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surement was made law, had arrived at the true form possession of golden ore. He explained the various and of a perfect ship, and that, if all ships were built on the improving methods of extracting it, and concluded with principles which governed their decision, every vessel some remarks upon the class of persons most suitable for would pay its fair quota of dues, and no injustice would be emigrants. done. "By a perfect ship, I mean one which, as an in- YARMOUTH (Great).- A special general meeting of the vestment, if no peculiar influences operated, a shipowner members was held on Monday fortnight, to consider a report would prefer as being the most profitable, viz.—the vessel from the Accomodation Committee, which had been apwhich, with the same rate per cent. depreciation for wear pointed to enter into negociation with the directors of the and tear as other vessels, would, from its sailing qualities, | Yarıouth Club-house. It appeared that by the trust command the highest freight, and, in given time, make deed of the company there was no power to effect a sale. the greatest number of voyages, and from its capacity, Under these circumstances, and feeling the necessity for carry the largest cargoes; the three must be taken to enlarged premises, Mr. James Barber, the secretary, suggether. Vessels are the more perfect the nearer they ap- gested that the general committee should be empowered proach this standard ; nevertheless intentional deviations to raise a fund for the purpose of providing a building occur in two directions. The first is in regard to capacity. adequate to the daily increasing demands of the society. If we increase the dimensions in those parts of a ship This proposal was cordially acquiesced in, and the commitwhere the dimensions will not tell in the estimate for dues, tee were authorised to establish a fund by 11. shares, or a saving is effected to the shipowner; the possibility of otherwise. doing this being known to him, he expects and requires his vessel to carry twenty per cent more than her register

Miscellanea. ed tonnage ; and, like other manufacturers, the shipbuilder works up to the requirements and expectations of his mar- REWARDS TO MEN OF GENIUS.-The President of the ket. By variation from the perfect form upon which I United States of America, in his message delivered to Congress, have assumed the present mode of measurement to be on the 6th inst, says, “ I commend to your favourable considera based, the capacity for cargo may be increased without in-ation the men of genius of our country, who, by their inventions creasing the dimensions which regulate the tonnage dues, and discoveries in science and art, have contributed largely to but this can only be done at the sacrifice of the other ele- the improvements of the age, without, in many instances, sement (of perfection-speed. The second deviation is in the curing for themselves anything like an adequate reward. For opposite direction. With the intention of increasing the sai- many interesting details upon this subject I refer you to the ling qualities, such a form is frequently adopted as necessa- appropriate reports, and especially urge upon your early attention rily reduces the space for cargo; hence some vessels pay more isting laws therein suggested.”

the apparently slight, but really important, modifications of exdues than fairly rendered liable to by the cargo. They do not carry what their register states. By the alteration of the law which is proposed, so that the actual capacity shall be

To Correspondents. taken for the calculation of the dues, the encouragement at present held out to the shipbuilder to construct ill- ERRATUM, Page 27.—In the Second Edition of the Abstract formed vessels would be removed, as he would cease to of Dr. Playfair's lecture on Food, an important typographical gain anything by departing from the best model.

error has been corrected. The last line of the Prison Diet, The subject is of great importance, both to human life described as * solitary confinement,” should be struck out, and property, numbers of vessels being annually lost en- as it was a reprint of the line of diet for classes 4, 8 and 7. tirely from their bad construction ; they are unweatherly,

These classes have 229 oz. per week of food for female and drift to leeward and ashore, when better modelled

prisoners, but for males, 271 oz. ships keep to sea.

As an illustration of the increasing attention paid by merchants to the build of ships, I may

MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. mention that of two vessels lying in the same dock, and Tues. Royal Inst., 3.— Professor Faraday, “On Voltaic Elecbound to the same port, one being reputed of good build,

tricity.' and therefore likely to prove a fast sailer (not having Wed. London Inst., 2.—Mr. T. A. Malone, “On Elementary made a voyage, it was entirely a matter of opinion), had


Society of Arts, 8.--Soiree. Exhibition of Recent more goods offered at 5l. per ton than she could take; the

