evils such conditions are capable of exerting upon the physical welfare of the community. This treatment is justifiable to a certain degree and serves the purpose of presenting a vivid moral lesson to the public, but, nevertheless, the impression conveyed is naturally an exaggerated one, and, in a scientific treatment of the subject, this is not permissible.

Part II. lacks something of the interest attaching to either of the other Parts, but is no less important to the serious student of the housing question. In different writings something has been done informally and incidentally to indicate the course of legislation. The Report of the Royal Commission on the Housing of the Working Classes (1885) gave some attention to this matter, as also did Mr. Stewart's Report made on behalf of the Housing Committee of the London County Council (1891), and there are less important references in a number of books dealing with the housing of the poor in one way or another. The legal handbooks, commenting upon the Housing Act of 1890, contain cursory notes upon previous legislation. But, in the present volume, a much more thorough treatment, though still brief, has been attempted. The entire series of housing legislation has been reviewed in such a way as to indicate clearly the relation borne by present legislation to that which preceded it.

The policy of reform outlined in Part III. may not be a very popular one: it is not so heroic as many would have it, but a careful study of the situation has forced me to regard it as the only sure and ultimately satisfactory treatment. If the local authorities will work along the lines of the policy suggested, they will find that they have as much as ever they can do adequately, satisfactorily, and usefully in housing reform. Over-anxiousness to add to their already too-numerous responsibilities is the be

setting sin of the administrators of our local governments of to-day.

In the preparation of the book I have been aided by many, only some of whom I can mention here. From Professors S. J. Chapman and T. F. Tout, of Manchester, I have received much helpful advice and criticism. For advice or information I have also to thank most sincerely Sir Shirley F. Murphy, Medical Officer of Health of the County of London; Mr. G. L. Gomme, Clerk of the London County Council; Professors Smart of Glasgow, and Cummings of Chicago. In endeavouring to gain a proper understanding of the temperament and habits of the poorer classes of the cities, I have been fortunate in being able to draw upon the extensive experience of my father. In the collection of material my wife has given me considerable aid.

The essay was awarded, in 1903, the Warburton Essay Prize, in the University of Manchester; a prize established for the encouragement of research work in local government and awarded every four years. It has since undergone some revision and has been brought up to date so far as possible.



May, 1907.


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