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horelánd; but in a less degree ; the average quantity of rain at Sheffield being thirty-three inches annually. The rivers are not large, but numerous, and generally navigable. These, with canals în niany different parts, render the conveyance of goods easy, and add greatly to the prosperity of the county, by the scope and extent they afford to its various manufactures. Their cdal, their iron, stone, and lead ores, are sources of considerable wealth.” The manufactures of Sheffield are too well known to enlarge on; and many similar establishments are highly flourishing. Within the last thirty years, also, the woollen manufacture has considerably increased in this part of the kingdom.
The account of the • tenures and state of property' is very unsatisfactory; and indeed much of the information is so vague and inėxplicit, that it might have been written in a garret in London, assisted by a tolerable map of the county. · Under the head of farm-houses and offices, we have an account of lord Hawke's farm, and some remarks on what farms sħould be. The only information relative to Yorkshire is, that the barns are too large, for that stacking is more advantageous than housing; and that the cottages are too few. The general apology for the defect, that they were strangers, we cannot admit; for why were strangers sent? . :.
The farms are in general small; and this leads to a discussion of the greater advantages arising from large or small farms. Our author is in favour of the larger divisions. Respecting rent they give very scanty information, and we should average it at about thirty-five shillings an acre. With respect to the poor, we find as little instruction, and have rather a declamation against the poor-laws than an account of the proportiotr of the rates. The want of leases-for the greater part of the land is let from year to year, and the tenant is subject to a removal at six months' warning--is justly reprobated. This custom effectually shuts the door against every attempt to improve. The covenants in the leases that exist do not appear to us much more favourable to amelioration.
Respecting the implements of husbandry, we find the Ro. theram plough particularly described, and have a copious eulogy on threshing machines, with their history from the time of Moses. The seventh chapter is on inclosing: and we find much of this part of the county is inclosed, except common-fields and moors.;' but that the inclosures are too small. Almost the whole of the remaining pages are employed in defence of inclosures. We should be glad of information where the passage quoted from the great Linnæus, in favour of inclosing, occurs. Every part of the paragraph translated is totally different from his style and the objects of his research. ..
The land is chiefly in grass, and tillage is not practised in its improved state. Fallowing is warmly commended, and, as usual,
the author steps out of his way in the disquisition. The rotation of crops offers nothing very interesting. It is cramped in this district by injudicious tenures. Respecting the crops commonly cultivated, we have little new information: of those not usually cultivated, we have some hints not very generally known. What relates to flax we shall transcribe. ... This is a plant which has never been popular in Britain, and, note withstanding the premiums which have been sở long bestowed upon those who raised it, the quantity annually sown does not appear to be upon the increase; many parts of this island are naturally fitted for producing it, and none more than that large tract of ground, upon the banks of the Ouse, situated in this Riding. In the neighbourhood of Selby, a considerable quantity is annually raised, and from the list of the claims given in to the clerk of the peace, for the West Riding, it appeared that the parliamentary bounty was claimed, in the year 1793, for no less a quantity than 59,000 stones. From our own experience (having formerly sown many acres with flax,) we can say with confidence, that, upon a proper soil, no other crop will pay the farmer better than flax ; and if due pains and attention are bestowed upon the pulling, watering and skutching, flax of as good a quality may be produced at home, as what is imported from Holland, or the Baltic.
The produce of an acre of flax will be from 24 to 40 stone averdupois, after it is clean skutched. This operation is performed by the hand, in the West Riding, there being no mills erected in that part of the country for this purpose. Some of the flax is allowed to stand for seed, which of course renders the flax of less value.
"We have found inferior soils, such as new broken up muirs, as well fitted for raising seed as others of a better quality, and they have this advantage, that while the rent is but small, the trouble of weeding them is equally trifling. Besides, seed and flax ought never to be attempted together; when the former is intended, the ground ought to be sown much thinner, so as the plant may have sufficient air to fill the bolls; whereas, when the flax itself is considered as the object, it ought to be sown much thicker, to prevent it from forking, and becoming coarse; we believe a neglect of these things has contributed to render this valuable and necessary plant not so profitable as might, from the public support bestowed upon it, have been exa pected.' P. 101.
Flax, however, has been generally considered as a crop which impoverishes the land; and our author admits it to be a scourging crop.' Licorice is one of the uncommon crops. It grows in sand, but is subject to be rotted from the wet. Woad is cultivated, but seemingly in no great quantity.
Though this is a feeding district, the chapter on grass contains little information of importance, and that on orchards and gardens. still less. The subject of woods and plantations is very shortly discussed. Much oak and ash wood grow in this district, which
CRIT.Rey. Vol.35. July, 1802.
are employed chiefly in ship-building, in the mines, and the collieries. In the West Riding there is much waste and common land, and our author warmly recommends general inclosing. We have often said, that this practice should find its own level. Acts of inclosure should be facilitated, but not forced, lest the balance be disturbed too rapidly. · Draining seems, on the whole, to be partially, and often imperfectly, practised ; but, as usual, we meet with declamation, argument, and particular description, instead of real and general information. Irrigation appears to be occasionally employed; but, on this subject also, the account is vague and unsatisfactory. Paring and burning are discouraged by our author, except on heath lands or peat earth. What relates to manures is chiefly confined to dunging and liming. Some observations on the latter subject deserve notice, but admit not of an extract. Warping is warmly recommended, and seems to be practised in the West Riding extensively, and with advantage. .
The observations on live stock are trite and trifling ; but the author recommends the employment of horses rather than of oxen, and enforces his arguments with judgement and propriety. They merit considerable attention.-Mr. Brown is very warm in his invectives against pigeons; perhaps with justice.