Specimens of Chromo Printing. other having a different reputation, did not succeed in ob, Taurs. Royal Inst., 3.—Professor Faraday, “On Voltaic Electaining a full cargo even at the low rate of 31. per ton. I

tricity." have not gone into details, my object being to suggest London Inst., 7.-Mr. T. A.Malone, "On Photography." rather than exhaust the subject. I shall be happy to SAT. London Inst., 2.--Mr. M. T. Masters, “ On Elementary hear of the Society investigating the matter thoroughly. The

views of the principal shipbuilders, shipowners, merchants, Royal Inst., 3.-Professor Faraday, “ On Voltaic Elec-
Chambers of Commerce, and scientific men might be col-

lected, and their opinions embodied in a representation
from the Society of Arts to the government, and a speedy

PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852. alteration in the law would, I trust, be the result. Yours truly,

W. S.

From Gazette, 16th December, 1853.
December, 19th, 1853.

Dated 20th October, 1853.
2428. J. Woofenden, Belfast-Power-looms.

Dated 1st November, 1853.

2532. T. S. Bale, Cauldon place, and D. Lucas, Stoke-upon-Trent, Proceedings of Institutions.

Staffordshire-Ornamenting articles and materials in pot-
tery, etc.

Dated 2nd November, 1853.
HALSTED.-A very interesting lecture on Australia and 2542. B. Butterworth-Combining oil with other liquids for lubrica-

ting compound. (Partly communicated.)
her gold-fields, illustrated by diagrams, was delivered to
the members of the Mechanic's Institution on Tuesday 2554. P. Hindle, Ramsbottom, Lancashire-Power-looms.
evening, the 6th of December, by Mr. W. N. Froy, of

Dated 4th November, 1853, London. He commenced with the early discovery and 2558. J. Scott, Shrewsbury-Apparatus for shifting carriages on history of the country, tracing its progress to the present

Dated 12th November, 1863. time so far as explored : with observations upon its fer- 2622. S. Barker, Birmingham-Sha ping metals

. tility, the peculiarities connected with its animals, vegeta-2648. J. Fry, 19, Cannon street west-Solvents for India rubber and tion and fruits; the large quantities of sheep, and the gutta percha, and rendering fabrics waterproof without supply of wool; and last but not least, its wonderful odour.


Dated 3rd November, 1853.

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Dated 26th November, 1853.

Sealed December 16th, 1853. 2755. J. Wormald, Vauxhall, and G. Pollard, York road, Lambeth 1449. Charles Wye Williams, of Liverpool - Improvements in the -Pipe wrench.

manufacture of sheet iron, and of iron plates used for boilers, 2757. J. Stenson, Northampton-Manufacture of iron.

vessels, buildings, and other like purposes. 2759. H. Goutte and J. M. Hammebacher, Paris, and 16, Castle st. 1401. William Christopher, of Euston square, and Gustavus Gidley, Holborn-Machine for washing linen, etc.

of Hoxton-Improvements in abstracting sulphur and other 2762. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Straining mill

inatters from vulcanised India rubber.

1462. John Blair, of New Milns, Ayrshire-Improved mode of cut2763. T. and J. Chambers, Thorncliffe Iron Works, Sheffield

ting lappet cloths, or other similar fabrics. Kitchen sinks.

1464. Jules Alexis Adrien Dumoulin, of Paris-Improved instrument 2765. J. M. Perodeaud, 35, Rue Godot de Mauroy, Paris-Converting

for measuring and tracing.
peat into artificial coal, etc.

Sealed December 8th, 1853.
Dated 28th November, 1853.

1477. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn 2767. J. Walmesley, Accrington-Looms.

-Improved stove or kiln. 2769. R. H. Nicholls, Bedford-Hocing and cultivating land. 1478. Robert Lister, of Scotswood, Northumberland --Improvements 2772. A. Macomio, 6, Percy street, Rathbone place ---Furniture, form

in chimney tops or flues. ing writing or drawing case.

1479. Henry Bleasdale, and Joseph Bleasdale, both of Chipping, Dated 29th November, 1853.

Lancashire--Improvements in working, tilling, or preparing

land. 2775. P. Kelly, 111, West street, Drogheda-Cultivating etc., land. 2779. J. Moore, Lincoln-Ploughs.

