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- the two species of maium and bryum. Perhaps he might have made some other alterations, for the same reasons, had he lived to finish his work. :
The description of the species is clear and precise, without the prolixity of Bridel, whose work contains only 339 species, of which many are doubtful; while in the present volume there are 362 very clearly ascertained.
Of the new species, twenty belong to the Flora of Germany, of which the greater number. were discovered by Ludwig. There are nine Swedish species, without reckoning those latterly described by Schwartz; thirty-seven from North America, received from Dr. Muhlenberg of Lancaster in Pennsylvania; twenty-two from the West Indies, sent by Schwartz; nineteen froin the South Sea, the Cape of Good Hope, and New Zealand.
The work is accompanied by a life of Hedwig, and by some of his aphorisms on the structure of plants and the characters of the cryptogamic species; but these last are somewhat hypothetical. Twenty-seven plates represent nearly 150 species of new mosses, or those not yet ascertained. The plates and the printing appear to be superior to the greater number of German publications.
Chemie für Forstmanner, &c. The Chemistry of Forests, Economy, and Botany. By F. Th. Frenzal. With a Preface, by Professor Lampadius. With seven Plates. 8vo. Leipsic. The observations in this work are apparently scattered without an anxious attention to order; yet we may perhaps trace three divisions, though not professedly or pointedly separate. In the first section the author treats of the composition of bodies, of their affinities, and other parts of chemical science. The second relates to alkaline and acid salts, in a great measure confined to the nitric acid and the composition of gunpowder. The third is on the constituent principles of vegetables. The most interesting articles are, on charcoal, on the charring of wood, on coals, on the manner of cutting turf and of reducing it to charcoal, the residuum of plants after combustion, and the manufacture of pot-ash. He afterwards speaks more particularly of the component parts of plants, as their gum, resin, farina, &c. noticing the mineral acids as accidental ingredients of vegetables.
The fourth section is on the nature of soil, and of the re-agents proper to discover it; and is concluded by some rea marks on the nutrition of plants and the fertility of the earth.
It will be obvious that it was not the intention of the author to give a system of chemistry, but to treat only of such parts of the science as were most peculiarly connected with the sub
jects in his title. These he has certainly illustrated; yet it may be doubted whether his chemical views are not too partial and confined. Many essential parts are omitted; the doctrines of salts, the theory of the decomposition of water, the description of metals, and the doctrine of fermentation-peculiarly adapted for those to whom the volume is addressed-are not mentioned. Perhaps he should have offered his work as a supplement to some known chemical system, as those of Jacques and Gren, which we chiefly mention as best known in Germany.
. Entomologie und Holminthologie, &c. The Entomology and Helminthology of the Human Body; containing a Description of its Insects and Worms. By Dr. F. H. Joerdens. 2 Vols. Svo. With twenty-two Plates. Grau.—The author joins to his descriptions physiological and therapeutical remarks, and adds a complete list of all the works that have appeared on the subject, at least what he deerns complete ; for we find one or two English works, though of little importance, omitted. He professes to have watched over the execution of the plates, which represent not only the insects and worms in their different states of change, but their arms and weapons of defence, drawn as they appear in a good microscope. The figures are his own, engraved and coloured by M. Frauenholz of Nuremberg.
In the introduction, Dr. Joerdens treats in general of the different sorts of wounds inflicted by insects, and the situations in which the consequences may be dangerous. In the first part of the first volume he details the history of the insects which live and are propagated in the human body; in the second, that of the insects external to it, remarkable by the different disorders and inconveniences they occasion ; and in the third, the history of those insects which prey on the human body.
The second volume, which is adorned with seven plates, contains-1. The history of the worms which inhabit the human body, as the intestinal worms, the spermatic animals, &c. 2. Those whose attack is accidental, who live under the skin, or are introduced into the body by accident. In the supplement the author speaks of worms whose existence is doubtful, and of some amphibia observed in the human body as extracrdinary phænomena. Perhaps this work may be acceptable to the English reader in his own language. We have few good works on the subject, except a paper of Dr. Hooper's in a late collection.
Versuch einer Geschichte des Lichts, &c.
An Essay on a History of Light, with respect to its Influence on Natural Bodies in general, and on the Human Body. By 7. Ch. Ebermaier. 8vo. Osnabruk.
Of the Effects of Light on the Human Body. By E. Horn.. 8vo. Kænigsberg.
These two dissertations received the first and second prizes from the university of Göttingen, in answer to the following
question :- Quænamn sit lucis in corpus humanum vivum · efficacia, tum noxia, tum, præter eam partem quam in visu agit,
utilis et salutaris ? If these memoirs succeeded, the value of those in competition could not be considerable ; for we cannot consider them as important additions to our stock of science, The author of the Essay treats in succession of the nature of light, of its influence on the three kingdoms of nature, and on the human body; and considers each subject in a cheinical, physiological, pathological, and therapeutical view. .
The second memoir, which obtained what is called the accessit,' is principally filled by considerations on the influence of light on plants and animals. The author distinguishes the effects into those which are iminediate, mediate, and hurtful. It is however, in every view, a very inferior performance.
