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with few readers. Scripture is quoted, without end, to justify a measure on which the New Testament is certainly silent ; nor does it hold out any encouragement at all to persons to meet together to defend their religion. When they persecute you in one city or state, flee,' says our Lord and master, "unto another.' The true religious covenant into which Christians may enter, is to abhor iniquity, to. imitate their Saviour, and to bind themselves never to injure another in his temporal concerns on account of religion. The Scotch covenant went far beyond this, and consequently is not binding upon posterity. : In sober truth, Christians have no power to bind postea rity on any account ; for the church is a society of men in which the ties of blood are of no avail.

Art. 20.The Necessity of the Abolition of Pluralities and Non-Resi

dence, with the Employment of Substitutes by the beneficed Clergy ; deo monstrated in an Enquiry into the Principles and Consequences of the Establishment of Curates. 8vo. 75. 6d. Boards. Mawman. 1802.

The greater part of the work before us is irrelevant to the subject proposed in the title-page. Decisions of bishops and councils, in a church filled with superstition and fraud, are surely no proper guides to the church of England, as it is now established by law. Yet the inquiry into antiquity is made with great judgement and ability, and throws a strong light upon the state of the clergy in former periods. To deny the use of a substitute in any case whatever, is evidently absurd; for illness may render the incumbent incapable of discharging the duties of his function for a time ; and it would be unjust to de prive him of his benefice, even if, through the dispensation of Providence, many years might elapse before his health were re-established. That substitutes may be employed without good cause, there cannot be a doubt; yet there is sufficient power vested in the ordinary to prevent the existence of such an abuse in any very great degree: but, if the bishop himself do not reside in his diocese, it cannot be expected that very strict attention will be paid to the residence of the inferior clergy. The plan suggested for the benefit of the curate we cannot but highly approve, and should be happy to see it adopted at large ; we mean, that the curate of a living should divide its profits with the vicar or rector. In this case, it is presumed, however, that the incumbent employs a curate altogether in the duty of a parish on which he does not reside, whose dispensation from residence is thus considerably compensated. In cases where an incumbent actually resides, but who nevertheless finds it necessary or convenient to employ a curate, or where his absence from the parish is also a matter of necessity, a different arrangement, it is evident, ought to be pursued : but too much pains cannot be taken by a legislature, that the immense sums bestowed on a particular order of men should be expended in such a manner, that the most deserving should receive the greatest benefit, and that no man should partake of any share of the profits assigned to the order, unless he be fully qualified, by a knowledge of Hebrew and Greek, to investigate the original meaning of the Scriptures, and, by due powers of elocution, and knowledge of the English language, to communicate his instructions to his audience. •

MEDICINE

Art. 21.-Observations on the Opinion of Doctor Langslow, that Extra

vasation is the general Cause of Apoplexy, in Letters to a young Surgeon. By William Crowfoot. 8vo. 25. Robinsons. 1801.

Few, who have read the medical periodical publications, can be ignorant of this dispute, which has not been conducted with the propriety and decorum that might have been expected. It would be improper for us to engage in it; though, if called on in our own sphere, we should not decline it: we mean, if called on by regular successive publications. At present, we must attend only to the observations before us. "

The great questions are, whether extravasation be the general cause of apoplexy ? and whether the case of the patient who occasioned the discussion was apoplectic? On the latter point it is impossible to decide ; for the case is so imperfectly and slightly related, that no judgement can be formed. The look, the shape, the previous habits, the suppression of usual evacuations, if there were such, and the state of the system anterior to the time of attack, with many other considerations, should be fully detailed before we can determine.

With respect to apoplexy, we think extravasation or fulness is the general cause. If there be a compression on the brain, it is not of consequence whether the fluids be confined to the vessels, or not ; the effect is the same. We do not deny that there are other causes; and that apoplexies, truly nervous, exist. They are, however, uncommon, and generally pointed out by the knowledge of the remoter causes, which are by no means obscure, Apoplexies from the state of the stomach seem to us always owing to compression from fulness of the vessels. Two subordinate questions of practice arise from this source, viz, the propriety of the evacuating plan, as well as its extent, and the exhibition of emetics. On these we shall not say much. For the sake, however, of the younger practitioner, we would add, that, even in strongly marked cases, the evacuations should not be carried far, nor perhaps (generally speaking) continued above thirty-six hours ; in many instances not so long. It should not, however, be succeeded by a tonic, but by a cordial and stimu. lating plan. Of emetics we scarcely know what to say. The cir. cumstances condemn them; and we cannot affirm that we should recommend them. We have, however, seen them often employed, and do not recollect that we ever saw them decidedly injurious.