1484. Flenry Saunders, of Yoovancy, Staines-Improvements in

drying grass and other crops. Dated 30th November, 1853.

1488. Thomas Adamson, and William Adamson, of Sunderland2781. J. Jackson, Wolverhampton-Signalling apparatus. 2782. J. Elce, Manchester-- Spinning machinery.

Improvements in pumps.

1494. John Cross Richardson, of Lilly hill, near Manchester--Im2783. P. A. le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4 South street, Finsbury

provements in machinery or apparatus for winding yarn. Jacquard machine. (A communication)

1495. John Cross Richardson, of Lilly hill, near Manchester-Cer2784. E. R. Davis, 1, lIowley street, Lambeth-Pipes, &c., from lead and other soft metal forced through receivers, &c.

tain improvements in looms for weaving. 2785. J. Hewitt, Salford-Spinning machinery.

Scaled 19th December, 1853. 2786. J. Redford, Pilkington--Power looms.

1522. Frederick Ayckbourn, of Guildford street, Russell square2787. R. Balderstone, Blackburn-Spinning machines.

Improvements in the manufacture of waterproof fabrics. 2788. J. Pattorson, Beverley-Land rollers or clod crushers.

1630. Thomas Weatherburn Dodds, of Rotherham-Improvements 2789. A. Loubat, Paris-- Tramways.

in the manufacture of files, rasps, and other edge-tools 2790. L. Jennings-Plain and ornamental sewing, and machinery for

usually made of steel.

1555. John Mason, of Rochdale, and Luke Ryder, of the same place 2791. N. de Landt:heer, Ghent-Combing machines for flax, etc.

- Improvements in machinery or apparatus for preparing 2792. F. S. Cole, Childown-Smoke-consuming apparatus.

and spinning cotton and other fibrous substances.

1587. Edward Clarence Shepard, of Trafalgar square-ImproveDated 1st December, 1853.

ments in magneto-electric apparatus, suitable for the pro2783. T. Garnett, Low Joor, near Clitheroe, and D. Adamson, Duckinfield-Generating steam, and consuming smoke.

duction of motive power, of heat and light. (A com2794. A. E. L. Bellford. 16, Castle street, Holborn-Machinery for


1591. Edward Clarence Shepard, of Trafalgar square-Improvements making horse shoes. (A communication.)

in the manufacture of gab. (A communication.) 2795. A. J. Jones, New Oxford street-Cigar light.

1596. François Mathieu de Amezaga, of Bordeaux-Method of obtain2786. J. Dilworth, Preston-- Escape and safety valves. 2787. T. and J. Hollinsworth, Winwick, Lancashire — Alarm

ing motive power, and certain machinery or apparatus

employed therein. whistles.

1715. John Robison, of Coleman strect-Improved apparatus for 2798. J. II. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields - Manufacture of caoutchouc. (A communication.)

making tea and coffee, and other infusions or decoctions for

chemical and other purposes. 2799. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields – Vulcanised India rubber. (A communication.)

1726. William Thorp, of Collyhurst, near Manchester-Improve

ments in machinery for finishing and embossing plain and Dated 2nd December, 1853.

fancy woven fabrics. 2800. J. Reilly, 56, Thomas street, Manchester – Tenoning, mortising, 1910. Archibald Dougla:s, of Norwich-Improved machinery for and sawing machinery.

stitching, back-stitching, and running. 2801. A. W. Callen Peckham-Excavating machine.

2052. James Davis, of the Low Furness Iron Works, near Ulverstone, 2802. A. E. L. Bellsord. 16, Castle street, Holborn-Ships' stocks.

and Robert Ramsay, of the same place-improved engine, (A communication.)

to be worked by steam, air, or water. 2803. H. Deacon, Widnes, Lancashire, and E. Leyland, St. Helen's 2112. Peter Rothwell Arrowsmith, and James Newhouse, both of -Sulphuric acid.

Bolton le-Moors--Certain improvements in macbines for 2804. A. Brown, Glasgow-Metallic casks, etc.

spinning and doubling. 2-05. G. Williamson, Glasgow--Motive power.