Encyclopædisches Werterbuch der Kritischen Philosophie, &c. An Encyclopædia of the Critical Philosophy, or an Attempt to explain, with Clearness and Ease, the Principles and Ideas contained in the critical and dogmatical Works of Kant. By G.S: A. Mellin. 3 Vols. 8vo. Jena.- This dictionary is not confined exclusively to the philosophy of Kant, though coinpiled on his principles, and containing, in general, his doctrines. The third volume is not, concluded; and the alphabet has proceeded ng farther than J. ; : .. . 17. Kant's Logik. 8vo. Koenigsberg.–We have often intended to enlarge on the fashionable philosophy of Germany, but were obliged to confess that we could not comprehend it. Mr. Belsham has inade a similar confession; but, when his dise ciples descend to common sense, we will again take up his works. His logic is somewhat more intelligible; though we find even this difficult to understand, and of course to convey, some of the inore material parts of it. We shall therefore conţent ourselves with a general account of the work.
Kant himself cominissioned the present author, M. Jäsche of Kænigsberg, one of his most distinguished scholars, to publish his logic, as it was taught in his class; and for this purpose he put into his hands his own text book, Meyer's Elements, with the manuscript nutes and additions by himself. From this the pre· sent work is derived. The substance therefore is Kant's: the arrangement, the style, and ornaments, belong to M. Jæsche.
The introduction contains the preliminary doctrines ; and the work itself is divided into two parts--the elementary doctrine, and the general methodic doctrine, established on the scientific classification of ideas. ,
Of the introduction we shall not presume to offer an analysis; and the works of Kant are not adapted for extracts. We shall give, however, a short account of the contents.
The author first defines logic, establishes its principal divisions, its utility, and the manner of teaching it. He next gives a general idea of philosophy; of the philosophy of the schools and of the world; and, having pointed out the objects of this science, adds an abstract of its history. He next treats of perceptions in general; of intuitive and discursive perceptions ; of intuition; of ideas and their differences, and of the logical and esthetic perfection of perceptions. The introduction concludes with explanations of probability and its species, on doubt, on the different methods of philosophy, and on the difference of theoretic and practical perception.
The plan of the work itself appears simple and perspicuous ; but we can add no more. We understand that M. Jæsche is also commissioned to publish Kant's Metaphysics. · 9. Kant, nebst einigen Bemerkungen über die Kantische Phie losophie. Von Fülleborn. Ch. Garve, nebst einigen Bruckstuken über ihn. Von Fülleborn. 7. Kant, with some Remarks on his Philosophy. By Fülleborn. Ch. Garve, with some Remarks on his Life and Character. By Fülleborn. With Portraits of Kant and Garve. 870. Breslaw.-The author is so full of admiration of Kant, that he has not trusted his own abilities to write an eulogy on his works, and has consequently borrowed his remarks from the characters of the poetical and prosaïc authors of Germany. This eulogy is followed by the severe censures of Klopstock on the writings of that philosopher, and by some criticisms from the French and English journals. The last pieces are a sketch of the character and genius of Kant, by his disciple Herder; and a view of his philosophy in general, by Fülleborn.
The second piece is a monument erected to the memory of Garve; with some account of his life and writings, which, as the author is little known, would be uninteresting to the English reader.
ITALY. Catalogo delle Lingue conoscente, &c. A Catalogue of known Languages; with an Account of their Difference and Resemblance : a Work of the Abbate Don Lorenzo Hervas. 4to. Cesena. 1784! -Eighteen years have elapsed since the publication of the present and some similar works by this laborious author; and no journal has yet announced them. We remember, in an English periodical collection, some information of a philological attempt, equally singular, and perhaps 'more incredible. The pressure of the moment prevents us from inquiring, whether the name is the same; though we suspect it not to be so. Some error may have occasioned the discordance, or there may have been two such monsters of erudition. We are confident, however, that that author was said not to have concluded his remarks; and that he died without completing them. The reason of their being hitherto unknown seems to be this; the author printed them in Italy, and the whole impression was sent to Spain, whence few copies have been brought; and our first information concerning them was from M. Fischer's Letters on Spain—a work of which we hope to give some account in our next Appendix. What renders our author's work interesting is, that he has compared more than 300 vocabularies or manuscript grammars of languages, collected during his residence in India or America, or communicated by his brethren in India and in Spain. His philological works are five in nụmber, and form from the seventeenth to the twenty-first volume of his complete collection. Of this, which is the principal, we shall give a short view of the contents. The others we may notice at a future opportunity...
The first chapter contains a historic and comparative account of the languages of America; viz. those of Terra del Fuego ; Patagonia ; Chili; Paraguay; Brasil; of the Terra Firma; of the Oronoque; Casanara; Meta, and the Antilles ; of Peru ; of Quito, so far as Panama; of New Spain ; California ; North America, and Florida. The number of these languages and dialects exceeds 200.
The second chapter contains the languages of the South Sea, from America to the Philippines, including the Malay language; with twenty-nine dialects, and five languages of Mindanao.
In the third chapter, the author examines the languages of Asia :-1. Of China, so far as the Ganges; and we find fifteen dialects of the Chinese. 2. Of the mouth of the Ganges to the Persian Gulf. 3. Of Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Armenia, Natolia, and the other provinces of the Turkish empire. 4. Of Chinese Tartary, Russia, and Japan.--Under the article of