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is again sunk deeper; and to which the water is brought from the lower well, previous to its final discharge on land. The appellation of Joseph's Well is not derived, as some have supposed, from the patriarch, but from Salah Oddin Joseph Ebn Job, in whose reign the citadel was built and the well sunk.
The pyramids are described with our author's usual close perspicuity. “They endure' (he says) in opposition to the vicissitudes of time: nay, time endures in opposition to their changes.' The contrivance, he thinks, is admirable, and displays equal judgement and skill; as the pyramid's centre of gravity is in the middle, against which the whole rests; and the centre cannot be of course displaced. As usual, perhaps, the theory has been superadded to the observation.
The stone of which the pyramids are built is said to be red marble, mixed with white points: it was more probably the red granite of Upper Egypt. On the top is 'a plane, of which the dimensions each way are twelve (Æthiopian; cubits.' This was found by an arrow falling on it, which the inhabitants, who are reported to scale the pyramids with ease, brought down; while at the same time they ascertained the measure of the plane. A stupid or an interested governor is said to have attempted the demolition of one of the pyramids; and to have continued the labour with such perseverance, that 'if, says the historian, we look at the ruins, we should think he had succeeded; if at the pyramid, it appears not to have been touched: a sublime representation of the immense mass! Our author asked one of the surveyors of the workmen—for he was present at the attempted demolition--if he would engage to replace a single stone in its proper situation were he offered a thousand pieces of gold; who swore, by the high God, that it would be impracticable, even were twice the sum proposed.' We must not leave these singular structures, without giving our author's description of their internal cavities. '. Those who have supposed that there are larger chambers than have been discovered, will find, from this account, that they must at least have been very carefully concealed by the first builders, which indeed may have been the case; for no impediment of jealousy could have kept the secret from the historian. It may however be remarked, that the present opening is said to have been discovered by chance.
• Est etiam in una duarum harum pyramidum aditus, quo eam ini grediuntur homines, quique eos ad semitas, angustas ducit, et cao vernas profundas, puteosque, et loca periculosa, aliaque hujusmodi : quæ mihi narravit qui eam ingressus est, penetravitque. Multis şi. quidem erga eam studium, et circa eam imaginatio est, ideoque in profunda ejus penetrant; necessario autem eo perveniunt, ut progredi nequeant. Quod vero ad viam qua ingrediuntur, ea multum trita est; locus autem lubricus ad superiorem ejus partem ducit, ubi reperitur domus quadrata, inque ea sepulchrum lapideum. Hic aus tem aditus, non est porta, ipsi a prima structura apposita, verum perforatus est et fortuito repertus; memoraturque Al Mamun eum primo aperuisse. Præcipui vero qui nobiscum erant, eam ingressi sunt, ascenderuntque in domum quæ in superiore ejus parte est; cumque descenderent, magna narrabant quæ spectaverant, esseque eam vespertilionibus, eorumque stercore ita plenam, ut fere ingresşum prohiberent ; vespertiliones autem ita magnos esse, ut mole columbas æquent: esse item ipsi prope summitatem, foramina et fenestras ; tanquam illuc loci posita, ut permearent venti, et transmitteretur lux. Ipse vero alia vice eam cum cætu quodam ingressus sum; cumque circiter bis tertiam spatii partem pertigissem, defeci animo præ terrore ascensus, et redii fere exanimis.
• Hæ autem pyramides lapidibus magnis extructæ sunt; est enim lapidum longitudo a decem ad viginti cubitos, altitudo a duobus ad tres, cum eadem fere latitudine. Summum vero omnium miraculum est in concinna lapidurn ad se invicem positione, quæ ea est, ut aptior fieri non possit, unde non reperies inter ipsos quo acus ingredia. tur, neque pili interstitium. Est etiam inter eos cæmentum instar folii, quod non novi cujus generis, quidve sit. Sunt item in his lapidibus inscriptiones calami antiqui, ignoti, ita ut non reperiatur in urbibus Ægypti, qui asserat se de quopiam audivisse, qui illum calleret. Suntque hæ inscriptiones multæ admodum, ita ut si quod in his duabus pyramidibus solummodo est, in libros transferretur, conficeret numerum decies millium librorum. Legi autem in libro quodam Sabæorum antiquorum, unam e duabus his pyramidibus, se-, pulchrum fuisse Agadhimuni, alteram vero Hermetis : asseruntque hos prophetas magnos fuisse, Agadhimunum autem priorem, majoremque.' P.97.