2263. Henry Jacob Jordan, of Berners street-Iniproved medicine for 2806. A. Bain, Paldington-Damping paper for reception of labels,

the cure of venereal affections, which he denominates “the &c.

Treisemar." (A communication.) 2807. J. C. Wilson, Redford Flax Factory. Thornton, Kirkaldy- 2331. James Hall Nalder, of Alvescott, and John Thomas Knapp, Scutching machinery.

of Clanfield-Improvements in winnowing or dressing corn. 2808. G. Collier, Halifax-Looms.

2350. Charles Scott Jackson, of Cannon street- Improvements in 2809. R. Reybourn, Baker street, Greenock-Sugar refining.

preserving timber and other vege:able matters. 2810. S. C. Lister, Bradford ----Combing wools, etc.

2429. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn fields--Improvements 2811. H. Bessemer, Baxter house, Old Pancras road-Manufacture

in apparatus for sustaining bodics in the water. (A com. and refining of sugar.

munication. 2812. J. Saunders, St. John's wood-Rails for railways.

2440. Frederick Albert Gatty, of Accrington-Improvements in Dated 3rd December, 1853.

printing or producing colours on textile fabrics. 2814. A. Rogers, Bradford-Ventilating sewers, etc.

2469. Edward Austin, of Pembroke cottages, Caledonian road2816. W. Dray, Swan lade, London-Portable houses.

Improvements in surveying and raising sunken vessels, and 2818. H. J. Nire and J. Newinan, Birmingham-Metallic bridges,

in apparatus used therein, and lifting vessels over bars and etc.

other obstructions. Dated 5th December, 1853.

2471. Richard Heyworth, of Cross hall, near Chorley, and Thomas 2820. S. Cheavin, Spalding-Filterer.

Battersby, of Cross hall, aforesaid-Certain improvements in 2822. W. Simons, Glasgow ---Propelling and steering.

looms for weaving. 2824. J. Patterson, Beverley-Reaping machinery.

2506. William Betts, of Wharf road, City road-Certain improve 2826. J. Robertson, Kentish town--Consumption of smoke.

ments in machinery for manufacturing metallic capsules. Dated 6th December, 1853.

2515. Anthony Park Coubrough, of Blanefield, Stirling, N. B.2828. E. Oldfield, Salford-- Spinning machinery.

Improvements in printing textile fabrics and other surfaces. 2834. W. E. Gaine, 4, Harewood "street— Treating or preparing 2538. Edward Ward, of Potton, Bedfordshire-Improvements in

carriage axles. (A communication.)
2836. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Printing oil cloths.

Sealed 20th December, 1853.
(A communication.)
1499. Charles Crick may, of Handsworth-Improvements

in the 2838. J. Hargraves, Kirkstall, Yorkshire-Washing and scouring

construction of firearms. wool.

1500. John Paul, of Manchester-Colouring paper on the surface. 1505. Jolin William Perkins, of Narrow street, Limehouse-Im

provements in the manufacture of artificial manure.

1510. Robert Galloway, of Cartmell, Lancashire-Improvements in WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED.

manufacturing and refining sugar.

1512. Joseph Skertchley, jun., of Kingsland - Improvements in the Sealed December 15th, 1853.

application of baths to articles used for resting the human 1446. Thomas Butterworth, of Meanwood, Yorkshire-Machine for

body. ploughing lend, harrowing and crushing clods at one 1514. Henry Blatin, of Rue Buonaparte, Paris--Improvements in operation.


No. 58. Vol. II.]


[Dec. 30, 1853.

Journal of the Society of Arts.

among the benefactors of mankind to which they are fairly entitled.

Great care should, however, be taken in the FRIDAY, DECEMBER 30, 1853.

selection, only to include those whose inventions have had an important and beneficial effect in

improving the condition of the people generally, MEETING OF COUNCIL.

and in advancing science, and in whom, conWEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 28, 1853.

sequently, all should feel an equal interest. At a Meeting of Council held on the 28th inst., " An attempt to form a collection of this dethe following Institutions were taken into Union:- scription might also prove the means of rescuing 318. Buckingham, Literary and Scientific Institution. from destruction many records that may still exist 819. Dursley, Young Men's Society.

of bygone men, eminent in science or in art320. Hyde, Mechanics' Institution.

and if a catalogue were added, containing some 21. Louth, Mechanics' Institution. 322. Banbury, Mechanics’ Institute.

short biographical sketch of their lives, it might 323. Swansea, Royal Institution of South Wales.

tend to the further useful result of leading others to study and attempt to emulate the means by

which such men acquired their reputation. SWINEY PRIZE.