Wages and provisions are higher than we could expect, though still lower than in many other parts of the kingdom: the price of fuel is moderate. The subject of political economy offers nothing very interesting. The author endeavours to show that the antiquity of the woollen manufacture is greater than has been in general supposed. The population of this district is considerable, and probably increasing. The miscellaneous observations, and the obstacles to improvement, contain only some very trite and trifling remarks. The means of improvement are of more consequence; but their value is chiefly local. In reality, our surveyors have seen with glances so slight and incurious, that we trust very little to their remarks, and can pronounce this to be one of the most trifling unsatisfactory statements we have ever seen. The notes are equally vague and trivial, often advancing assertions the most inconsiderate, and opposition the most unnecessary.
No. I of the appendix contains extracts from the surveyor's journal; and as the facts are here better compacted, it was to us much more satisfactory and instructive than the work, expanded under the many different chapters, and isolated among numerous declamations or extraneous disquisitions. No. 2 contains a short but good account of the vale of Skipton. No. 3 is a letter from Mr. Payne, giving a history of the parish of Frickley near Doncaster, and of the adjoining one of South Kirkby. No. 4 is an extract of a letter from a farmer,
an extrater, and giving
offering a short statement of the soil and husbandry in the neighbourhood of Pontefract. In his parish there have been no inclosing bills; and the poor-rates have immoderately increased. These two facts he connects as cause and effect; but we cannot admit them to be 'so without further proofs.
The fifth number contains some very judicious remarks on the obstacles to improvement, and the means necessary for rectifying the practice of husbandry in the West Riding.' The writer of this paper opposes small farms, and we have lately adduced some arguments on the same side. We may take occasion to enlarge on the subject; and, when it is properly brought forward, we strongly suspect that the great body of evidence will be in favour of farms, at least of moderate, if not of great extent-of perhaps from 150 to 200 acres each.
The extracts from Mr. Parkinson's correspondence show him to be an intelligent farmer, but offer nothing of importance sufficient to induce us to enlarge on them. The state of the waste lands affords a very unpleasing picture-of indolence, sordid avarice, or gross inattention: they amount, in Yorkshire only, to near 850,000 acres. - The observations on the size of live stock, by Mr. Day, of Doncaster, agree very nearly with our own opinion. What 'relates to oxen we shall transcribe.
• I am much inclined to believe, that breeders in general are de. sirous of breeding their cattle of too great a size, which is neither for their own advantage, nor for that of the country in general. My opinion is, that oxen weighing from 40 to 60 stone, are the most useful to the consumer, and worth more per stone than greater weights. There are other advantages attending small cattle. There are many parts of England, where the land would just support cattle of from 80 to go stones, that would fatten, and consequently would bring to perfection, those of from 40 to 50 stone. This plainly shews that middling weights, are the most generally convenient, and consequently the most profitable to the grazier. Nor can I believe, that the smaller weights are so liable to diseases, being in general hardier; but if they should happen to die, the loss of an ox of 40 stone weight is not so much felt as one of a larger size. Smaller animals also, are in general quicker feeders, where the shape of the animal is attended to. There is no sort of breed, that, on the whole, I am fonder of; than the Galloway scot, as the beef is of very good quality, and their size is well calculated for general consumption. I beg leave to add, that of all the signs of a good feeder, there is none I prefer to that of having a small head. It is rare indeed to see a large coarse-headed animal a good thriver.' P. 74, Appendix.
Sheep should not, he thinks, exceed from fourteen to twenty pounds per quarter; and he remarks, what we know to be true, that six fleeces of the smaller sheep will be more valuable than four of the larger.
· The ninth number contains an account of the different townships in the wapentake of Claro; and the tenth (misprinted cighth), statistical information respecting different parishes. These two numbers afford some valuable facts; but they are of local importance only. The eleventh number, the last, gives us a statistical account of the parish of Drax, on which we need not enlarge
ART. VI.-History of the Rebellion in Ireland, in the rear 1798,
&c. containing an impartial Account of the Proceedings of the Irish Revolutionists, from the Year 1782 till the Suppression of the Rebellion. With an Appendix to illustrate some Facts. By the Rev. James Gordon, Rector of Killegny, &c. twentyfive Years an Inhabitant of the County of Wexford. 8vo. Ss. Boards. Hurst, 1801.
THIS work appears to have been printed in Ireland, and is a decent and interesting account of the recent commotions. There is no preface or introduction of any kind; and the narrative is continued without subdivision--a plan which we cannot recommend. There is, however, a tolerable index.
The author traces the progress of the rebellion from the year 1782, when, by the exertions of the Irish volunteers, the legislature of the sister kingdom became in some measure independent. Mr. Gordon is little capable of profound and extensive views; else he might, with a steady and rapid pencil, have delineated the destinies of Ireland from the commencement of the English conquest. He might have explained the singular character of the native race, who are certainly marked by a peculiar stubborn obliquity of intellect, and by a train of ideas very remote from those of industrious and civilised nations. If any benefit be conferred, they argue from their own sensations; whence they conclude that it must proceed either from fear, or some design of assuming a future advantage. If you ask an Irish peasant, whether it will rain to-morrow? he hesitates a long time, and summons up his whole wisdom to divine what can be your object in asking such a question. You are examined whither you intend to go, and what business you mean to transact; but your design appears so profound to his bewildered ideas, that you are answered in a very doubtful and irregular manner. This zig-zag oddity of apprehension branches out into many subdivisions, and often produces an equal eccentricity of conduct. In these observations we do little more than repeat those of a medical gentleman, a native of Ireland, who had a considerable estate in the western parts,