It is evident from the observation just now recorded--viz. that the inhabitants were able with ease to mount the pyramids--that their state must have been different at that time from the present. Indeed it has been said that they were faced with marble ; and Abdollatiph remarks, that the external stones were covered with marks' calami ignoti,'— most probably hieroglyphics; and that if these characters were transcribed, they would fill ten thousand volumes. The hieroglyphics still remain on the obelisks of Pharaoh; and we hope, from some late discoveries, that we may find a clue to that unknown tongue. But, whatever may have been the extent of the surface, we still think Abdollatiph's calculation of the number of volumes erroneous. If, as Herodotus tells us, the inscription on one part contained an account of the garlic and onions, consumed by the workmen, we shall not greatly regret the loss we now sustain. In the neighbourhood of the pyramids are the quarries from which the stone was taken ; and in the vicinity are also ruins of buildings, covered with hieroglyphics.
In the neighbourhood of the pyramids, a gigantic head, of
admirable proportions, rises from the ground, supposed to have belonged to a statue of equal dimensions, which must have been at least seventy cubits in height. It was one of the immense works of the earlier kings, and is now, known to be the head of the fabulous monster denominated the Sphinx; yet it is described as forma pulchra, in qua decus et elegantia ejus perfecte expressa est, quasi rideret diducto parum ore. Abdollatiph admires the symmetry of the face, and adds some judicious remarks on the proportions of the features, particularly as suited to different ages, which show that he possessed a very refined taste, formed by a contemplation probably of the most beautiful works of art, or of the human face divine,' in its most perfect form. The mutilated state of the Sphinx no longer admits that we should appropriate this description to it.
The obelisks of Pharaoh are next described. The base is said to be ten cubits, and the height of the column to exceed one hundred. Their summit is a blunt point, the top of which is covered with brass. There are two, apparently of equal size. Of Pompey's pillar we have already spoken sufficiently, in our account of Dr. White's Ægyptiaca.
The description of the city of Memphis, the ancient metropolis, is singular, not only from our author's account of the remaining temple and the divinities, but as it fixes the situation where the latest and best geographers have placed it. The following passage is in many respects curious; and we shall subjoin Dr. White's note. It leads us to regret that the notes in general are so few, and so short.
Porro ex his sunt rudera quæ sunt in Mesra Antiqua; estque urbs hæc in Al. Giza paulo supra Fostatam, Memphis nempe illa, quam habitarunt Pharaones, quæque sedes erat regni regum Ægypti. Ea designatur illo loco Alcorani, ubi sermo est de Mose (super quem pax): « Et intravit in urbem, tempore negligentiæ habitatorum ejus.” Item: “ Exivit ergo ab ea timens, sibique cavebat.” Etenim habitaculum ejus (sit pax super eum) erat in pago aliquo Al Giza, prope urbem dictam Demuh. In ea autem hodie synagoga est Judæorum, et spatium, per quod ruinarum ejus vestigia reperiuntur, ex. tenditur ad iter quod sit circiter dimidii diei. Habitata fuit inde a tema poribus in quibus floruerunt Abrahamus et Josephus et Moses, (super quos sit pax); tum ante eos (uti Deo visum est), tum infra eos, usque ad tempus Nabuchodonosoris. Hic enim devastavit regionem Ægypti; quæ per annos quadraginta conditione hac rerum pertristi est usa. Eam cur devastaret, fuit hoc in causa, quod sit rex illius opitulatus Judæis, in Ægyptum elapsis ; ita ut Nabuchodonosor eos ditioni suæ subjicere minus potuerit. Quapropter adortus eum Nam buchodonosor, regionem ejus evertit.' P. 117.
• Aristotelis locum, quem ante oculos habuit noster, dudum a me quæsitum, reperi tandem in libro primo cap.5. De Partibus Anim. indicio viri doctissimi Samuelis Parr. Adjiciam Aristotelis ipsissima verba :-λοιπον περι της ζωϊκης φυσεως ειπείν, μηδεν παραλιποντας εις δυναμιν, μητε ατιμοτερον, μητε τιμιωτερον. Και γαρ εν τοις μη κεχαρισμενοις αυτων προς την αισθησιν, κατα την θεωριαν όμως η δημιουργησασα φυσις αμηχανές ηδονας παρέχει τους δυναμενοις τας αιτιας γνωριζειν, και φυσει φιλοσοφοις. Και γαρ αν ειη παραλογον και ατοπον, ει τας μεν εικονας αυτων θεωραντες χαιρομεν, ότι την δημιεργησασαν συνθεωρεμεν, οίον την γραφικην, η την πλαστικών αυτων δε των φυσει συνεστωτων μη μαλλον αγαπωμεν την θεωριαν, δυναμενοι γε τας αιτιας καθοραν. Διο δει μη δυςχεραινειν παιδικως την περι των ατιμοτερων ζωων επισκεψιν εν πασι γαρ τοις φυσικους ενεστι τι θαυμαστον. Και καθαπερ Ηρακλειτος λεγεται προς τας ξενας ειπειν τας βαλομενες αυτω εντυχειν, οι επειδαν προςιοντες ειδών αυτον θερoμενον προς τα ιπνω, εστησαν εκελευσε γαρ αυτος ειςιεναι θαρρεντας: ΕΙΝΑΙ ΓΑΡ ΚΑΙ ΕΝΤΑΥΘΑ ΘΕΟΥΣ. Ουτω και προς την ζητησιν περι έκαστο των ζωων προςιεναι δει μη δυσωπεμενον, ως εν απασιν οντος φυσικά και καλ8' το γαρ μη τυχοντως, αλλ' ενεκα σινος εν τοις της φυσεως εργους εστι, και μαλιστα. Edit. Du Val, tonm. i. Ρ. 975. P. 314 , , : The description of the temple is very interesting; and the contemplation of the object of adoration placed in it excites the historian's admiration. It is not, however, a blind admiration or indiscriminate praise'; for he shows, as usual, an acute and accurate taste. His delineation of the human form, in its most perfect state, is very correct. It is a miniature nevertheless, though nicely finished * ; and the subsequent reflexions are judicious and interesting. We regret greatly that we have not room to add them. Of the bulk of these idols. we shall give some idea, by transcribing a short passage.