I have the honour to be, Sir, The Council announce that, on the 20th of

“ Your most obedient Servant, January next, in accordance with the will of the

C. GREY. late Dr. Swiney, " a silver goblet, of the value of " Peter Le Neve Foster, Esq." 1001., containing gold coin to the same amount," will be awarded " to the author of the best pub, lished work on Jurisprudence.”



On Wednesday evening, the 28th inst., a ConversaGALLERY OF INVENTORS.

zione took place at the Society's House, for the private

view of the recent specimens of Chromo-Lithography, The Council have much pleasure in giving Printing in Colours, and Nature Printing. The Council publicity to the following letter, which has been have to thank Messrs. Jackson and Graham for the received from His Royal Highness the Presi- hibited on the tables.

Bronzes and other specimens of manufactured Art exdent:

The progress of illustrative Art, and the means which “ Osborne, December 16th, 1853. have been employed of late years to facilitate and “Sir,—I am commanded by His Royal High- cheapen reproduction in copying the work of the artist ness Prince Albert, to request that you will bring in effect and colour, cannot fail to excite interest. In this under the consideration of the Council of the its progress, a brief statement of the most important

it is impossible to give a complete history of Society of Arts, a suggestion which has been processes in use must sufice, made to His Royal Highness, the adoption of Wood-block engraving has been employed for cenwhich, it appears to him, may perhaps be de- turies past, but Bewick may be said to have given tho sirable.

great impetus to the use of wood-blocks. The advan

tage of the wood-blocks for illustrative purposes con“ Among the exhibitions of various kinds sists in the inked surfaces being raised, thus enabling which are from time to time promoted by the them to be employed in combination with the ordinary Society, it seems to His Royal Highness that it types, so that the letter-press and illustrations may be might prove useful, and could scarcely fail to be printed at one operation. In the carly stages of the art,

however, the works were deficient in detail and artistic highly interesting, if a series of authentic por- effect. This led to the introduction of the mezzotint traits of distinguished inventors, either in art and aquatint processes of engraving for broad effects, or science, were collected for exhibition on some and copper-plato or line and chalk engraving for works future occasion, and historically classified.

requiring a further degree of precision. These four pro

cesses are entirely distinct from wood-block engraving, “ The names of most of those who are thus and cannot be used in combination with letter-press. In distinguished, are probably familiar to the world, the mezzotint the surface of a copper-plate was scratched and nothing is needed to remind men of the re- in such a manner as to produce upon it a rough face, putation they have so justly earned, or of their forming a uniform ground for retaining the printing-ink!

The lights were obtained by reducing the roughness works.

Still, even in their case, it would be in- by burnishing. In the aquatint process, a rough face on teresting to present us, as it were, with their very the copper was obtained by covering it with a ground features. But there are others who have done which dried in reticulation. Upon this dilute aquafortis scarcely less for the happiness, comfort, and im- was poured, which eat into the surface of the plate wher

ever unprotected by the varnish, thus forming a means provement of their fellow men, who are hardly for retaining the printing-ink; and the lights aro obknown even by name to the general public, tained by burnishing, as in the mezzotint. Line-engravwhich is daily profiting by their inventions; and ing, however, is essentially distinct, and is directly the it becomes almost a duty towards them, to en- the print being cut in lines into the copper, more or less

reverse of wood-block engraving, all the parts producing desvour, in this manner, to rescue them from deeply, instead of being in relief, as in wood-blocks or oblivion, and enable them to take that place surface printing. By this means delicacy of touch and


precision of outline could be obtained better than by the red, a third the yellow, &c. The power of producing mezzotint or aquatint process. A fourth process was, graduated tints with ink and chalk combined, enabled however, introduced about the same period, known as chalk Mr. Hulmandell to take the lead in the production of engraving, and to this reference will be made hereafter. pictorial effects; and Mr. Owen Jones has carried this The peculiarity consisted in producing on the surface of to a still higher point by graduating tints in ink only, the copper, by appropriate tools, a series of dots, giving by stippling on polished stones with the fine point of a the granulated effect of a chalk or crayon drawing on paper. camel-hair pencil