The cause and source of the controversy is briefly this:-A lady was seised with what appeared to be an apoplexy, (and we suspect it to have been so,) when the apothecary, Mr. Crowfoot, ordered an emetic. Of this Dr. Langslow decidedly disapproved, as there was extravasation (or, at least, considerable extravasation) on the brain ; and this he supposed to be the general cause of the apoplectic disease.

RA

Art. 22.-An Account of a new Mode of Operation for the Removal of - the Opacity in the Eye, called Cataract. By Sir James Earle,

F.R.S. &c. 8vo. 35. Johnson. 1801. . This method appears very ingenious ; and a similar one has often occurred to us. The instrument consists of a pair of forceps, armed with a small lancet. The latter is designed to puncture the opaque cornea, and introduce the small forceps, which takes hold of the crystalline, and extracts it. The instrument, however, as to its, principle, is by no means new; and too much merit seems to be claimed upon this score. The author has, moreover, been somewhat too diffuse in the introductory part; and, as he necessarily writes for practitioners, the superficial description of the eye, and the advantages as well as the disadvantages of couching, and the other methods of extracting, might have been omitted. ART. 23.-The new Chemical Nomenclature, selected from the most di

stinguished modern Writers on Chemistry, designed for the Use of Stro dents in Pharmacy, Druggists, Apothecaries, and oshers. It consists of Two Parts : the First of whicb exhibits the Scientific Arrangements in English and Latin : and the Second contains the same in Inglish, disposed in Alphabetical Order. In both Parts the Old Names will be found on the Right-Hand Column, opposite the New. By

C. Pye, Chemist. 8vo. Is. 6d. Longman and Rees 1802. · We are not much pleased with the arrangement of this New Chemical Nomenclature; but a more essential defect is, that all the names of different reformers are confounded without distinction. The names of those who have invented, or chiefly employed the dif. ferent terms, should have been added. Art. 24.Heads of Lectures on the Institutions of Medicine. By

. Andrew Duncan, M. D. and P. 8vo. Robinsons. 1801. · Dr. Duncan has given us heads only, scarcely more than the titles of chapters, of the subjects treated in succession. From various circumstances, however, we can fully appreciate the extent of his course, and perceive, that little, which modern experience or discovery can supply, seems to have escaped him. What relates to therapeutics is more full, and not greatly differing from his former publi. cations on this subject. We perceive two additional topics, not entirely connected with the institutions of medicine, but which have been too much neglected in medical courses ; viz. forensic medicine and medical police. On these points we perceive his observations to be sufficiently full. A work on the former subject by M. Mahon, a professor of forensic medicine in France, is now under consideration, and was intended for our last Appendix. It will appear in the next; and we may then enlarge farther on what has been much overlooked in this kingdom,

ANTIQUITIES. Art. 25.-Antiquities, Historical, Architectural, Chorographical, and

Itinerary, in Nottinghamshire, and the adjacent Counties ; comprising the Histories of Southwell (the Ad Pontem) and of Newark (the Sidnacester of the Romans). Interspersed with Biographical Sketches, and profusely embellished with Engravings. In Four Parts. By William Dickinson, Esg. Part I. Vol. I. 460. 145. Boards. Cadell and Davies. 1801.

The various books published in England on the subject of antiquities, are, perhaps, of all others the most completely nugatoryand useless, and the most unaccountable productions in the eye of sober reason and sound sense. This singular propensity to antia quarian trash seems to be a disease sui generis, but somewhat connected with hypochondriacism, or what Dr. Cheyne calls the English malady. It is to be regretted that our respectable society of Antiquaries does not proscribe this mania, and, in imitation of the French Academy of Inscriptions, only promote researches into such points of antiquity as are interesting to history or sciences of equal importance.