• Sed ut revertamur ad historiam nostram primam ; dicimus idola hæc, multa licet fuerint, tempus diffregisse, (paucissima si excipias) in fragmenta, et in frusta disjecisse. Vidi quidem ex iis magnum, cujus e latere excisus sit lapis molaris, diametro sua cubitos duos æquans : in ejus tamen figura haud apparebat 'notabilis deformitas, neque mutatio manifesta. Vidi quoque idolum, cujus inter pedes esset idolum, conjunctum cum eo, parvulumque, tanquam filius, si ad illud comparetur; nihilo tamen minus hominem æquabat vel lon, gissimum : quin tanta ei inerat elegantia et pulchritudo, ut illud aspiciens quivis desiderio afficeretur, nec quidem satiaretur aspiciendo, P. 139.
The causes of the destruction of the idols are (from the author's account) suspicions of hidden treasures, and every crea vice in a mountain, every uncommon appearance in a building, has led to a minute and particular examination. We know that the instruments which a person employed during life were usually in Egypt buried with the dead; but with the relation of these are mixed some idle tales, wholly unworthy of the historian's notice. Among the mummies, besides the birds, &c. generally known to be embalmed, we find a calf (probably a young Apis), and some small fishes called siri, perhaps from some fancied connexion with the dog-star, seir. Some other forms and kinds of mummies are described, but not of sufficient consequence to detail. Among the notes we observe a valuable and judicious abstract of Egyptian history; yet, we suspect, non omnibus numeris absoluta.-We find that we must return to this work on another occasion; and we shall then give a greater number of our specimens in English.
* Dr. White supposes that Abdollatiph is warmer in his praise of the Egyptian statuary, because the Mahometans admitted not of any representation of the buman or any other figure. But we think this by no means the case, as he describes the former so very accurately and minutely,
(To be continued.)
ART. II.--The Metaphysics of Aristotle, translated from the Greek ;
with copious Notes, in which the Pythagoric and Platonic Dogmas respecting Numbers and Ideas are unfolded from ancient Sources. To which is added, a Dissertation on Nullities and diverging Series ; in which the Conclusions of the greatest modern Mathematicians on this Subject are shown to be erroneous, the Nature of infinitely small. Quantities is explained, and the TO‘EN, or THÉ ONE of the Pythagoreans and Platonists, so often alluded to by Aristotle in this work, is elucidated. By Thomas Taylor, 410. 21. 25. Boards. White. 1891..
g. . . tes, W e find it no easy task to convey a proper idea of this work. To immerge in the metaphysical subtilties of Aristotle, or even to engage, at any length, in several of the disputed questions suggested in the introduction and the notes, would fill a volume of no small magnitude. To bring these points also to the level of general readers, would greatly increase the labour, and add to the bulk of the article; which, after all the pains bestowed, might be little regarded by those for whom it would thus be designed. To hasten over the work by a short general character, would be equally unjust and injurious to the translator, whose labours are indeed vast, and whose errors are few. If indeed we except a too great veneration for the Stagirite, --a veneration scarcely short of a conviction of his infallibility, and which occasionally leads him to language and remarks that have excited sneers from those whose learning and talents were infinitely inferior to his own,--we scarcely find any thing materially faulty. If we remark that his translation, from too close a copy of the mysterious precision and involved obscurity of his original, is at times scarcely intelligible, it may be properly replied, that in this he only follows his prototype, and conveys an idea of