, as illustrated by his work, “ Flowers Early in the present century it was discovered that and their Kindred Thoughts." And this process, somesteel could be enıployed with advantage by the line-en- what modified, is at present largely employed in the prograver in place of copper. At this period came into duction of artistic effects. notice Lithography, which was then discovered, by Sene The next and most important improvements in the felder. Baron Aretin, of Munich, Count Lasteyrie, in art were also due to Mr. Hulmandell, namely, the proParis, and Mr. Ackermann, in London, fostered the cesses known as the lithotint and stump drawing. The rising art; and in 1819 Senefelder's account of Litho- aquatint process of engraving has already been alluded graphy appeared, with illustrations. The most strik- to. and lithotint is a modified application of the same ing plate in the work is a portrait of Senefelder, which principle to stone. Washes of a greasy liquid are apserves to show the then condition of the art. Sene-plied with a brush to the stone. As the stone imbibes felder, however, was unsuccessful in his endeavours to the liquid ink at every pore, the hollows as well as the establish lithography in England. This was accom- summits of the granulated surface of the stone alike plished by Mr. Hulmandell, who did so much towards receive the grease, and the resulting impression when improving the art, and some of whose early specimens of printed would be a mass of colour. To neutralize this printing in colours are included in the present exhibition. effect, Mr. Hulmandell made the surface of Lithography, or printing from stone, may be described as the stone thus washed an aquatint ground, and then drawing on the sinooth surface of a peculiar description of applied strong acid, which bit through the film of grease porous stone with some greasy material. The stone is then in those parts exposed through the aquatint ground to wetted, and the printers' ink, when applied, being of an the operation of the acid, and by means of the granulaoily nature, adheres to those parts only of the stone on tion thus produced the effect of gradation of tint was which the subject has been drawn; and thus the impres-obtained. The other extension of the powers of Lithosion is taken or printed on paper. The processes em-graphy was drawing with the ordinary stump on stone, ployed by Senefelder may be divided into four classes. a process which enabled artists to produce drawings on ist. The chalk mode, or drawing with hard grease, in stone with the tools they use in drawing on paper. Such the shape of a lithographic crayon, on the granulated sur- is a resumé of the condition of the art at the time when face of stone. 2nd. The ink process, in which grease is the Society held its exhibition of lithography in 1847. applied in a liquid state, and sinks into the pores of the A consideration of the effect which this new art has had


3rd. The engraved mode, when the stone is in- upon its predecessors, shows that, owing to the facilities cised with an etching point, and the incisions are filled which lithography has afforded for obtaining broad with grease. 4th. The transfer mode, where the draw- effects in combination with printing from the surface, ings or writings are made upon paper covered with a pre- the aquatint process has been entirely superseded; and paration of paste and alum, which forms the vehicle for although the mezzotint and chalk processes have been receiving the greasy ink.