The very title-page of this threatened production, as the reader may cbserve, is certainly not sense, and scarcely grammar. Itinerary may perhaps be a dictionary adjective ; but we do not recollect any writer of taste who has actually employed it in this sense ; while Sidnacester is certainly not a Roman name. In the preface, the author tells us that a considerable portion of this treatise was published in 1787, under the title of a History of the Antiquities of Southwell. The remainder of the preface is occupied with much self-important lucubration and declamation ; as it is a peculiar privilege of antiquarian quacks to bring all their grandmothers together, and to write a history of England in describing a tombstone. We shall not, however, follow this prolix performance through dozens of pages of quotations from common books. The church of Southwell in Nottinghamshire is certainly a large and beautiful specimen of Gothic architecture; but it might have been described in twenty pages as well as in two thousand :--and if all the churches in the world were delineated upon the present plan, books would equal in number the sands of tħe sea ; and we should cordially pray for a 'new inundation of barbarians to sweep away such antiquarian trash, and such a collection of false knowledge. For, in truth, if we had an extremely minute and faithful description of every church which has been built in England, the whole library would not contain one atom of solid information-not one particle of that instruction which any well-informed and enlightened mind would wish to retain for one moment. ART. 26.-The History of Guildford, the County-Town of Surrey ;

containing its ancient and present State, civil and ecclesiastical ; collected from public Records, and other Authorilies. With some Account of the Country three Miles round. 8vo. 125. 6d. Boards. Longman and Rees. 1801. This work, with some affectation of elegance, is nevertheless a

mean piece of typography; and being destitute of prints (at least in the copy before us we cannot but regard the price as excessive for a book little better than the Guide, which used to be sold for one shilling. It begins in the following terms.

• Guildford, or according to the old Saxon appellation Guldeford, is a place of great antiquity, formerly belonging to the ancient Saxon kings; given by king Alfred, in his last will, to his nephew Ethelwald.

. Mr. Blount, in his account of ancient tenures, gives us an instance of some lands in this place, called Guildford, held thus, anno ! 234, and 1254, viz. Robert Testard holdeth certain lands in the village of Guildford by serjeanty of keeping meretrices (which are interpreted laundresses in the king's court, rented at 255. a year; and afterwards, that Thomas de la Puille did hold certain lands in Guildford, of the gift of Richard Testard, by which he was wont to keep the washers, or laundresses of the king's court, and on that account he pays 255. into the exchequer.

· William earl of Berkley had a fourth part of the moiety of the toll of this place at his death in 1491, which, with many other estates and manors he left (having first upon a pique disinherited his brother Maurice) to his master king Henry vii, from whom the marquis recovered it in 1493, with a fourth part of the manor uf Dorking, and many other estates which he had been unjustly deprived of..

• The pleasantness of its situation invited kings to spend at Guild. ford their festival times, while they had a palace here ; viz. K. Henry. ii. anno 1187 kept his Christmas in this place'; K. John anno 1201 kept his Christmas in his palace here. Also in the year 1339 K. Edward held his Christmas here. Several of our succeeding monarchs down to Q. Elizabeth sometimes resided here. And Strype gives us the following particular journal of K. Edward vi, who in his last progress visited this place, anno 1552. “ This summer in the month of Junė, K. Edward began his last progress. It had been resolved, the extent of the progress should be to Pool in Dorsetshire, and to come back by Salisbury. June 27, he removed to Hamptoncourt. Thence to Oatlands, another of the king's houses, where he stayed about eight days. Thence to Guilford in Surrey. Thence to Petworth in Sussex. Thence to Cowdray, sir Anthony Brown's house, where the king was nobly banquetted, &c.

Guildford is the county-town of Surrey, is neat, large, and well. built, twenty-nine miles to the south-west of London ; it consists of good houses, and is well-inhabited, having a market of great resort, which is kept weekly on Saturdays, accounted as good as any in England for wheat, barley, and oats, and plentifully furnished with almost all other necessaries. There are also held two fairs, viz. on May 4, and November 22, for horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs.

• Guildford is a corporation by prescription, had its first and second charters from Henry iii. A. D. 1256, and others from Ed. ward ii, Richard ii, and Henry vi and vii. And renewed and confirmed in the twenty-fifth year of Q. Elizabeth.' P. I, 1.0

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