must be deducted for annual expenses. Jonathan Hill, the contriver and architect--another Brindley, perhaps, were there another duke of Bridgwater to bring him forward-erected the whole of the edifice about four years ago, and is retained to work and keep it in repair. We had no doubt that it might be applied with great success to the grinding of corn, and other equally useful purposes.' Vol. ii. P. 284. .. In the account of Abury, we suspect that our ingenious author has trusted too implicitly in Dr. Stukeley; who, får from being accurate, as he supposes, is full of wild imaginations. If the accounts approach the truth, the monument near Abury seems to have been of the same kind with Stonehenge, on a far more extensive scale. We have not ourselves been on the spot; but wish for an accurate plan by a plain sensible surveyor, quite a stranger to antiquarian ideas and the occasional romances of tourists. If it correspond with the descriptions; it may probably have been a larger national court erected by the West Saxons, or more probably at the time that their kingdom was subject to Mercia; for though Christianity did away the sacrifices, there is no reason to conclude that an instantaneous alteration took place in the political institutions. The stones at Abury-of which few now remain, the ground being an object in tillage and pasture, and many broken for building houses, while Stonehenge, has not been exposed to such injuries-arefrom fifteen to seventeen feet square, of the kind called bolder stones, or sarsons, in the country, consisting of siliceous grit found in several bottoms in the neighbourhood. According to Mr. Warner, they accompany the great southern stratum of chalk, which crosses the kingdom from east-north-east to west-, south-west, through its whole course, lying imbedded in the red earth which crowns its surface. This red earth we do not remember; but the geological fact is highly deserving of notice. Is the siliceous sand-stone primary or secondary? Does it conşist of particles washed from the quartzose masses of Wales, afterwards crystallised, as it were, in rude parallelograms?
Upon the whole, this is a pleasing and an amusing produc-' tion; but we must again express a wish that our industrious traveler would write with a little less rapidity..
ART. XIII.—The Complaynt of Scotland. Written in 1548. With
a preliminary Dissertation and Glossary. 4to. 21. 25. 8vo. 1l. 15. Boards. Cadell and Davies. 1801.
WE are glad to see a republication of this curious and classical work in old Scottish prose. The editor is Mr. Leyden, who has shown considerable talents in the execution; and it is dedicated to Richard Heber, esq. as being undertaken at his suggestion. It is printed in a neat and accurate manner; though we should have wished for an ink of double the blackness; and request that our printers would inspect the common works now published in France, which strangely contrast with what are called the monks and friars of our presses. The uniform full black colour imparted by the French presses is strikingly different from the pale meagreness of our common press-work. In the present production, the quarto, which should have been most carefully attended to, is rather inferior to the octavo.
The first idea of a republication of the Complaynt of Scots land was suggested by the editor of Poems from the Maitland Manuscript, London, 1786, vol. ii. p. 542. The opinion of that editor, that the work was written by one Wedderburn, Mr, Leyden attempts to controvert ; but certainly without success. Mr. Herbert, who republished Ame's Typography, was a heavy plodding man, originally engaged in very different pursuits, and wholly destitute of common literary sagacity. Nor can we compliment Mr. Leyden upon this occasion, whose reasoning seems to us rather grotesque. Any man of plain sense would conclude, from the double mention of this rare article in the Harleian Catalogue under the name of Weddera burn, amounting to proof positive, especially as the name is spelt with a V instead of a W-a singularity which prevails through out the book that the copy there mentioned had the title-page, which is wanting in all the others, and in which the name of the author appeared. The difference of spelling in the two articles of that catalogue proceeds merely from greater care, as usual, being employed in the first entry. Mackenzie was not in the least conversant in the critical study of antiquities : and Mr. Leyden seems to forget that his Lives of the Scottish Aus, thors abound with the grossest errors. The doubts concerning sir James Inglis might have been done away by looking at Mr. Pinkerton's History of Scotland; and our editor has certainly; in this instance, acted like a mere antiquary, in throwing obscurity over a clear subject.
He proceeds (p. 17) to offer his opinion that this singular production was written by sir David Lindsay, because, forsooth, he wrote many poetical Complaints; and both authors have thoughts in common! The whole introduction is extremely
tedious and prolix; and the most patient antiquary will find considerable difficulty in the perusal. Mr. Leyden has evidently read a great number of old books; but the want of divisions and arrangement throughout two hundred and ninety-two deadly pages presents a chaos without any bridge over it, and which we shall never again attempt to pervade. In the form of distinct notes, and reduced to half the length, this mass might have been rendered somewhat bearable; but as long notes have justly become an object of ridicule, they now, it seems, begin to be amassed into long introductions, which can be of no possible service, as the various topics are utterly forgotten before we arrive at the text:
Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currunt. One specimen we must select for the benefit of our readers.
« Besides these romances, the “ Tale of the Priests of Pebles " is cited in the Complaynt, p. 223, as a popular composition. Indeed, this enumeration of popular tales and romances cannot be considered as complete, though it marks the peculiar taste of the author of the Complaynt. “ The Maying of Chaucer,” a copy of the “ Complaint of the Black Knight," adapted to the Scotish idiom, was printed in 1508, as well as “ Sir Eglamour of Artoys,". a metrical romance, alluded to in “ Cockelby's Sow;" which animal, it is said,
" gaif a batell curious,
To Eglamoir of Artherus.” • Douglas mentions « Peirs Plowman,” « Maitland upon auld Beird Gray,” “ How the Wran came out of Ailssay," is Gilbert with the white Hand," “ How Hay of Nauchton slew in Madin land.” Madin land, is probably the country of the Amazons, and seems formerly to have been the subject of some popular Scotish songs; for the following lines occur in a medley in Constable's ms. Cantus :
• We be all of Maiden land,
Maidens you may see.” .. Douglas mentions “ Crabbit Johne the Reif,” whose name likewise occurs in the writings of both Dunbar and Lindsay. The latter author, in his tragedy of Beatoun, says, that the Cardinal, in his disgrace,
- " sum time, wist not quhair to hyde his heid,
Bot disagysit, like John the Raife, he zeid.” Lindsay likewise mentions the “ Spreit of Gy,” probably alluding to the romance of “Gy of Warwicke." . . In a ms. poem of Wedderburne, an allusion occurs to another romance