combined, as illustrated by the works of Mr. Wagstaff, It is not to be denied, that at the time of its introduc- yet the production of works of importance in those tion the public greatly undervalued the rough freedom of branches has ceased. Line-engraving, too, although an lithography; and it was not till after Hulmandell had independent art, has, for illustrative purposes, been set introduced a series of improvements in the processes em- aside. Wood-engraving is again rising into importance, ployed that it was favourably received by artists. The to be found hereafter in combination with lithography first English artist who made use of lithography in Eng- and colour-printing. Of the specimens now exhibited, land was the late William Nicholson, who sketched land- those by Baxter serve to illustrate the efforts which have scapes on stone with great facility. Mr. Samuel Prout been made to give fresh life to the art of aquatint enand Mr. J. D. Harding were also among the earliest and graving, by combining it with the chalk process before most successful of those who adopted lithography. In described, 80 as to get detail and precision of drawing in portraiture lithography was early employed; and among the minuter parts, at the same time that chromatic effect those portrait painters who have themselves drawn upon is obtained by the combination of a series of tints printed stone, may be mentioned Messrs. Doyle, Eddis, Hayter, from aquatint grounds. The specimens by Leighton Linnell, and Sir William Ross, R.A. Lithography, from Brothers are produced by another modification of the having hitherto been regarded as inferior to engraving, aquatint process, in combination with wood-blocks, and now came to be thought of as a rival to that art; but are surface printed; or by a combination of wood -blocks hitherto it has been unable to produce in black and white with tints printed from lithographic stones. The process such offects as the mezzotints of Cousins and Lewis, or employed by Messrs. Leighton, in order to obtain their the line engravings of Doo and Robinson, Heath and aquatint metal blocks, is the electrotype from a copperFinden. The Portrait of Senefelder, in his work, is one plate, the surface of which has been prepared by the of the first specimens of printing with a tint. The draw-action of acid and the aquatint ground; thus, by a series ing with chalk was first printed, and on that impression of blocks in relief variable effects are obtained with any the neutral tint was printed from another stone, the parts required boldness or delicacy of surface. The great point representing the high lights being left white; but the to be attained is precision of drawing by a combination of effect of the high lights was harsh and crude. This ob- tints, at the same time that the lines or vanishing points jection Mr. Hulmandell overcame by the introduction of of the tints are studiously lost. The specimens of à drawing material between ink and chalk, which, being Chromo-Lithography exhibited by Messrs. Brooks, Day, applied to the hard edges of the liquid ink, carried the Hannhart, Leighton, Rowney, &c., depend for their perfecfull tint by gradation into the white lights.

tion in the production of coloured pictures and objects, The early efforts of Senefelder in printing in colours on getting rid entirely of positive lines, and dispensing gave but a faint idea of the richness and beauty of the with what is technically called the black stone' or printproductions of Mr. Owen Jones and other artists. Mr. Jing with black ink. The artistic effects are produced by Hulmandell was the first to develope the resources of the increased number of stones and the use of halt tints. colour printing, and the method he employed was to Thus, by combining a higher artistic power with skill in transfer the required outline to several stones, tho first manipulation, and a greater subdivision of colour, a stone giving the outline and black parts, a second the gradation of tone and blending of parts is obtained,

It now remains to call special attention to the specimens patent right in inventions in the arts and manufactures, which the Society has received from Councillor Auer, of has usually been regarded in its origin, rights, and prothe Imperial printing office at Vienna, produced by the tection, as presenting so many difficulties that the branch process known in Germany as “ Naturselbstdruck," and in of jurisprudence relating thereto has been termed the this country ag“ Phytoglyphy," or the art of printing from metaphysics of the law. But it may be doubted whether nature. These specimens include every variety of sub this property, either in respect of its origin or of the prinject, botanical, eological, entomological, fossil, and ciples on which it is founded, presents any difficulties not fabrics. Very soon after gutta percha came into use, common to other species of property. Dr. Ferguson Branson took impressions of leaves in that “ Jurists and metaphysicians have advanced various, and substance, and it occurred to him to try the effect of print- in some respects inconsistent, opinions on the origin and ing from the sunk impression so obtained, and one of the rights of property; some treating the conception of prospecimens now exhibited was produced in that way in perty as an original notion inherent in the mind, others as 1847. It was found impossible to print them with a clear evolved from a previous sense of justice, its protection and margin from the gutta percha, and this led to the use of distribution being regarded as matter of public policy to an electrotype fac-simile in copper, which allowed of the be provided for by the laws of each particular country, margin being burnished and the plate wiped clean; this "The idea or conception of property is antecedent to succeeded well. In 1850, Dr. Branson had occasion to get any notion of law; it is not the law of the land which an object cast in brass, and the beauty of the casting was constitutes the basis of property; neither does natural jus. so great that he at once determined to have a cast made tice constitute property ; justice is a virtue which presupfrom a gutta percha impression of a fern, and see the poses property, and respects it however constituted; justice, result. When every part of the brass-plate was burnished as a moral virtue, is not the creation of property but the with the exception of the impression, it was tested in conformity of our actions to those views of property which printing, and the result proved most successful. When a vary in the various states of society(a). The universal few plates had been finished the subject was brought before recognition of and respect for property and the rights of the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, on the its owner are not the results of the wisdom or authority of 6th December, 1850, through which channel it reached patriots and legislators deliberating on what was best for the local newspapers, and was copied into various other the good and order of the community, but the results of a prints. In the year 1851 Dr. Ferguson Branson commu- prior wisdom employed in framing a constitution not for a nicated to the Society an Account of a Method of Engrav- state but for human nature(b). ing Plates from Natural Objects, which was read at a “The possessory feeling as the result of mere occupancy, meeting held on the 26th March in that year, and which is common to our nature and anterior to the application of was published in the Notices of Proceedings. At that any principle of natural justice or the sanction of positive time Dr. Branson only contemplated the application of the laws. The feeling derived from occupancy acquires addiprocess to ferns, leaves, sea-weeds, and other flat objects. tional strength if labour has been bestowed by the indiIt subsequently occurred to Dr. Branson that the brass- vidual on the subject of his occupancy, and is in accordance casts might be employed in place of wood-blocks in sur- with a principle which is sometimes referred to, as the face-printing, the impression on the surface of the metal- natural right of property, namely, that every man is problock being absolutely produced from nature, and he prietor of the fruit of his own labour, and that to whatever believes that this plan will become extensively used. A extent he may have impressed additional value on any specimen of this process is included in the collection. The given thing by the work of his own hands, to that extent, novelty in the process by which the specimens of plants, at least, he should be held to be the owner of it(c). fabrics, and other flat objects received from Vienna are “ These two principles of ownership, by reason of occuproduced, consists in the use of lead for receiving the im- pancy or of the expenditure of individual labour, may be pression in place of gutta percha. The plants or other regarded as the origin of property. The feelings thus enobjects are laid on a steel-bed, over which is placed a sheet gendered are so natural and strong that the claim to the of lead, which is then submitted to a rolling pressure. The exclusive enjoyment of property is deferred to by others, specimens of agates are produced by applying to the po- and the occupant is allowed to remain in the secure and lished surface a weak acid, which acts with different unmolested possession of that which he rightfully claims. degrees of intensity in the various layers, causing greater The deference thus rendered to rightful claims gives rise or less indentation. The impressions of tho fossils are to the sense of equity or natural justice prompting to likeobtained by covering the original with liquid gutta ness or equality between the treatment of others and the percha. In cach case an electrotype plate is taken in treatment claimed from others. So that if the sense of copper, from which the impressions are printed. Messrs. property be anterior to the sense of justice, and comes from Bradbury and Evans also exhibit specimens of English an anterior and distinct source in our nature, the proprieproductions, and are now actively engaged in carrying tary feeling in the heart of individuals does not originate out the several processes described above.

from a sense of justice, which only arbitrates between the proprietary claims and feelings of different individuals

after those feelings have arisen by the operation of other PROPERTY IN INVENTION(a). principles in the human constitution.

“ The principles here adopted as the true explanation Mr. T. Webster has just published a work on of the origin and rights of property, are thus illustrated the right of property in inventions and designs. by Chalmers :- Justice did not create property, but The subject is one of great importance generally, found it already created; her only office being to decido

between the antecedent claims of one man and another. and has peculiar interest for the members of this And, in the discharge of this ofice, she but compares Society; it has, therefore, been considered that a the rights which each of them can' allege, as founded statement of the principles adopted by the author either on the length of undisputed and undisposed will not be out of place in the Journal.

of possession, or on the value they had impressed Mr. Webster thus commences his work. He In other words, she bears respect to those two great

on the thing at issue by labour of their own. says

Property in the results of intellectual labour, whether (a) See Dr. Thomas Brown on the Philosophy of the Human copyright in music, literature, the fine arts and designs, or Mind, Lecture 83.

(b) See Dr. Chalmers's Bridgewater Treatise, Vol. I chap. vi. (a) On Property in Designs and Inventions in the Arts and p. 228. Manufactures. By Thomas Webster, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. (c) Ibid. p. 243.

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